UPDATED STUDY GUIDE
UPDATED STUDY GUIDE PMA 3750
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Laura Castro Lindarte
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Global Stages Study Guide Passion Play: plays that memorialize the life and suffering of Christ, or a main deity (cycle plays) Abydos Passion Play: (Ikhenofret stela) The life, death and reincarnation of Osiris Like Cycle plays is religious in function o Festival was held in honor of god Osiris at the Osiris temple in the sacred city of Abydos o Text of the stela = description of the Osiris festival procession run by the temple priests "I made the hourpriests of the temple [diligent] at their tasks and made them know the ritual of everyday" o Ikhenofret "The Prince, Count, Royal Sealbearer, Sole Companion, Steward of the GoldHouse, Steward of the SilverHouse, Overseer of the Treasury" wrote the stela after the following events: Surveying the works for the preparation of the Osiris feasts Clothing the god in the office of the MasterofSecrets And acting as "his beloved son" for Osiris o Must have been a priest as well as those many other things, including vizier, because ONLY PRIESTS had access to sanctuaries where some of these rites would have been performed The King also did things Ikhernofret was not only performing rites as a substitute for the King o "Sethos I is himself represented as Osiris" o "This play was [also] enacted by priests" o Scenes would have included the reenacting of the events of the life and death of the god Text fits Plato and Aristotle's definitions of theater because of the actions of the priests and Ikhernofret himself in the imitation of the gods Also fulfill INVESTIGATIVE, JUDGEMENTAL, SACRED and SUPERNATURAL part of Turner But doesn’t fit Schechner because Schechner said that theater is fun, but results are products of RITUAL o So according to him the Ikhernofret stela would not be theatrical because its purpose is to effect RESURRECTION o But the audience aspect agrees with Schechner’s definition because the audience is both watching and participating But play that happens those on the ridges of the WADI are bystanders They do not interrupt or participate but every couple of months many of the bystanders become priests When they become priests, they become actors/participants But does this totally fit Schechner? According to his definition event must have tenets of ritual or theater But this has tenets from both sides that of ritual and that of theater Plato/Aristotle would say Abydos is a play because actors imitated someone Turner's deals with text and so is applicable concerning actors Major theme/intention of the stela is RESURRECTION o Thought by scholars that the acts on the stela were given in right order consistent with what is known about the Osiris myth • Ceremony performed for benefit of deceased king and for the eternal resurrection of all worshippers of Osiris • The complex rooms dedicated to Osiris were the secret place where the resurrection of the god was experienced Osiris: ruler of the netherworld, the night form of the sun aka the moon o With each new moon of the month, believed Osiris was resurrected o Osiris became the principle of RESURRECTION o Ikhernofret "acted as beloved son for Osiris" because Sethos III King at the time would have acted Osiris so he, the King, could receive resurrection as a benefit of performing these RITES every year But every king needed a SON to perform RITES for/TO HIM So in this text the "sole companion" Ikhernofret was the son The PERFORMANCE IN ABYDOS WAS ONLY FOR THE PHAROAH secret chamber/sole companion it was intimate affair. The Pharaohs wanted "life, stability, dominion and health like Re for eternity" o Only way to share in that eternal life of RE, the sun god, was to be resurrected o Just like the Cycle Plays emphasizing Christ's Life, death and resurrection o Could say they were to effect change for citizens and because Abydos was performed just for PHAROAH that the ABYDOS wasn't But at the time the stela was written PERFORMANCE applied to all in ATTENDANCE So…presumably the Pharaoh and the one other guy there Ikhernofret in this case and any other priests in attendance. o Efficacy to effect transformations was desired after the festival ended but some of Schechner's tenets of ritual don’t apply Performer wasn’t possessed or in a trance Priests conscious of what they were doing and who was around them o Turner's definition calls for rationale (investigation, judgement) and Belief, the sacred character of religious action o All of this is found in the Abydos Passion Play because there was a rationale