New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

JMM 102 Second Test Review

by: Caitlin Costa

JMM 102 Second Test Review JMM 102

Caitlin Costa

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover what will be on the next exam.
Understanding Media And Content In The Digital Age
Ana Francois
Study Guide
journalism, Communications, digital media
50 ?




Popular in Understanding Media And Content In The Digital Age

Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications

This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caitlin Costa on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to JMM 102 at University of Miami taught by Ana Francois in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Understanding Media And Content In The Digital Age in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Miami.

Similar to JMM 102 at UM

Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications


Reviews for JMM 102 Second Test Review


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/16/16
JMM 102 Second Test Review  CHAPTER 5: Regulation  Why do we regulate content?  In part to protect children and vulnerable audiences st  Isn’t regulating content against the 1  Amendment of the Constitution?  Who regulates what:  Free Market “Regulation”:  Problems will be resolved within the marketplace by the age­old forces of supply and  demand  Self­Regulation:  The industry itself establishes ethical guidelines and sanctions through various  industry organizations   Family hour, “raised eyebrow” TV ratings  Ex. TV program rating system, RTDNA code of ethics, networks’ standards and  practices   Government Regulation:  Laws and regulations enforced by government agencies (i.e. FCC , FTC);  Congress/Commerce  U.S Congress  State & Local governments   Courts  The White House  “Special Interest” groups  a.k.a. “Lobbyists”  Ex. MPAA  The Public (you!)  Nielsen Household   FCC (Federal Communications Commissions)  Regulates electronic media (broadcast, cable/MVPDs and internet) – Across­States  mandate from Congress that supervises/approves its budget  Established in 1934  5 commissioners appointed by the President, but directly                                     responsible to Congress.   One member is the chairman/woman of the Commission  The U.S Senate must approve Presidential appointments   5­year terms for each commissioner.  A lot are from former Lobbyists  Only 3 commissioners may be from same political party.  FTC oversees commercial speech/false advertising  Congress:  Regulates media to an extent that it supervises FCC, approves budget and  commissioners  Issues Legislature  Ex.1996 Telecommunications Act  Executive Branch:  Appoints FCC commissioners, judges  Legislature  International trade with Senate  First Amendment   First Amendment of the Constitution guarantees Freedom of Speech, Freedom of the  Press and Freedom of Religion (among others)  The freedoms of speech and press guaranteed by the First Amendment were intended  from the start to encourage a wide­open marketplace of ideas.  The First Amendment provides protection of minority viewpoints.  The majority doesn’t need protection.  Some speech can be restricted.  Free speech is NOT absolute   Types of Speech  Courts have determined that some types of speech deserve more protection than other  types:  High Value Speech  Examples:  Political speech or debate  Intermediate Value Speech   Example: Advertising  Low Value Speech   Examples:  Obscenity, Incitement  Types of Delivery   Broadcasting has more limited First Amendment free speech rights  Ex. Frequencies, radio, TV with an antenna   Broadcasting has unique attributes that justify imposing certain restraints because:  Channel scarcity (“scarcity principle”)  Licensing requirements  Intrusiveness into the home  Cable is given more freedom  NO “scarcity principle”  It is subscription–based   not as intrusive—you are paying a fee for the service!   Obscenity  Miller V. California (1973) Test:  The average person applying contemporary community standards would find the  work, taken as a whole to be…  1. of prurient interest  2. patently offensive  3. lacking serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value  Indecency  Sexually oriented material that does not meet the Miller v. California definition of  obscenity  Only an issue for broadcasting, not cable or print media.  Recent years, major crackdown by FCC  Thanks JT & Janet Jackson! (nipple slip)  Fines were raised from $27,500 to $325,000 per violation (per station)  Network vs Station,  Network (parent company) is NBC  Station (children) in Miami is NBC6 in NY something else and LA  something else etc. it is different in each state  Time delays for live events (at least 7 seconds)  FCC V. Pacifica Foundation:  a.k.a. the “Seven Dirty Words” case – George Carlin  *Shit, Piss, Fuck, Cunt, Cocksucker, Motherfucker and Tits*  The Supreme Court rules that the FCC can punish broadcast stations that aired  indecent content during times of the day when children are most likely to be in the  audience.  Creation of “Safe Harbors” (10PM – 6AM) for indecent programming.  Defamation  Defamation:  Has to be truly damaging (not just “hurt feelings”)   Has to be false  Has to be disseminated  Two types:  Libel: Written  Slander: Oral or Spoken  Civil not criminal cases.  