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ahophq

ahophq

Description

School: Marshall University
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anatomy
Professor: Jennifer mosher
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: integument
Cost: 25
Name: BSC227 - Chapter 5 Integumentary System
Description: This chapter covers the layers of the skin, glands, hair, and nails. Chapters 1-5 will be tested on the first exam.
Uploaded: 10/16/2016
12 Pages 221 Views 0 Unlocks
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Chapter 5 Integumentary SystemIf you want to learn more check out whevos

Dermatology

  • Study and treatment of integumentary system: skin (integument), hair, nails, and cutaneous glands
  • Body layers of skin and nearby layer
  • Epidermis: epithelium of skin
  • Dermis: connective tissue of skin
  • Hypodermis: connective tissue just underneath the skin

We also discuss several other topics like What is meant restriction digestion?

Thick vs. Thin skin

Thick skin

  • Palms of hands, front of fingers, soles of feet, bottom of toes
  • Hairless
  • No sebaceous oil glands, but sweats
  • Adaptive for high friction

Thin skin

  • Most of body
  • Hairy
  • Both sebaceous oil glands and sweat glands

Function of skin

  • Trauma and infection resistance
  • Water retention
  • Vitamin D synthesis
  • Sensation
  • Thermoregulation
  • Non verbal communication

We also discuss several other topics like math 23a class notes

See slide 5-5 for skin and subcutaneous tissue structure

Epidermis

  • Keratinized, stratified (stocked) squamous epithelium
  • Superficial (outermost) cells and dead
  • Avascular (no blood vessels)
  • Nutrients diffuse into spi - from deeper connective tissue
  • Sparse nerve endings

Cell of Epidermis

  • Stem cells
  • Divine and produce keratinocytes
  • Only in stratum basale (deepest layer of epidermis)
  • Keratinocytes
  • Synthesize keratin
  • Majority of epidermis cells (found in many layers)
  • Melanocytes
  • Synthesize melanin (brown / black pigments)
  • Melanin is taken up by keratinocytes and used to protect their DNA from UV light
  • Found in stratum basale
  • Tactile (merkel) cells
  • Touch receptors that join w/ nerves
  • Only found in stratum basale
  • Dendritic (langerhans) cells
  • Immune surveillance
  • Found in stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum (middle two layers)

We also discuss several other topics like perpetual inventory system fifo

See slide 5-9 for strata and cell types of epidermis

If you want to learn more check out protein synthesis worksheet answers

Layers of Epidermis - listed from deepest to most superficial

  • Stratum basale
  • One cell thick
  • Varied cell types
  • Stratum spinosum
  • Several cell layers
  • Often thickest layer
  • Stratum granulosum
  • Cells have dark granules
  • Stratum lucidum
  • Only in thick skin (palms, fingertips, soles, toe pads)
  • Stratum corneum
  • Several layers of dead, scaly cells

Dermis

  • Rich in collagen fibers
  • Large blood supply
  • Contains
  • Cutaneous glands
  • Fair follicles
  • Piloerector muscles
  • Nail roots
  • Divided into two layers
  • Papillary
  • Thin, superficial
  • Areolar tissue
  • Blood vessel rich
  • Reticular
  • Thick, deep
  • Dense, irregular connective tissue (DIRC)
  • Striae (stretch marks): stretching of dermal collagen

Don't forget about the age old question of What is an equivalents units of production?

Hypodermis

  • Not true layer
  • Below dermis
  • Contains adipose (subcutaneous fat) and areolar tissue
  • Functions
  • Energy storage
  • Thermal insulation
  • Connection to deeper tissue (connects skin to muscle tissue)

See table 5.1 or slide 5-15 for skin stratification summary

Skin Color

  • Melanin
  • Eumelanin: brownish black
  • Pheomelanin: reddish yellow
  • Skin tones vary due to type and distribution of melanin, not # of melanocytes
  • Hemoglobin: red blood pigment
  • Carotene
  • Yellow orange
  • Concentrates in stratum corneum

Diagnostic of skin color

  • Cyanosis
  • Blueness
  • Lack of O2
  • Erythema
  • Redness
  • Increased blood flow
  • Paller
  • Pale or ashen
  • Reduced blood flow
  • Albinism
  • White
  • Genetic lack of melanin
  • Jaynadice
  • Yellow
  • Liver and bilirubin
  • Hematoma
  • Bruise

Skin markings

  • Friction of fingertips
  • Aid in sensitivity to texture and ability to group
  • Causes fingerprint
  • Flexion lines (creases)
  • Where skin, near joint, attaches to deeper tissue
  • Freckles
  • Flat, melanized patches
  • Vary w/ heredity and UV exposure
  • Mole (nevus)
  • Elevated patch of melanized skin
  • Hemangiomas (birthmarks)
  • Discolored skin
  • Caused by benign tumors of capillaries

Hair

  • Pilus (singular) or pili (plural)
  • Accessory organ of skin (as are nails and skin glands)
  • Filament of keratinized cell

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