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Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Kaeli

Exam 3 Study Guide BIOL 102 001


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Chapters 29 through 34
Biological Principles II
Mihaly Czako
Study Guide
fungi, Biology, Bacteria, arcea, plants
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaeli on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 102 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Mihaly Czako in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 10/16/16
Chapter 29 Notes Plant Diversity I  First land organisms were likely cyanobacteria and protists 1.2 billion years ago o 500 million years ago small plants, fungi, and animals colonized  Plants o 290,000 species  Very diverse o Land plants have terrestrial ancestors o Photosynthetic protists are not plants  Charophytes are the closest relatives  o Provide oxygen  Most food eaten  Evidence o Shared traits with charophytes o Cellulose synthesizing proteins o Flagellated sperm o Formation of phragmoplast o Sporopollenin  Polymer that prevents zygotes from drying out   Allowed colonization of land  Sporopollenin is very durable  Differences from relatives o Alternation of generations  Alternate between reproductive stages  Gametophyte   Haploid   Produces by mitosis  Fusion produces sporophytes  Produces haploid spores by meiosis o Multicellular, dependent embryos  Diploid embryo   Retained within the tissue of the female gametophyte   Placental cells transfer nutrients  Land plants are called embryophytes because of this o Walled spores  Produced in sporangia   Diploid cells called sporophytes undergo meiosis   Haploid spores o Multicellular gametangia  Wall around gametes  Female gametangia called archegonia produce eggs  Male gametangia called antheridia produce and release sperm  o Apical meristems  Various tissues develop  Continual growth in their apical meristems  Stem cells produce tissues   Found in tip of root and tip of shoot  o More derived traits  Cuticle  Waxy covering of the epidermis  Stomata  Opening between cells  Mycorrhizae   Symbiotic relationships between plants and fungi  May have helped plants without roots to get nutrients o Some land plants have vascular tissue  Call the ones that do vascular plants  Seedless vascular plants were the first ones to grow tall   Vascular plants have life cycles dominated by sporophytes o Seed plants  Heterosporous  Heterosporous species produce…  Mega spores o Female gametophytes  Micro spores o Male gametophytes Chapter 30 Notes Plant Diversity II  Derived traits of seed plants o Reduced gametophytes  Gametophytes are protected by the sporophyte  Dependent gametophytes  Cone bearing plants  Seeds develop in cone   Called gymnosperm  Flowering plants   Called angiosperm o Heterospory  Male and Female spores o Ovules  Gymnosperm  Type of egg  Cone bearing plants  Found in females o Pollen   Water unnecessary for fertilization  Found in males  If cone bearing plant, cones are not as we think they are  Smaller, contain pollen instead of ovule  o Seeds  Survive better than unprotected spores  Embryo and nutrients surrounded by protective coat   Disperse over wide distances  Gymnosperm or angiosperm   Contains food stored within it   Sporopollenin is incredibly resilient   Flowers  o Meristem reprogrammed to produce flowers after a certain point  o Ovule is in the middle of the flower o Stamens release pollen  Pollen is multicellular  o Flowering plants feature double fertilization  o Some angiosperms rely on other living things for pollenization  Bright colors help this   Organism by organism basis o Modifications  Flowers can be underdeveloped  Can lack male/female parts  Imperfect flower o Many different species   Angiosperm life cycle o Male gametophytes are within pollen o Female gametophyte (embryo sac) develops within the ovule   Micropyle is fertilized  o Cross pollination between flowers is favored o Double fertilization  Pollen tube releases two sperm   Forms a zygote and endosperm   Diploid nucleus is formed o Divide into triploid tissue  o Endosperm o Supports zygote  Used up during germination  Single nucleus left turns into zygote Chapter 31 Notes Fungi  General things o Essential for the well­being of most animals o Estimated that there are 1.5 million species  Characteristics o Heterotrophic o Retain nutrients by absorption o Use enzymes o Molds and spores are incredibly resilient  Explains food mold  Structure o Multicellular filaments o Single cells  Yeasts o Mycelia  Networks of branched hyphae aid absorption  Septa divide cells   Pores allow cell to cell movement o Walls contain chitin  o Coenocytic fungi have no septa  Cytoplasmic mass with dispersed