in sense of actions/consequences (Do the rites, get resurrection) Also there was faith in the supernatural and the sacred rites needed because only PRIESTS could see and do them priests needed to have faith that the rituals would work on their behalf Priests also only acted in priestly capacity for 1 month of every 4 Rest of the time were land workers or craft makers like everyone else Much of the audience were at some time or another the performing priests The audience of the play o By 12th century pilgrimage to Abydos was an important feature of religious life Sacred cemetery now called the Umm el Qa'Ab (Mother of Potshards) was the destination the priests travelled to while performing the ceremony on the Ikhernofret Stela They approached by the "Pilgrim's way" or WADI On either side of the WADI were tall ridges like hills that audience stands on to watch Called Pilgrim's Way because of all the devout followers who came to worship Osiris Had to fight for space with vendors who were obviously selling things for entertainment These areas so significant that those who walked on the WADI and weren’t priests would be burned Actually guards at the four corners of the WADI to keep trespassers out, and if the guards let in unauthorized people the guards could be burned too Burning shameful way to die because Egyptians wanted their bodies preserved for use in the afterlife Cycle Plays Like Abydos's sacred spots medieval English had sacred spots in their towns and cities and everyone came into the city and cathedral on the days the Cycle plays performed At Time of Cycle Plays no such thing as separate denominations like catholic church, the church of England or any other Christian division Cycle plays were grand event o Long intervals between them when performed o Sometimes could be 10yearlong interval when it was performed it was performed several times through the city that day but wouldn't be on again for another ten years o Medieval people got days of performance off because they were Holy Days Huge social event Went in new clothes Likely biggest events of year or decade like the Osiris festival Conclusion • Some pieces of Ikhernofret stela are theater according to these definitions, some are not • 2 of the definitions (Plato/Aristotle and Turner) say stela is theater on regular basis • Schechner's defintion only works on the point of view of the audience but can be both theater (audience watches/appreciates) and ritual (audience participates/believes) • Ultimate decision of whether Abydos is theater is up to the reader and scholar Is it theatre or mimetic (imitation & representation) - Plato was very disturbed by this because audiences might not be able to tell real from imitation - Aristotle was ok with it as long as we knew it was a play Theater According to PLATO and ARISTOTLE Plato - mimesis (impersonation/performance) is NOT just REPRESENTATION – its’ ACTUALLY PRETENDING TO BE THE CHARACTERS Aristotle - 3 Things define Imitation o Medium = "poet's words or painter's colors, or musician's sound" o Object = imitation of action o manner = narration - If Medium and Object are the same thing, imitation is done by narration in which case the poet can take ANOTHER personality as Homer does, or speak in his own persona, or present all characters as living and moving before us - Poetics by Aristotle o Aristotle (384 322 BCE) author of key philosophical texts o Wrote on physical sciences, politics, social thought, aesthetics and theology o MacedonianGreek o Secular, on the structure of drama, depends on logical thinking Theater, according to VICTOR TURNER - Theater is investigative, judgmental and even punitive character of Lawinaction o One purpose of theater is to COMMENT and make JUDGEMENTS about society in which the play takes place o And has something of the "sacred, mythic, numinous, even supernatural character of religious action" o Turner definition = Theater has ELEMENTS that TRY TO CHANGE CIVILIAN LIFE as well as RELIGIOUS Theater, according to RICHARD SCHECHNER - "A performance is called theater or ritual because of where it is performed, by whom and under what circumstances" o Asks if event is "efficacious" = to effect transformations then it is RITUAL o Or entertainment - Theater is fun, but RESULTS are produce of RITUAL o So according to him the Ikhernofret stela (Abydos Passion play) would not be theatrical because its purpose is to effect RESURRECTION - it’s like a fulcrum between efficacy (change inducing) and entertainment Summation of these definitions • PLATO/ARISTOTLE = key is imitation • TURNER = allows for secular and religious characteristics • SCHECHNER = results desired by those performing MUST BE KNOWN Cycle Plays - Written in specific time thus forming the genre - Involved townspeople, guild and church - Sought to retell sacred time while travelling to spots that have built sets prepared for the show around town - Length and scope vary = but same subject matter - Had Imitations, as Plato and Aristotle defined ◦ Biblical figures played by guild members who were urged to be worthy of their role - Everyone had day off when cycle plays performed and participated to show loyalty to the church o They received Communion in the morning to prepare them for their service This act "saves" all who participates represents Christ atoning for all mankind So they included something sacred/mythical = of religious action But desired result was to SAVE person and thus CHANGE them Is it then a ritual? Ritual not applied to the plays or mentioned but according to Schechner's definition these plays should be categorized as ritual especially since they were reenacting sacred time Abydos Passion Play and the Cycle Plays of England Similarities - Both concerned religious texts - the cycle of birth, death, and resurrection - had audiences - traveled to sacred spots in the city in which the event is happening o Which can represent idea that life is a journey and a cycle BONUS NOTES on SCHECHNER BEING WRONG about THEATER in the Example of Carlo Goldini and Carlo Gozzi • Rivalry between Carlo Goldini and Carlo Gozzi both famous playwrights suggests Schechner's definition is invalid and wrong • His definition has failed to define certain theatrical events and genres as theater though they were always called that • According to Schechner Goldini and Gozzi aren't playwrights ◦ Both wrote plays during time of Commedia dell'arte (1545 18th CENT) ◦ Goldini started writing plays ADDRESSING ISSUES TO BRING ABOUT CHANGE • While also making people laught at moral jokes ◦ Gozzi wanted to stick to traidtional Commedia dell'arte form at the time empty of substance, existed just for laughs • Had more emphasis on vulgar laughing moments "lazzi" • Also tried to raise audience's level of morality by TRYING TO OFFEND WITH HIS PLAYS AND VULGAR JOKES • Controversy in his example was about LEVELS of MORALITY versus TRADITION ◦ Both of them were trying to increase MORALITY while allowing audience ENJOYMENT • Under Schechner's definition they are potentially NOT PLAYWRIGHTS since their WORK DESIRED RESULTS as WELL as FUN Rituals - Performative - they are acts done - performances are ritualized: they are codified, repeatable actions. - Rituals emphasize efficacy, meaning it is a call to action - rituals are performed on schedule, at specific locations, regardless of weather or attendance. - Ritual texts are usually verbal, musical and theatrical are fixed and often sacred, if there is improvisation, it is only under strict rules Theatre - emphasizes entertainment o Entertainment is meant here in its fullest sense: actions enjoyed not only for what they can achieve beyond the setting of the performance itself, but also for the sheer pleasure that they bring in the here and now - Theatre is also opportunistic, occurring wherever and whenever a crowd can be gathered and money collected, or goods or services bartered - theatre texts are usually written down, up for change and show encouragement to improvisation The earliest known performance spaces are the caves of southwest Europe where, for example at Tuc d'Audoubert Girard: the function of ritual is to purify violence; that is to trick violence into spending itself on victims whose death will provoke no reprisals - theater is a surrogate to violence Zarilli Qualities of Commemorative Dramas Celebrate myth, history, source of power Anonymous creation and or collective authorship Not judged on artistic method Goal enhance community, relation to divine, or achieve ritual purpose Abydos Passion Play Qualities of Literary Drama Known author, single author Bear imprint of authors poetic voice Engages narrative Judged by aesthetic criteria Writing is necessary but not sufficient Abydos: Monologic Non reflexive, reification of authority Greek: Dialogic Reflexive, prompts social, political, critical and aesthetic debate Nature of Greek alphabet Competitive ethos (Agon) o Agon: 1. Contest in which prizes were awarded, including athletics, drama, music, poetry and painting 2. Formalized debate or argumentation, especially in comedy: usually following the pro agon and preceding the parabasis 3. Conflict, especially between the protagonist and the antagonist Democracy o Founded on debate and dialogue Rhetoric (oratory, “speech art”) Social activity Speeches and lit spoken aloud, not contemplated in solitary silence (the way we read today) For hearing not reading Sheckner - “Whether a specific performance is 'ritual' or 'theatre' depends mostly on context and function. - A performance is called theatre or ritual because of where it is performed, by whom, and under what circumstances. - If the performance's purpose is to effect transformations, to heal, or to appease or appeal to transcendent Others (gods, ancestors, divine royalty, etc.) to get 'results' then the qualities listed under the heading 'efficacy' will most probably prevail and the performance may be regarded as a ritual. Conversely, if the qualities listed under 'entertainment' prevail, it may be regarded as theatre. - No performance, however, is pure efficacy or pure entertainment” - the participants in ritual depend on it, while theatre depends on its participants. Oedipus Themes The public private divide gets switched at the end of the play - o At first Oedipus wants to share all the information with all of Thebes o But then he and Jocasta perform their terrible acts in private - The Greeks are saying that the incest many cultures perform to keep the royal lines pure is the opposite of pure o But in ancient Greek myths, Mother Gaia beds her child Uranus to create the first beings o But the original creation myth is politicized and switched in this play o A big question in Greek tragedy is who has authority over children, the mother or the father? In the myths, Zeus appropriates the female power of giving birth when he births Athena through his forehead and Dionysus through his thigh - It’s the king (Oedipus) vs the King of Kings (Zeus) o Even though the gods are fallible and human like (unlike the Judeo/Christian god), it’s about power, and who controls fate and destiny The chorus says that a person shouldn’t be in control of fate and destiny, the gods should, even though it’s horrible You leave the theatre purged of negative feelings towards the gods and feelings that you are more powerful than the gods - The Sphinx is a crucial figure o She lets him in after solving the riddle for him to complete his prophecy, seduces him into thinking he has more power than he does, and also distracts the people of Thebes from finding the murderer of Laius. - The plague in the beginning is similar to the epidemics that cause people to go crazy today (Zika virus, Ebola) o The plague becomes politicized > you can see the conflation between the civic leader and the faith leader (so separation of church and state) - OEDIPUS' HUBRIS: he acts as if he is god o Hubris means swollen and Oedipus has a literal swollen foot from being bound as a child, but his head is also inflated o Oedipus addresses his people as "Oh my children" meaning he takes on the father figure as well, and doesn’t empower his citizens. - Oedipus doesn’t call on his sons to take him to his torture scene, he only calls his daughters showing the much more classic incest situation of the father and daughter o Oedipus and Jocasta are the Electra complex o Oedipus the model of what NOT to be, or who TO BE (like Hamlet) - Diana Taylor Theory: Perceptocide when you see something and you know it’s true but it’s so horrible that you have to look away o Totalitarian regimes: to meet the eyes of another person is to accept that these terrible things are happening and then it’s too hard to live through it - Oedipus's Tragic Flaws (Hamartia) o Hamartia ACTUALLY means error a missing of the mark Error in judgment o Not just a character flaw, but a continued error in judgment that makes you miss the mark o The Greeks didn’t see people with flaws, they just saw perpetual bad judgements The Original Mother Fucker Notes - Our erotic terms are so caught up in kinship structure - The child was paid to bring Oedipus to a group of people, but the child brought him to a clearing in the woods where no one, not even the child was listening. It is his selfimposed punishment to tell this story over and over to anyone who would listen. o Oedipus is making himself into a cautionary tale. - People learn from doing, vicarious knowledge doesn't and won’t stop us. o The author is saying that even though Oedipus has lasted thousands of years, we haven't learned from it. o Oedipus is the original Mother Fucker because there have been many many many after him. - The ending of the play tells us about our culture, that these titillating juicy sex stories aren't even enough to capture our interest. - Author uses spell, which is different than a pause, because the character is taking a break for