JMM 102 Second Test Review
JMM 102 Second Test Review JMM 102
Popular in Understanding Media And Content In The Digital Age
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caitlin Costa on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to JMM 102 at University of Miami taught by Ana Francois in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Understanding Media And Content In The Digital Age in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
JMM 102 Second Test Review CHAPTER 5: Regulation Why do we regulate content? In part to protect children and vulnerable audiences st Isn’t regulating content against the 1 Amendment of the Constitution? Who regulates what: Free Market “Regulation”: Problems will be resolved within the marketplace by the ageold forces of supply and demand SelfRegulation: The industry itself establishes ethical guidelines and sanctions through various industry organizations Family hour, “raised eyebrow” TV ratings Ex. TV program rating system, RTDNA code of ethics, networks’ standards and practices Government Regulation: Laws and regulations enforced by government agencies (i.e. FCC , FTC); Congress/Commerce U.S Congress State & Local governments Courts The White House “Special Interest” groups a.k.a. “Lobbyists” Ex. MPAA The Public (you!) Nielsen Household FCC (Federal Communications Commissions) Regulates electronic media (broadcast, cable/MVPDs and internet) – AcrossStates mandate from Congress that supervises/approves its budget Established in 1934 5 commissioners appointed by the President, but directly responsible to Congress. One member is the chairman/woman of the Commission The U.S Senate must approve Presidential appointments 5year terms for each commissioner. A lot are from former Lobbyists Only 3 commissioners may be from same political party. FTC oversees commercial speech/false advertising Congress: Regulates media to an extent that it supervises FCC, approves budget and commissioners Issues Legislature Ex.1996 Telecommunications Act Executive Branch: Appoints FCC commissioners, judges Legislature International trade with Senate First Amendment First Amendment of the Constitution guarantees Freedom of Speech, Freedom of the Press and Freedom of Religion (among others) The freedoms of speech and press guaranteed by the First Amendment were intended from the start to encourage a wideopen marketplace of ideas. The First Amendment provides protection of minority viewpoints. The majority doesn’t need protection. Some speech can be restricted. Free speech is NOT absolute Types of Speech Courts have determined that some types of speech deserve more protection than other types: High Value Speech Examples: Political speech or debate Intermediate Value Speech Example: Advertising Low Value Speech Examples: Obscenity, Incitement Types of Delivery Broadcasting has more limited First Amendment free speech rights Ex. Frequencies, radio, TV with an antenna Broadcasting has unique attributes that justify imposing certain restraints because: Channel scarcity (“scarcity principle”) Licensing requirements Intrusiveness into the home Cable is given more freedom NO “scarcity principle” It is subscription–based not as intrusive—you are paying a fee for the service! Obscenity Miller V. California (1973) Test: The average person applying contemporary community standards would find the work, taken as a whole to be… 1. of prurient interest 2. patently offensive 3. lacking serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value Indecency Sexually oriented material that does not meet the Miller v. California definition of obscenity Only an issue for broadcasting, not cable or print media. Recent years, major crackdown by FCC Thanks JT & Janet Jackson! (nipple slip) Fines were raised from $27,500 to $325,000 per violation (per station) Network vs Station, Network (parent company) is NBC Station (children) in Miami is NBC6 in NY something else and LA something else etc. it is different in each state Time delays for live events (at least 7 seconds) FCC V. Pacifica Foundation: a.k.a. the “Seven Dirty Words” case – George Carlin *Shit, Piss, Fuck, Cunt, Cocksucker, Motherfucker and Tits* The Supreme Court rules that the FCC can punish broadcast stations that aired indecent content during times of the day when children are most likely to be in the audience. Creation of “Safe Harbors” (10PM – 6AM) for indecent programming. Defamation Defamation: Has to be truly damaging (not just “hurt feelings”) Has to be false Has to be disseminated Two types: Libel: Written Slander: Oral or Spoken Civil not criminal cases. Plaintiff sues for damages: Compensatory: Repair damage Punitive: Punish Special Treatment from Regulators Protecting Children from Unfair Advertising Tactics Limiting ad time in children’s programs 12 minutes per hour on weekdays, 10.5 minutes per hour on weekends Clear separation between program content and advertising 5second “bumpers” On Disney the “now back to your show” Host selling prohibited Special Treatment from Parents Imposing restrictions: what/when/how much to watch Coviewing: no conversation necessary Only works if it is with a parent (child feels protected) Active mediation: conversations Positive mediation Negative mediation Program ratings/Vchip: rarely used by people who most need them; not trusted or understood MVPD= Multichannel Video Program Distributer aka Pay TV Providers Young Adults as a Special Audience Your eagerness to try new experiences and new media can be explained by a set of cognitive and emotional abilities Hence TV and film ratings systems Industry selfregulation Cognitive Abilities Crystalline Intelligence Ability to memorize facts When highly developed, allows us to absorb images, definitions, opinions, and agendas of others