Social Psychology 2401 Study Guide Exam 2
Social Psychology 2401 Study Guide Exam 2 PSY 2401
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Asmaa Abdullah on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2401 at Temple University taught by Melinda Mattingly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY in Psychology at Temple University.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Test Your Knowledge Study Guide Method: Instructions: Study using your own notes or mine, then try answering the questions on your own. To make sure of the correct answer, highlight the already highlighted text and the text will appear. For context and explanations, refer to earlier notes. Feedback is appreciated. Chapter 4: Perceiving Persons Q: What 4 main processes of understanding ourselves and others fall under social perception? A: Describing people, explaining people, forming impressions, and changing impressions. Q: What sort of information do we rely on to form first impressions? A: Nonverbal information by physical appearance and facial expressions. Q: What theory explains how people come up with explanations for their own or others’ behaviors? What types of explanations do people create? A: Attribution theory (Heider 1958). Internal and External attributions. Q: This is the theory about inferences we make about people based on their behavior and enduring traits. A: Correspondent inference theory. Q: What model by Kelley (1967) tells us when we use both internal and external attributions? What kinds of information do we use to create these attributions? A: Covariation Model. Consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency information. We don’t necessarily have to use all three types of information. Q: What are heuristics? Why do we use them? What are some types of heuristics? A: shortcuts we use to determine behavior. Our brains favor efficiency over accuracy. Availability heuristic (coming up with an example), representativeness heuristic (category or classification representation), base rate information (likelihood of behavior), and affect heuristic (emotion clouds our judgement) Q: Give an example of when the fundamental attribution theory (FAE) (Jonas & Harris 1967) is used. A: Someone at school ignores you when you say “hello” (they might be in a hurry for class, but all you think about is that they ignored you because they are mean or that they don’t like you anymore) Q: What does the twostep process of attribution explain? What does this process depend on? A: It explains how we we explain other people’s behavior by making (1) internal attributions then (2) thinking about possible situational attributions. It is culturally dependent (analytical vs. holistic thinking). Q: Give an example of counterfactual thinking. A: Imagining what it would have been like to win that championship that you lost in. Q: What are the two spectrums of motivational biases that affect the way we see ourselves? A: Selfesteem maintenance and selfpresentation. Q: What does the implicit personality theory demonstrate? A: That we rely on the initial things we notice about people to fill in the missing gaps our attributions of their personalities. Q: How do people avoid changing their impressions of others? A: They rely on confirmation bias (paying attention to info that proves our impressions true and disregarding other info) and selffulfilling prophecy (when people do things that would elicit certain actions from people so that they can prove their impressions true) Q: What are three criteria that we might look to in order to test the accuracy of our impressions of others? A: Experience with others, context considerations, and individual differences. Chapter 5: Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination Q: What are the three components of prejudice? A: Affective, behavioral, and cognitive. Q: What are the two ways of showing prejudices? A: Overt (not how we express it nowadays) and subtle (more implicit, internal) Q: Explain aversive racism and microaggression. A: Aversive racism: we don’t like that we have prejudices but we still have them regardless. Microaggression: implications that get across the idea that the person saying it holds certain prejudices Q: What does the shootdon’t shoot game study reveal (Correll, Park, Judd & Wittenbrink (2002)? A: Implicit prejudices. Q: Give examples of hostile sexism and benevolent sexism that demonstrate the difference between them. A: hostile: women are not supposed to work, be in positions of power. Benevolent: women need to be cherished, we need to hold the door for women. ((they demonstrate implicit ideas of degradation and such; stereotypes might seem “positive” but that doesn’t mean they are good)) Q: What effects might a stereotype threat (Steele & Aronson 1995) have on a group of people that a stereotype is held against? Do you have to believe a stereotype for it to affect you? A: change in interests and identity, social identity threats. No, a stereotype can affect you regardless. Q: What are some causes of prejudice? A: Social categorization (ingroups vs. outgroups), social dominance orientations (hierarchy), competition and limited resources (when people are forced to fight for resources), culture and socialization (how people are “supposed to/should” be). Q: What makes stereotypes hard to change? A: Law of least effort (Allport 1954) demonstrates that we are too lazy to put effort into changing them. Illusory correlations, selffulfilling prophecy, and attributions all explain why we are lazy to change stereotypes. Q: What are two methods we can use to reduce prejudices? A: Contact Hypothesis and Social Cognitive Processes Q: How can we apply the contact hypothesis? A: We must have positive contact with people that are different than us, of equal status to us, interdependent on us as we are on them. Oneonone positive interactions with several people that are different than us are more useful. Legislations help eliminate social norms and equalizing people in others’ eyes. Q: How can our social cognitive processes reduce our prejudices? A: We must recognize variations of outgroups, consider other perspectives, and think of others empathetically. Our prejudices are malleable and are not impossible to change. Chapter 7: Conformity Q: Why do people conform? A: to be consistent with group norms, to avoid feeling uncomfortable (amygdala activity), when we don’t know what to do in a situation (informational social influence), to gain approval and avoid rejection (normative social influence). Q: When are we more likely to conform? A: When the group is important to us (Strength), when are closer to us in time or physical proximity (immediacy), and when the minimum number of people needed to influence us are present (number). Q: What are the results of conformity? A: we feel more knowledgeable of the situation (private acceptance) or we publicly comply regardless of what we think (public compliance) Q: What are some compliance techniques? A: Norm of reciprocity (we feel bad if we didn’t reciprocate what people do for us), foot in the door (gradually increasing a request when someone complies to the initial, small request), lowballing (get someone to agree then reveal true intentions), door in the face (start with a huge, almost impossible request and gradually decrease it to what you intended in the first place), and that’s not all (you feel like you’re getting a good deal but you really are not). Q: What idea explains how we avoid inconsistencies to make ourselves feel better about our decisions? A: Cognitive dissonance Q: What theory explains how we comply to people’s requests based on our evaluation of our characteristics? A: Selfperception theory Q: What compliance technique demonstrates the use of reciprocal concessions? A: Door in the face Q: What idea explains why we have irrational responses to free stuff and how we spend more resources for something that is free (Dan Ariely)? A: The cost of zero cost ((For anyone who wants the notes from this coming Monday (17/10), I will send it to anyone who asks for them just like last time because it will be midweek and the notes won’t be posted until the end of the week after the exam. Good luck studying!))
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