emphasis. Brecht calls it aguestus. The length of the pause, and what is done during it is completely up to the director and the actor. - Post Dramatic Theatre o Showing rather than telling o Watching someone watching a play Oedipus at Palm Springs Notes - The Five Lesbian Brothers o Came together in 1989 o Wow Cafe o Outrageous outlandish spoofs - the push/pull scene between Terrie and Prin is an illustration of the catharsis, the struggle between pity and fear - How is this play similar and different from Aristotle/Oedipus? o Differences Doesn’t follow unity of time (longer than 24 hours) None of the characters are of nobility Except for Prin, who's good job is maybe the modern version of nobility Aristotle makes the point that women are inferior, but there are only female characters in the play Not written in rhymes or iambs (written in colloquialisms) The spectacles happen on stage Recognition scene is drawn out There is a time where Prin knows before everyone else and does nothing, and Aristotle thought that the recognition should happen dramatically and quickly to make the best tragedy The suicide is attempted but does not get completed Procreation is different Less about proving your paternity like Oedipus and Hamlet and more about maternity Butch mommies instead of butch daddies No mention of gods Even Joni is more spiritual than religious Who creates our moral laws saying that lesbianism is ok but incest is not o Similarities Has a whole plot > beginning middle and end End: selfimposed/voluntary, forced exile/excommunication of Prin Different from Oedipus because he does it to himself Violence happens on stage, play has a lot of spectacles, the action is visible Many occurrences of Deus Ex Machina Even though it’s a lesser form of poetry, according to Aristotle, its ok because he thought there shouldn’t be any narration, that the action should be visible Masturbation on stage, Prin hitting Terrie Prin has hamartia Error in judgment sleeping with the guy Breaking the 15 year rule with Terrie Birth has been appropriated from the woman to the man The tragedy of assimilation (into the main stream) Aristotle’s Poetics - Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is admirable and complete with magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament (made pleasurable), performed through action not narration o Not exactly admirable in terms of OUR moral code, but it’s important to Aristotle that we pity and/or learn from the main character who completes the action o This is why tragedies have characters with high ranks and comedies have those with low ranks o Or serious (different translations of Poetics): possesses magnitude, has gravitas o Complete meaning beginning, middle, and end o Magnitude meaning that the actions of the characters affect everyone in that world o But Aristotle didn’t get the nonnarration part quite right because in Oedipus, narration accounts for a lot! The chorus narrates the whole obscene (offstage) death of Jocasta and mutilation of Oedipus o It is because of Aristotle that people cleaned up Shakespeare to rid it of subplots and have a central line like Aristotle wanted, but some could argue that those sub plots give meaning to the play o Pity and fear You should be afraid to suffer the consequences of not being a good person like the hero's in plays o Plot is key not the spectacle No Deus Ex Machina - Aristotle o 384 – March 7, 322 BCE o Founder Lyceum; Teacher Alexander the Great Oedipus gains something by losing everything (recognition) This is what produces catharsis The fact that the Greek Theater Festivals honoring Dionysus - Lenea (440 BCE; JanFeb) – named for maenads! - Rural Dionysia (DecJan) - Anthesteria (FebMarch) - City Dionysia (MarchApr) Theater was first staged during this in 534 BCE Procession reenacts the coming of Dionysus to Greece Sacrificial rituals - Dithyramb: choral song and dance competition aimed at the god Dionysus - Hypokrites: actor, literally “the answer” or “from under the mask” call/response - Thespis: the first actor 534 BCE o Separates one actor from the chorus o Thespians: followers of Thespis, literally, inspired by god o These were satyrs - Aeschylus: the second actor 471 BCE - Sophocles: the third actor 464 BCE - Euripides: another actor 480 BCE o Reshaped formal structure - Choregos: wealthy citizen who financed and organized dramatic contexts - Festivals form and constitute life in the polis o Polis: The civic body (comprised of male citizens in citystates) - Mimesis: Greek word for imitation/representation - Hubris: swollen excessive pride, inflated sense of self - Hamartia: error in character, missing the mark - Orchestra: dancing place - Theatron: seeing place - Auditorium: hearing place - Thymele: stone alter - Skene: dressing room/ enter and exit - Parados: passage - Forced participation > 300,000 people attended theatres Victor Turner’s Social Drama 4 phases A crisis or a breach o Of a norm, rule, law, custom, or etiquette o In a public arena o Deliberate or spontaneous In Oedipus, it's the plot, the incest and the marrying of his mother, even in ignorance because it is revealed in public Redress o How we deal with a crisis or breach as a people Formal: juridical/legal (secular ritual) Informal: ritual/aesthetic (Turner is more interested in this poetic justice) Involves Sacrifice/scapegoat o Redressive phase takes place in a liminal time, set apart from the ongoing business of quotidian life, when an interpretation (Bedeutung) is constructed to give the appearance of sense and order to the events leading up to and constituting the crisis Re Integration or Schism o Marked by ceremony or public ritual In Oedipus, it’s a reintegration because he leaves with his daughters The story itself still makes important points about family relationships, and about the stresses between sex and age roles, and appears to be an epic generalization, clothed in metaphor and involving projection, of innumerable specific social dramas generated by these structural tensions; so does the story feed back into the social process, providing it with a rhetoric, a mode of emplotment, and a meaning. Some genres, particularly the epic, serve as paradigms which inform the action of important political leadersstar groupers of encompassing groups such as church or stategiving them style, direction, and sometimes compelling them subliminally to follow in major public crises a certain course of action, thus emplotting their lives. Legal and ritual forms of redress generate narratives that attempt to generate meaning that makes sense of the crisis o We explain ourselves to ourselves through reflexive thinking and acts Social drama: an opportunity to explain ourselves to ourselves o The theatre, the courtroom, the church are betwix and between We are constantly in conflict with something, that’s why this is agonistic o Nature, beliefs, war… I like to think of ritual essentially as performance, as enactment, and not primarily as rules or rubrics. The rules frame the ritual process, but the ritual process transcends its frame. o Performance transcends itself; something new may be generated (subjunctive) o Marriage perpetuates a status quo, but then gay marriage exists. o Rituals are maintained with changes added Through ritual, new things are generated o It’s not the set of rules, it’s the performance, the enactment, that creates the reality, the truth, the community o stories are curiously similar no matter where you are in the world Ibn Daniyal elevating this style of play from cartoon to high art What is being satirized is the cess o Not the homosexuality because pederasty happened in the time the play was set and when the play was performed o Losing your self in infatuation = excess Comedy tries to correct behavior that exists, tragedy tries to stop behavior before it happens o The exaggeration of the norm shows it to be the problem that it is Sakutala Attributed to the sage Vyasa Secular drama and spiritual romance o Romance in western drama meaning tragedy that ends happily o But no eastern theater has tragedy o China, India Usually done with low performance aesthetic Not representational, but presentational (theatrically) She is fecundity personified o Always surrounded by nature: bees, deer Mudras: hand gestures Rasaesthetics Rasa: sentiment felt by the audience o Flavors of the moods o Aesthetic rapture Bhava: emotion performed by actor Resolution of conflict between dharma and kama through aesthetic as means to rasa Based on premise that emotions are socially constructed while feelings are individually experienced o The emotions we have are a product of our environment A bear trainer's kid won’t have the fight or flight response to seeing a bear like I would Rasika: connoisseur o King is the idea man of feeling Rasa (Sentiment) o Each one corresponds with a god and an acting style and gesture o There is a dominant one for the play and one for the act and the scene o Progression leads to serenity and peace Shanta Does not correspond to any particular Sthayi Bhava Bliss : white light, perfect balance/mix of them all Perfect performance WOULD NOT transmit bliss but allow it to be experienced ABSOLUTELY by performers and partakers India Indus Valley 23001750 