Generally increases through lifespan Associated with vertical thinking (systematic, logical) Helps with meaning matching tasks Fluid Intelligence Ability to be creative, insightful, perceptive Associated with lateral thinking (more intuitive, creative) Helps with meaning constructions tasks Few people have natural aptitude for lateral thinking Emotional Abilities Emotional Intelligence Ability to understand and control our emotions Composed of several related abilities Empathy: ability to read others’ emotions, put yourself in their shoes Awareness of our emotions Ability to harness/manage our emotions Ability to handle emotional demands of relationships CHAPTER 6: Patterns of Development All mass media industries—old and new—share commonality in their growth and development Life cycle pattern provides useful framework 5 stages: Innovation Stage Technological innovation: makes a channel of transmission possible Any type of media starts with this Marketing innovation: an entrepreneur recognizes need in population and uses new technology to satisfy need Get people to recognize value of new medium Masslike orientation Turn need into a habit Penetration Stage (growth stage) A greater proportion of the public accepts the new medium Must appeal to a very large, heterogeneous population to reach this stage Public reaction based on medium’s ability to satisfy new need or satisfy a need better than an existing medium Ex. Radio satisfied need for news and entertainment, then TV came along and they were better satisfied ADDED: Net Neutrality: the principle that Internet service providers should enable access to all content and applications regardless of the source, and without favoring or blocking particular products or websites (all data must be treated equally) Ending this would make big companies go ahead and get faster service while smaller companies will get worse service never being able to go ahead Legally the public has a right to access the broadband (highspeed) internet Peak Stage When the medium commands the most attention from the public and generates the most revenue compared to other media Usually when medium has achieved maximum penetration (table 6.1) Can continue to absorb a greater proportion of audience time and money Most people, most revenue ALSO: Decline Stage, Adaption Stage Indicators of Peak: Dominant (most important to most people) People are paying attention (not background) Generates most revenue (directly) Cable TV is still at peak, with computers quickly approaching Current Picture: Convergence The blending together of previously separate channels of communication such that the characteristics that have divided those channels into distinctly different media have been eroding 3 types: technological, marketing, and psychological Technological Convergence How innovations in storing and transmitting information have brought about changes to mass media industries, challenging the notion that channels are distinct from one another Switch from analog to digital coding Analog coding is the recording, storage, and retrieval of information that relies on the physical properties of a medium Digital refers to using a sequence of symbols or bytes (usually numbers) that are not dependent on the physical characteristics of any one medium Switch from copper wire to fiber optics, easier to carry and install With technological convergence, channels are much less important than are audience needs and messages Two advantages: A single message can generate many streams of revenue When the message appears in one channel, it stimulates audience members to expose themselves to the message in other channels CHAPTER 7: Economic Model: Broadcasting Economic Model: Local Broadcasting Economic Model: MVPDs ESPN gets the most $ Fees Paid by Cable Operators AMC as example The Media Game of Economics The Players Consumers Advertisers Bring money to the game Give money for space in the media to present message to target audience Media companies Bring money, messages (content), and audiences to attract talent, audiences, and advertising money Media employees Trade time, skills, and talent for pay and benefits Belowtheline employees: crafts and clerical people with fairly common skills Abovetheline employees: creative types with talent to attract audience Paid twice as much as belowtheline employees Celebrities (Lady Gaga) Media company managers: oversee construction and distribution of messages Indirect as well as Direct Support Direct costs: those paid directly to the company (e.g., subscriptions, fees, etc.) Indirect costs: payments of time when you expose yourself to messages or money spent for advertised products Media companies sell your time to advertisers Advertising cost is added to price of product; you pay this when you buy an advertised product Balance is shifting from direct to indirect Advertising as the Engine Advertising drives growth of media industries Sales of good and services and importance of advertising has grown over the past 50 years More whitecollar workers, not selfsufficient High level of employment, people with discretionary income Makes it possible for new goods to enter market Media Industry Strategies: Maximizing Profits Profit = Revenues (want to increase this) – Expenses (want to decrease this) Make as large of a profit as possible; high return on revenues and return on assets Increase revenue streams Appeal to more than one audience Generate money from one audience in multiple ways Ex. watched something on TV, DVD, now Netflix Merger and acquisition activities Minimize expenses How? By paying low for belowtheline employees Economies of scale More you have, cheaper it will get Variable costs Economies of scope Fixed costs
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