nuclei  Mycorrhizal Fungi o Specialized hyphae   Called haustoria   Allow them to contact the host o Ectomycorrhizal fungi   Form sheaths over a root  o Arbiscular mycorrhizal fungi  Extend through cell walls   Reproduction o Create spores   Sexual or asexual   Can form from more than one stage of reproduction o Different types of life cycles o Sexual reproduction steps:  Fuse mycelium   Fuse cytoplasm  Heterokaryotic stage   Fusion of nuclei  Karyogamy   Meiosis   Creates spores  Germination  Use pheromones to advertise mating type o Asexual reproduction  Yeasts  Bud cells from parent cells   Also have plasmids  Molds   Some can grow as yeasts and mycelia   Most have no known sexual stage   Deuteromycetes  Reclassified after sexual stage discovered  o Spend the majority of their life cycle as a haploid organism  Phylogeny o Related to animals more than plants o Multicellularity evolved analogously  o Fungi were earlier colonizers of land  Mutualistic relationship with plants  Basidomycetes  o Mushrooms, Puffballs, and shelf fungi  o Some form mycorrhizae, others are plant parasites  o Clublike structure called basidium  Diploid stage o Many decompose wood o Fruiting bodies called basidiocarps o Reproduction  No multicellular stage   Immediately produces meiospores after the formation of the diploid  Gills under the cap have spores   Produce mushrooms (fruiting bodies)  Some create fairy rings   Rings can grow huge and span miles  Importance o Interactions  Decomposers  Decompose cellulose and lignin  Mutualists  Mycorrhizal endophytes are essential o Produce toxins that deter herbivores  Cows  o Contain fungi for breaking down grasses  Ants o Raise fungi for digestive use in “farms”   Pathogens  About 30% of known species are plants o 10 to 50% of fruit harvests are lost every year to fungi   Some that attack crops are toxic to humans  Mycosis  o Human fungal infection  o Examples  Ringworm   Athlete’s foot   Yeast infection o Practical uses  Humans eat and use fungi to make cheeses, bread, etc.   Penicillium produces penicillin   Chapter 32 Notes Animals  Characteristics o Eukaryotic o Heterotrophic o Tissues develop from embryonic layers o Nutritional mode  Heterotrophs   Ingest their food o Cells lack cell walls  o Held together by structural protein  Example Collagen o Nervous tissue and muscular tissue are unique  o Reproduce sexually  Diploid domination  Zygote rapidly divides  Called cleavage o Because first eight cells do not change size  Leads to formation of a blastula  Undergoes gastrulation   Forms a gastrula   Gastrula has different layers  Blastopore forms o Cavity in the sphere  Most have a larva stage  Sexually immature   Morphologically differs from an adult  Changes called metamorphosis  Juvenile resembles an adult but is not mature  Regulated by Hox genes  Evolution o Group of protists called choanoflagellates  Closest living relatives to animals  Common ancestor might have resembled choanoflagellates  Similar adherence genes  Body Plans o Symmetry  Radial symmetry  No clear front, back, middle, or right  Tend to stay in one place  Bilateral symmetry   Have a dorsal and ventral side o Dorsal is top o Ventral is bottom  Also anterior and posterior  o Anterior front  o Posterior back  Move a lot and have a central nervous system  o Tissues   Cells of the same type   Separated from others by membranous layers  During development 3 germ layers give rise to the tissues  Ectoderm  o Covers the surface  Endoderm  o Inside layer  Some groups lacy tissues  Diploblastic  Endoderm and ectoderm  Triploblastic  Also have a mesoderm layer o Include all bilaterans   Cavities   Body cavity is called a coelom  o Derived from mesoderm o Animals that possess this are called coelomates  Protostomes  Mouth develops from blastopore  Asymmetrical eight cell stage  Phylogeny o Sponges are basal animals o Eumatazoa   Clade with true tissues o Most belong to bilateria   Three clades  Deuterostoma  Echinoderms  Chordates   All are invertebrates except for Chordata  Chapter 34 Notes Vertebrates  Chordates o Belong to the clade of animals called Deuterostomia  o All vertebrates and 2 groups of invertebrates  Urochordates  Cephalochordates  o Characteristics  Some only during embryotic development  Notochord  Flexible rod between digestive tube and nerve chord  Most vertebrates retain only remnants  Dorsal hollow nerve cord  Forms spinal cord and brain  Tube in one cavity  Pharyngeal clits or clefts  Suspension feeding structures in many vertebrates  Gas exchange  Develop into ear, head, and neck in tetrapods  Muscular, post­anal tail  Tail posterior to the anus  Reduced during development  Propelling force in aquatic species


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