Plaintiff sues for damages:  Compensatory: Repair damage  Punitive: Punish Special Treatment from Regulators  Protecting Children from Unfair Advertising Tactics  Limiting ad time in children’s programs  12 minutes per hour on weekdays, 10.5 minutes per hour on weekends  Clear separation between program content and advertising  5­second “bumpers”  On Disney the “now back to your show”   Host selling prohibited Special Treatment from Parents  Imposing restrictions: what/when/how much to watch  Co­viewing: no conversation necessary  Only works if it is with a parent (child feels protected)  Active mediation: conversations  Positive mediation  Negative mediation   Program ratings/V­chip: rarely used by people who most need them; not trusted or  understood  MVPD= Multichannel Video Program Distributer aka Pay TV Providers   Young Adults as a Special Audience  Your eagerness to try new experiences and new media can be explained by a set of cognitive  and emotional abilities  Hence TV and film ratings systems  Industry self­regulation   Cognitive Abilities  Crystalline Intelligence  Ability to memorize facts  When highly developed, allows us to absorb images, definitions, opinions, and  agendas of others  Generally increases through lifespan  Associated with vertical thinking (systematic, logical)  Helps with meaning matching tasks  Fluid Intelligence  Ability to be creative, insightful, perceptive  Associated with lateral thinking (more intuitive, creative)  Helps with meaning constructions tasks  Few people have natural aptitude for lateral thinking   Emotional Abilities   Emotional Intelligence  Ability to understand and control our emotions  Composed of several related abilities  Empathy: ability to read others’ emotions, put yourself in their shoes  Awareness of our emotions  Ability to harness/manage our emotions  Ability to handle emotional demands of relationships CHAPTER 6:  Patterns of Development  All mass media industries—old and new—share commonality in their growth and  development   Life cycle pattern provides useful framework  5 stages:   Innovation Stage  Technological innovation: makes a channel of transmission possible  Any type of media starts with this  Marketing innovation: an entrepreneur recognizes need in population and uses  new technology to satisfy need   Get people to recognize value of new medium  Mass­like orientation  Turn need into a habit  Penetration Stage (growth stage)  A greater proportion of the public accepts the new medium  Must appeal to a very large, heterogeneous population to reach this stage  Public reaction based on medium’s ability to satisfy new need or satisfy a need  better than an existing medium  Ex. Radio satisfied need for news and entertainment, then TV came along and  they were better satisfied   ADDED: Net Neutrality: the principle that Internet service providers should  enable access to all content and applications regardless of the source, and without  favoring or blocking particular products or websites (all data must be treated  equally)  Ending this would make big companies go ahead and get faster service while  smaller companies will get worse service never being able to go ahead  Legally the public has a right to access the broadband (high­speed) internet  Peak Stage  When the medium commands the most attention from the public and generates the most revenue compared to other media  Usually when medium has achieved maximum penetration (table 6.1)  Can continue to absorb a greater proportion of audience time and money  Most people, most revenue ALSO: Decline Stage, Adaption Stage  Indicators of Peak:  Dominant (most important to most people)  People are paying attention (not background)  Generates most revenue (directly)  Cable TV is still at peak, with computers quickly approaching  Current Picture: Convergence  The blending together of previously separate channels of communication such that the  characteristics that have divided those channels into distinctly different media have been  eroding  3 types: technological, marketing, and psychological  Technological Convergence   How innovations in storing and transmitting information have brought about  changes to mass media industries, challenging the notion that channels are distinct from one another  Switch from analog to digital coding  Analog coding is the recording, storage, and retrieval of information that  relies on the physical properties of a medium  Digital refers to using a sequence of symbols or bytes (usually numbers) that  are not dependent on the physical characteristics of any one medium  Switch from copper wire to fiber optics, easier to carry and install   With technological convergence, channels are much less important than are  audience needs and messages  Two advantages:  A single message can generate many streams of revenue  When the message appears in one channel, it stimulates audience members to expose themselves to the message in other channels CHAPTER 7:  Economic Model: Broadcasting  Economic Model: Local Broadcasting  Economic Model: MVPDs  ESPN gets the most $  Fees Paid by Cable Operators  AMC as example  The Media Game of Economics  The Players  Consumers  Advertisers  Bring money to the game  Give money for space in the media to present message to target audience  Media companies  Bring money, messages (content), and audiences to attract talent, audiences, and  advertising money  Media employees  Trade time, skills, and talent for pay and benefits  Below­the­line employees: crafts and clerical people with fairly common skills  Above­the­line employees: creative types with talent to attract audience  Paid twice as much as below­the­line employees  Celebrities (Lady Gaga)  Media company managers: oversee construction and distribution of  messages  Indirect as well as Direct Support  Direct costs: those paid directly to the company (e.g., subscriptions, fees, etc.)  Indirect costs: payments of time when you expose yourself to messages or money spent  for advertised products  Media companies sell your time to advertisers  Advertising cost is added to price of product; you pay this when you buy an  advertised product  Balance is shifting from direct to indirect  Advertising as the Engine  Advertising drives growth of media industries  Sales of good and services and importance of advertising has grown over the past 50  years  More white­collar workers, not self­sufficient  High level of employment, people with discretionary income  Makes it possible for new goods to enter market  Media Industry Strategies: Maximizing Profits  Profit = Revenues (want to increase this) – Expenses (want to decrease this)  Make as large of a profit as possible; high return on revenues and return on assets  Increase revenue streams  Appeal to more than one audience  Generate money from one audience in multiple ways   Ex. watched something on TV, DVD, now Netflix  Merger and acquisition activities  Minimize expenses  How? By paying low for below­the­line employees  Economies of scale  More you have, cheaper it will get  Variable costs  Economies of scope  Fixed costs


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.