New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PLS 101

by: Tritny Tipton
Tritny Tipton
GPA 3.47

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

PLS 101 with Kaatz Study Guide for Test 2
American Democracy and Citizenship
Dr. James B. Kaatz
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in American Democracy and Citizenship

Popular in Political Science

This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tritny Tipton on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PLS 101 at Missouri State University taught by Dr. James B. Kaatz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see American Democracy and Citizenship in Political Science at Missouri State University.

Similar to PLS 101 at MSU

Popular in Political Science


Reviews for PLS 101


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/16/16
Study Guide #2 Chapters 4-7 Chapter 4 What is & Characteristics of public opinion? - Public Opinion is the public’s preference on an issue-> we use polls to do this. A. There are more than one kind of poll 1. Elections (Presidents, Mayors) ->You may prefer someone, but you may not vote for them. Have to also consider who can actually vote. Someone who is excited about an election are more likely to vote. 2. Issues (Gun Control, Abortion) -> Random Sample B. Things to look for when you’re looking at a poll 1. The number of people they ask (example: n=1200). The more people they have, the more likely their poll’s results will be true. 2. Margin of Error (Within the Margin): the range of polling data (Example: + or – 3% or between 42-48%) -> The smaller margin of error the more accurate the results 3. Who delivered the poll? Are they going to be bias on the way the information is portrayed, or are they going to change the way a question is asked? 4. Who did they ask? What is political socialization & how does it occur? - Going into election X you are likely to prefer your political party before you even know the candidates involved in the election. Political Socialization, which is the process by which we obtain our political values A. Based on two major processes: 1. Primacy: what we learn first sticks to us the most. 2. Structuring: earlier learning will shape future learning-> influences how we look at the world - Stages of Political Socialization A. Period One 1. Early Childhood (0-5 years old) shapes your political beliefs-> How you’re being raised-> Family-> Most important Agent of Socialization (Example: church, family dinners, tv shows you watch, rules and consequences) 2. (5-13 years old)-> Family, Place you live, School (Teacher-> Private vs Public, Catholic, Home Schooled)and Peers (Influence of Peers-> Peer Pressure), Internet 3. High School ->Teachers (You look up to and want to be like them), Job (Boss-> Strict vs Not) B. Period Two 1. (18-25 years old)-> College, Freedoms, Professors, Diversity (People and Ideas), Religious Ideas, Career/Real Job (Taxation now matters to you), Military Services, Maturation (There’s a huge difference between an 18 year old and a 25 year old), Voting (the way you vote the first time alludes to how you’ll vote later on in life) C. Period Three 1. (25+ years old)-> Marriage, Kids, Political Leadership What are the ideology types how do they place on the freedom, order and equality matrix & How different social groups differ on order and equality? - Socialization is completely different for every person, no matter if they’re related-> certain groups tend to have similar socializations A. The higher your income the more you’re likely to favor freedom over equality -> Libertarian or Conservative B. If you are of lower income you’re more likely to favor equality over freedom -> Liberal or Populist C. Religious (The bible is the literal word of god) -> Order over freedom-> Populist or Conservative D. African Americas are more likely to be Populists E. Gender Gap: Women vote Dem and Men vote Rep F. Society is a collection of groups -> Used to help get votes in G. an election (Need Libertarian and Populist Votes to go for H. Liberal or Conservative) Federal Communications Commission (FCC) - The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government, created by Congressional statute to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories. A. The FCC works towards six goals in the areas of 1. Broadband: affordable access to robust and reliable broadband products and services 2. Competition: foster innovation and offer consumers reliable, meaningful choice in affordable services 3. Spectrum: Promote the growth and development of technological communications 4. Media: Promote competition and diversity, and facilitate the transition to digital modes 5. Public Safety and Homeland Security: Communication during emergencies and crisis must be available 6. Modernizing itself: strive to be highly productive, adaptive, and innovative Equal time or opportunities rule - Equal opportunity is a stipulation that all people should be treated similarly, unhampered by artificial barriers or prejudices or