BCE Possible IndoAryan Invasion (via Persia) Developed Hinduism Vedas 15001000 BCE No western theatre o Only dance, spoken word and music Drama flourished 110CE Epics Mahabharata Ramayana source of drama Puranas, life of Krishna and Vishnu Islamic Invasion 1011 CE (Center Delhi) Vaishnavism, renewed Hinduism to counter Islam Rural Theatre 1519 CE Sanskrit/Hindu Drama Origins: 140 BCE o Vedas (gods) o Dance o Ritual enacting demon defeat by gods o Shamanistic monologue o Rooted in religion and rituals Presentational, not representational Non realistic Highly stylized Not based on agon (competition) o Not who wins/loses, No conception of tragedy even though tragic things happen Theatrical rather than literary o Not plot driven Natysastra by Bharatamuni - Natysastra written anywhere from 6th Cent BCE to 2nd Cent CE - Sanskrit manual of performance and performance theory - Apparently Bharatamuni was a mythichistorical figure o Bharatamuni only wrote Natysastra - The Natysastra was a veda most sacred of texts - Has a framing origin myth o The tale was transmitted to Bharata and his sons o Performance was of first natya on occasion of the Mahendra's flag festival victory of Indra over asuras and danava (demons) o Demons enraged by performance and magically freeze those on the stage, erasing even their memories o Indra thrusts flagpole/protective totem at demons o Brahma tells Visvakarman (god's architect) to make an impregnable theater o But gods say after theater constructed that it is better to negotiate with demons o Brahma approaches demons asks why they want to destroy natya o Demons said "You created us and the gods, so you shouldn't have omitted us from natya" o Brahma: "I created the Natyaveda to show good and bad actions and feelings of both you and gods it represnts the 3 entire worlds and not only just you and the gods as such." o Shows natya is divine, allencompassing and consisting of good and bad actions o Author or compiler of a detailed compendium of religious/mythic origins and practices of natya Natysastra - Sastra: sacred text authorized by gods with narration, myth and detailed instructions for performers - Natya = dance theatre music - 345 pages long by Bharata in answer to sages who asked him to explain natya - Begins with how natya came about o Who it was made for o Who the proper subjects are - Details theater architecture and how to portray emotions and the structure of the drama and so on - Text was lost some centuries after completed - Came down in performance practice and as interpretations o Most important was Kashmiri Saivite Abhinavagupta (as an interpreter) - Not really present as a full text but in the performers and teachers and performances Classic Indian Drama Nataka o Sakuntala o Myth or history o Heroic romances with royal characters o Tragedy that ends happily o 57 acts o Formal drama of court o 100 BCE1000 CE Prakarana o Scripted text More like western drama o Single author: Sudraka o The drama of everyday people Maybe one king Less exalted characters Up to 10 acts Kathakali Odissi Key Terms Mudra: gestures Kāma: pleasure/desire Dharma: duty o The balance of kāma and dharma Artha: prosperity and material success Karma: destiny following as effect from cause, the sum of one's actions in this and precious states of existence viewed as deciding their fate in future existences Moska: liberation from worldly existence Kalidasa (Sanskrit Playwright) Around 373415 BCE We know very little about his life 6 surviving works Name means servant of time or servant of creative powers (Goddess Kali and God Siva) Master of Sanskrit language Works concerned with kings and their relation to the cosmic order o Kings=human counter part to God Indra Vedic belief that nature is recreated and reinforced by ritual sacrifice Richard Schechner Rasaesthetics - Where is theatricality located on the body? o Eyes and ears in Western theatre = by etymology and practice theater is a "place of/for seeing" o Seeing needs distance engenders analysis, differentiation, theme narration - Other traditions are different o Snouttobellyto bowel is topic of this essay o Where of taste, digestion and excretion o Interlinked muscular cellular and neurological process of tastetesting separating nourishment from waste, distributing it through body and eliminating the waste - Snout to belly to bowel where of intimacy o Mixing of outside and inside, emotional experiences and gut feelings o Pleasurable, feeling Rasa - Rasa is a combination of vibhava (stimulus), anibhava (reaction) and vyabhicari bhava (voluntary reaction) - Flavor, taste, sensation of food perceived by the senses