Chapters 15 & 37
Note: Anything that is highlighted was either on the quiz or noted by Professor Hamill specifically as information that will be on the exam!
Chapter 15 Oral Health
∙ Several ancient civilizations practiced oral health care
∙ Grand Rapids, MI: first city in the world to fluoridate its community water supply ∙ Oral health is sometimes regarded as the “neglected epidemic” of public health. ∙ It is a common misconception that oral medicine, health, and dental hygiene are elective If you want to learn more check out Who are the poor?
health care specialties and that they can therefore conveniently be marginalized ∙ Oral and dental health are intrinsically important.
∙ Oral and dental health are very important and are good indicators of overall health ∙ Only about half of the U.S. population has dental insurance
∙ Only 20% of children who have health insurance through Medicaid receive dental care. ∙ 93% of people in the U.S. over the age of 40 have not had their mouths and necks checked for oral cancers in the past year.
∙ 81% of nursing home residents haven’t had an annual oral exam
∙ Dental service expenditures decreased 28% from 1970 to today
∙ Oral health is NOT free from diseases and disorders which affect teeth ∙ The three most common oral diseases include dental caries, gum disease, and oral cancer o Dental Caries: Most common childhood disease in the U.S.
We also discuss several other topics like Why does worldwide goat is the most consumed meat?
o Streptococcus mutans is the main species involved in dental caries. Highly cariogenic. Begins the process of decay by colonizing on the hard surface of teeth. Ferments sucrose to produce lactic acid, leading to the chemical dissolution of hydroxyapatite crystals, main substance of tooth enamel.
o Effects worsened by highsugar diets
o Gum Disease: Periodontal Disease; bacterial infections and inflammation of oral soft and hard tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth.
o Two stages of periodontal disease: Gingivitis and Periodontitis.
o Gingivitis is the first stage. Inflammation and redness occurs in the gums. Gums may also bleed easily. Affects soft tissues only; does not progress to the
underlying bones surrounding the teeth.
o Periodontitis occurs when the bacterial infection and inflammation caused during gingivitis spread to the underlying hard tissue that consists of ligaments and bone. Cause teeth to become loose, increasing the likelihood for the spread of
craniofacial infections to occur in space or pockets between loose teeth.
o Prevention includes routine flossing, brushing and dental examinations. o Oral Cancer: Develops in mouth or neck. Causes 7,800 deaths per year.
o Excessive consumption of alcohol, tobacco smoking and chewing tobacco increases its likelihood by damaging these cells. If you want to learn more check out What is a thiamin deficiency?
o Signs of oral cancer include sores that do not heal and red and white patches in the mouth as well as lumps in the mouth or neck.
∙ Implementation of community water fluoridation is considered the most wellknown public health intervention designed to improve oral health and has been included as one of the ten most significant public health interventions of the 20th century.
∙ Fluoridation of teeth may be administered in two forms: topical and systemic. o Topical: applied to the surface of the teeth
o Systemic: ingested; can help reduce dental caries in children whose teeth are developing by increasing the presence of fluoroapatite in the tooth enamel. Excessive ingestion of fluoride can cause dental fluorosis (tooth discoloration) We also discuss several other topics like Distinguish between intensive and extensive properties.
Chapter 37 Kidney Disease
∙ Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) progressive loss of renal function which occurs in five stages which are based on level of renal function, using the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Undiagnosed and untreated CKD will lead to end stage renal disease (requires treatment with dialysis or renal transplant) Don't forget about the age old question of Does the sun move?
∙ 20 million Americans suffer from CKD
∙ 470,000 American are being treated for ESRD; of those patients more than 330,000 are treated with dialysis and more than 130,000 have functioning kidney transplant. ∙ Main functions of the kidneys are maintenance of body composition, excretion of metabolic end products and foreign substances, and hormone synthesis Don't forget about the age old question of What is megasporogenesis?
o Maintenance: regulates the volume of fluid in the volume, osmolarity, electrolyte content and ionic concentrations.
o Excretion: removal of metabolic end products such as urea as well as drugs and toxins
o Hormones: Renin; catalyzes the formation of angiotensin from angiotensinogen. Angiotensin is a potent vasoconstrictor and is involved in the balance of salt content of the body as well as regulation of blood pressure. Erythropoietin; stimulate maturation of red blood cells in bone marrow. Vitamin D3; steroid hormone that plays an important role in the regulation of body calcium and phosphate balance.
∙ Gradual and permanent loss of kidney function over time leads to CKD ∙ Signs and Symptom of CKD:
o Fluid and electrolyte abnormalities such as hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, and volume overload
o Cardiovascular abnormalities such as hypertension, congestive heart failure, pericarditis, and cardiac rhythm disturbances
o Gastrointestinal abnormalities such as nausea, lack of appetite and vomiting.
o Hematologic abnormalities such as anemia or bleeding
o Neurologic system disturbances such as irritability, sleep disorders, muscle cramps, seizures, and in advanced stages, coma and death.
o Endocrine system abnormalities such as carbohydrate intolerance, bone disorders, and secondary hyperparathyroidism
o Dermatologic symptoms such as itching, pallor and bruising.
∙ CKD has a high incidence in African Americans and Native Americans than Caucasians. ∙ The most common etiology for CKD in the US is Diabetes.