preferences, except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified. Right of rebuttal - The Right of Rebuttal Rule states that a person who is attacked on public television or radio must be given a chance to respond to the attack on the air. Fairness doctrine - The Fairness Doctrine was a policy of the United States Federal Communications Commission, introduced in 1949, that required the holders of broadcast licenses both to present controversial issues of public importance and to do so in a manner that was—in the Commission's view—honest, equitable, and balanced. Prior restraint - Prior restraint (also referred to as prior censorship or pre-publication censorship) is censorship imposed, usually by a government, on expression before the expression actually takes place. An alternative to prior restraint is to allow the expression to take place and to take appropriate action afterward, if the expression is found to violate the law, regulations, or other rules. Near v. Minnesota - Near v. Minnesota, 283 U.S. 697 (1931), was a landmark United States Supreme Court decision that recognized the freedom of the press by roundly rejecting prior restraints on publication, a principle that was applied to free speech generally in subsequent jurisprudence. - The Court ruled that a Minnesota law that targeted publishers of "malicious" or "scandalous" newspapers violated the First Amendment to the United States Constitution (as applied through the Fourteenth Amendment). Legal scholar and columnist Anthony Lewis called Near the Court's "first great press case". Chapter 5 Political participation (conventional and unconventional) & Effectiveness of unconventional participation? - Political Participation: actions of private citizens by which they seek to influence or support government and politics. 1. Conventional: relatively routine political behavior that uses institutional channels and is acceptable to the dominate culture. A. Examples: voting, displaying a campaign poster in your yard 2. Unconventional: relatively uncommon political behavior that challenges or defies established institutions and dominant norms A. Examples: spray-painting slogans on walls, linking arms to prevent entrance to a clinic, or TERRORISM B. Direct Action: unconventional participation that involves assembling in crowds to confront businesses and local governments to demand a hearing-> minorities are more likely to participate in this Supportive behaviors & Influencing behaviors (Who is likely to engage in influencing behavior)? - Supporting Behaviors: action that express allegiance to a government or county - Influencing Behavior: behavior that seeks to modify or reserve government policy to serve political interests Referendum, initiative and recall - Recall: the process of removing an elected official from office - Referendum: an election on a policy issue - Initiative: a procedure by which voters propose an issue to be decided by the legislature or by the people in a referendum. It requires gathering a specialized number of signatures and submitting a petition. 15 Amendment th - Granted African American’s the right to vote-> Passed on Feb. 26 , 1869 Voting Rights Act 1965 - Passed on Aug. 6, 1965 aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state level that prevented African Americans from voting Who is most likely to vote & Ways to increase voter turnout? - Generally people between the ages of 30-65, but young people have been coming to the polls in higher numbers recently, due to social media. - Women vote as much or more than men - People with more $$ and people of higher education backgrounds tend to vote more than those lesser than them Chapter 6 What is a political party & Functions of political parties? - A political party is a group that sponsors people for an election-> they recognize each other a. The democratic party sponsors a person, the person endorses that group - Functions of a Political Party a. They nominate people for elections 1. Makes sure person reaches the minimum set of requirements to run in that election b. Structure the Decisions 2. Choice between “two” people for president, governor, mayor, etc. c. Propose d. Coordinate Know the history of our party system - First Political Parties A. Democratic Republics-> parties first president-> Jefferson-> first political party B. Federalists -> party formed to oppose the democratic republics - Second Political Parties A. 1828 -> they break apart and form the Democratic Party-> first president is Andrew Jackson B. 1834-> the Whig Party is created- - The Third Political Parties-> Modern Parties A. 1860 - NOW 1. 1856 the first republican runs for president 2. 