o engagement by the whole snout - Also means juice o thing that conveys the flavor - abhinaya o Dancer: sing with throat, express meaning with hand gestures, show how feels with eyes and keep time with feet o Where the hands go, the eyes follow, the eyes go, the mind follows, and where mind follows, emotions follow Western Theater - Theater cognates with "theorem" "theory" o Relate to Thea, a sight and theatron, a place of seeing among a lot of other words related linguistically that mean some permutation of "sight o Western theater is about gazing o To see is to know: root metaphor of Western thought o Seeing only comes at distance though o Naturally objective - Western audience explores the outer world to relate it to the inner world - Clarity always important in theater o Goal of the shows in Greek theater was to determine winners and losers in the drama and in the competitions among actors and poets Pleasures of Rasa - Not about separating winners from losers - About extending pleasure - Combination of distinct elements into something offering a new and intense flavor or taste - Values immediacy over distance, savoring over judgement Rasa: experiencing the STHAYI BHAVAS - STHAYI BHAVA: permanent or abiding/indwelling emotions that are accessed and evoked by good acting - Good acting = abhinaya Kathakali actors: theaterdance actors - Some felt emotions performed, others did not feel the emotions - What is relevant is not emotions of performer but making sure each partaker receives the emotions and that these are specific and controlled - Emotions Sthayi Bhava are objective, feelings are subjective - Rasa’s of a single emotion or combination of emotions are shared - Acting is not about presenting Rasa’s but the Sthayi Bhavas so the audience and the actor both feel the rasa/emotion. Emotions V Feelings - Emotions are communicated via abhinaya - Feelings experienced - Rasa’s are feelings but what is communicated via rasa are emotions (Sthayi Bhava) - When abhinaya is strong emotions communicated and audience feels feelings Stanislavsky V Rasa/Sthayi Bhava based acting - Given circumstances and objectives are played in Stanislavsky vs playing emotions in Rasa - Natysastra: natya must appeal to people in all stations in life, different people will be affected but differently o Each person enjoys according to their abilities higher knowledge greater the enjoyment o Best performers save best performances for most discerning partakers and those who know experience best - Tal (rhythm) people beat it out quietly at dance or music concerts o Sometimes move their hands with the mudras or handgesture system - At the Ramlila (play about Rama's life) people follow along with the chants, carrying texts of Ramcaritmanas and follow along singing as the Ramayanis chant - Home team advantage: measurement of how the active participation of the crowd can impact the level of performance. Oral pleasure of Rasical Acting - Indian theater not based on AGON or determining winners and losers or in terms of contest - No judges like in the Theater of Dionysus - Does not emphasize clear beginning, middle, and end but favor more open narration o Performances of the Natysastra took place over period of days or weeks o Part of festivals with feasting and audience participation integral to whole performance complex - Entire experience of feasting, religious devotion, theater, dance music food is satisfying and pleasurable - Rasaesthetics in the gut engages whole nervous system Enteric Nervous System: - Gut's brain is the enteric nervous system - in tissue of the esophageal stomach and small intestine and colon lining - It has neurons and neurotransmitters, and proteins carrying messages between the different neurons like in the brain proper - Gut has its own nervous system that is only mildly connected to the vagus nerve and thus the brain - Rasic training does not preclude eye and ear during performance but during training it works directly and strongly on ENS (the Gut brain/nervous system) Rasic training - Performer may become partaker - When moved by own performance she is not moved as character but as partakers - She expresses emotions of character and be moved to her own feelings about these emotions - Expresses feelings in the ENS - Partakers impacted by both performance and performer's reaction to her own performance = empathetic feedback takes place - Partakers are not here to follow story/narrative = here to experience the performer performing whatever happens Smell, taste and touch are demanding place at table of acting practice
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