Exam Review #2 ( chapter 6-10)
Exam Review #2 ( chapter 6-10) 201630
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chioma Anyanti on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 201630 at Baylor University taught by Dr. Harvill in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see BIO 1305 03 in Science at Baylor University.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Exam Review 2 Sunday, October 16, 5:37 PM 1. What procedure would you use to separate organelles? Cell fractionism- Put the cell membrane, in a blender then put it in a centrifuge, that spins test tubes and separates it by density. 2. Differences between prokaryotes and Eukaryotes? Nucleus and membrane bound organelles are found in only Eukaryotes. Prokaryotes have a single circular DNA and Eukaryotes have a single strand of DNA. They both have ribosomes. 3. What limits the size of a prokaryotic Cell? The surface to Volume ratio. They don’t have membrane bound organelles like eukaryotic cells which helps them have larger surface area. 4. Describe the structure of the nucleus? Double membrane that has nuclear pores that substances can leave specifically RNA. It is kept open by the nuclear Lamina which is made up by intermediate filaments. Site of Rrna (makes up ribosomes) production is in the nucleolus. The nucleoid is in prokaryotes and it houses the single cellular DNA. 5. Where are ribosomes found and what is their function? They are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotes. Free ribosomes are found in the cytosol and they make proteins that are going to stay inside the cell. The bound ribosomes are on the rough ER and they make proteins for export. 6. What is the endomembrane system? The nucleus ---> mRNA--> rough ER---> Golgi apparatus (moves from the cis phase to the trans phase---> vesicle ---> plasma membrane 7. Smooth ER and rough ER Functions? Detoxifies poisons synthesizes lipids and stores calcium (smooth ER) Rough ER synthesizes proteins and folds proteins. 8. Explain how vesicles move in the Golgi apparatus? from Cis to Trans, the vesicles move they detach from the membrane and move to attach to another vesicle. 9. How does a lysosome digest cellular material? They have acidic enzymes that are able to break down materials. Lysosomes fuse with whatever is being broken down by attaching to it and then dumping the enzymatic material on the attached system and eats away at it. Phagocytosis- food vacuole formed, cellular eating. Receptor mediated- receptors on the cell membrane Pinocytosis- cellular drinking (all examples of endocytosis) Exocytosis- dumping stuff food particles out of the cell Exocytosis- dumping stuff food particles out of the cell 10. When the cell makes a protein describe the order of organelles the protein will travel through? Bound proteins go from the nucleus to mRNA to free ribosome. 11. Explain the structure of the mitochondria? It has a double membrane, has an intermembrane space that is usually really acidic. (6.8 PH), has a mitochondrial matrix. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol and Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. ETC pumps proteins into the membrane space. In chemiosmosis the H+ falls down the concentration and ATP synthesis also occurs. 12. What evidence is there to support the endosymbiont theory? That originally they had two prokaryotes and one of the prokaryotes ate the other oxidative prokaryote creating the mitochondria. That is mitochondria and chloroplast have their own DNA and their own chloroplast and replicate by themselves. 13. What is the functional unit of the chloroplast? The Thylakoid and when it is stacked it is called a granum. 14. What's the primary function of each filament? Microfilaments (smallest) - they are made of actins and help with muscle contraction and pseudo. Intermediate filaments (middle)- they are made up of keratin - they anchor of the nucleus ,and make up the nuclear lamina. Microtubules (largest) - made up of tubulin- maintains of cell shape, cell motility chromosome and organelle movement. 15. What is the relationship between Gap junctions and Plasmadesmota? Plasmadesmota are in plants and gap junctions are in animals. Plasmadesmota help in movements between cells. Gap junctions are necessary for cell to cell communication. 16. Tight junctions prevent what molecules from crossing a barrier? small non polar things, hydrocarbons. 17. Which molecules can pass through the cell membrane and why? Small hydrophobic molecules because the long fatty acid tails are really hydrophobic.