1860-> the first republic wins presidency -> Abe Lincoln B. 1860-1896-> the republics ran the presidency, but the rest of the power was mixed 1. Lincoln, Johnson, Grant, Harrison, and Grant C. 1896-1932-> VERY STRONG REPUBLICAN ERA 1. only one democratic president elected and it was an accident D. 1932-1968-> VERY STRONG DEMOCRACTIC ERA 1. Only one republican president during this era E. 1968-NOW-> Balance between the two parties F. More balace than ever before G. Electoral Realignment-> some groups in society switched their party royalties H. Critical Elections-> starting point of each of the eras Critical election - Critical Elections Happen Because…. A. Critical Issues (Wedge Issue): 1. Slavery – 1860 2. The Gold Standard – 1896 3. The Great Depression - 1932 4. Civil Rights & Vietnam War – 1968 B. Create Opposition C. Leadership of Majority of Party Needs to Fail D. New Division -> Groups Switch Sides E. Loyalty F. Success - Example: Electoral realignment - The change in voting patterns that occurs after a critical election Party conventions & Party platforms - How do political parties direct themselves? 1. The National Convention (Happens every four years) a. Nominations for VP & President b. Platforms-> Creates Polices -> Decides what the nominees will do if elected. 2. National Committee a. RNC & DNC 3. Congressional Conferences a. Held in both the House & Senate b. Helps establish the legislative agenda for the parties 4. Congressional Campaign Committees a. Try to get as many of you party members in senate as you possibly can-> hopefully a majority 5. Responsible Party Government a. Clear Policy Choices -> YES (Platforms- Creating Policies) b. Choose Based on Policies -> NO c. Implement Said Policies-> YES (for the most part) d. Hold the Party Responsible -> NO (not really/sometimes) 6. Structure a. We have a structure problem in our government. The structure of our government works against this. We have two branches of government that are COMPLETELY separate. b. President & Both Houses of Congress-> Needed to be ran by one party fort his structure to work c. Gridlocked-> When one party runs the presidency & the other runs the Houses of Congress-> can’t carry out the polices your political party wants d. This system works very well in parliament (Great Britain) e. You are held to the standards of you party, and if you go against it they will replace you. f. The majority party picks the Prime Minister - Party Platform: the statement of policies of a national political party Closed and open primaries - Primary Election-> People running to be in the General Election - Open Primary-> don’t have to register as a specific party -> choose whatever ballet you want/feel like being - Closed-> Have to be registered as a democrat or republican-> and can ONLY vote in that parties primary Incumbents and challengers - Incumbent: someone running for another turn 1. They win because: people recognize the name, association with the workings of the office, more media coverage, free publicity, & money - Challenger: someone who doesn’t run the office and trying to get it from the incumbent - Two Challengers= Open Office (NO INCUMBENT) Straight ticket and split ticket voting - Straight Ticket: in voting, a single party’s candidates for all the offices - Split Ticker: In voting, candidates from different parties for different offices Federal election commission (FEC) - Federal Election Commission (FEC)-> McCain Fine Gold: a bipartisan federal agency that oversees the financing of national campaigns Chapter 7 Pluralism - Classical pluralism is the view that politics and decision making are located mostly in the framework of government, but that many non-governmental groups use their resources to exert influence. The central question for classical pluralism is how power and influence are distributed in a political process. Groups of individuals try to maximize their interests. Political action committees (PACs) - PAC (Political Action Committees) -> 5k/ 2 year cycle - Individual 1. 2.4K/ 2 Year Cycle to Candidate 2. 10k/ A Year to State Party 3. 30K/ A Year National Party 4. TOTAL: 115K/ @ Year Cycle - 527 Committee: Can’t Support a Candidate-> HAS TO REPORT DONARS - Citizen’s United: Took the spending limit off of business because of free speech - 501 C4: A social welfare organization -> can give money tax free -> Super PAC-> NO DONOR LIST How interest groups influence policy & Resources of interest groups - Interest groups are an organized group of people that seek to influence policies-> AKA a lobby-> Lobbyist - Resources 1. Members (Maintaining Members, Attracting New Members, Solving the Free-Rider Problem) 2. Lobbyists 3. Political Action Committees - Roles of Interest Groups 1. Representation 2. Participation 3. Education 4. Agenda Building Types of lobbying - Direct: attempts to influence a legislator’s vote through personal contact 1. Inside Lobbying 2. Personal Lobbying 3. Legal Advocacy - Grassroots: performed by rank-and-file interest group members ->writing letters, phone calls, and protests 1. Internet 2. Political Protests - Informative Campaigns: and organized effort to gain the publics backing by bringing a groups view to public attention 1. Public Relations 2. Research Sponsoring - Coalition Building: banding together of several interest groups for the purpose of lobbying 1. Environmental Groups 2. Feminism Groups


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.