(hydrocarbons small) 18. Describe the difference in structure between integral and peripheral proteins? Integral proteins are mostly hydrophobic and peripheral proteins are mostly hydrophilic (polar) and peripheral proteins are hydrophilic ( can be hydrophobic an hydrophilic) 19. Where are carbohydrates found on the membrane and what is their function? Glycoproteins -they are useful for cell to cell recognition and a glycolipid is a carb attached to a lipid. 20. Passive transport is the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to low concentration true or false? False (high concentration concentration to low concentration true or false? False (high concentration to low) 21. Difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion? Simple diffusion goes directly across a membrane with no help. Facilitated diffusion uses a transport protein, but they are both going down a concentration gradient. Active transport (area of low concentration to high)---- 2 types----- primary transport (directly uses ATP)------secondary active transport (indirectly uses ATP ---active transport drives secondary active transport by using hydrogen) 22. What happens to the cells of a fresh water fish when you throw it in the ocean? Crenation. Hypertonic more solutes outside the cell than inside the cell (cremating) hypotonic there are less particles in the solution than inside the cell (lyse) Isotonic equal particles outside your cell and in, therefore there is no net water movement and everything keeps moving in and put. 23. What's the main purpose of ion pumps? Sets up a concentration gradient for secondary transport helps move ions across the gradient)- an electrogenic pump (transports proteins that generates a voltage across a membrane) sodium potassium pump is an electrogenic pump 24. What is a cotransport? When substances move in the same direction across a membrane, counter transport things moving in opposite directions 25. If the cell wants to transport large amounts of materials? It uses endocytosis all the 3 different types to break down the material. 26. Glycolysis is an example of? Catabolism 27. What is the equation for free energy? G = H- TS Spontaneous- energetically favorable, meaning it will occur without the input of energy. 28. Why is ATP commonly used in the body for reactions? Has high energy bonds 29. Which value changes with the enzyme? Which Value stays the same? 30. The primary mechanism of an enzyme is called an____active site 31. What about the active site provides catalytic activity? Proper orientation, establish its own micro environments, covalently bonds it can physically put strain on its bonds. 32. Why are temperature and PH important in an enzyme? Denaturing (large increase) small increase speed up metabolic rate. 33. What is the difference between a competitor and non-competitor? Both slows down the enzyme, but the competitor competes for the active site and a non-competitor binds somewhere else. Competitive inhibition is the only one that can be overcome and it’s the only type that can be overcome by increasing the number of substrates. 34. What is allosteric regulation (more than one subunit in the active site)? Positive binds with an active site and stabilizes it negative binds with the active site and decreases the affinity for it to bind to an active site, also allosteric regulation changes the enzymes shape and function by binding to a site other than the active site. Allosteric inhibitor binds somewhere else other than the active site to bind and shuts it down. (pg.158) 35. In cellular respiration what is oxidized and what is reduced. 36. What's the purpose of NAD+ ? Electron carrier for parts of cellular respiration 37. What goes into glycolysis and what comes out? Glucose, 2 ATP and 2 NAD+ goes in and 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH, 2 ATP out of glycolysis. In the ATP pay off phase you get 4 ATP. pay off phase you get 4 ATP. 38. What's the main regulatory enzyme in glycolysis? Phosphofructokinase (the human body stimulates this enzyme). 39. At the end of the energy pay off phase what 3 carbon sugar continues to the energy pay off phase? G3P 40. Write out the chemical reaction of the pyruvate oxidation? Pyruvate--> pyruvate kinase ( removes a carbon dioxide and adds a co enzyme A and it reduces an NAD+ to NADH creating acetyl CoA 41. What are the products of the citric acid cycle for one molecule of glucose? Acetyl CoA binds to oaxcelyate----> and out comes 2 ATP and 6 NADH and 2 FADH2 and 4 CO2 In 1 pyruvate you get out ---> 1 ATP. 3 NADH, 1 FADH2 , 2 CO2 42. What enters the citric acid cycle? Acetyl CoA and binds with oaxcelyate In glycolysis and the Krebs cycle NAD+ is the oxidizing agent 43. What's the purpose of the electron transport chain? Creates the hydrogen gradient that’s going to power chemiosmosis. 44. How is ATP ACTUALLY made in the mitochondria? Substrate level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation using ATP synthase 45. What's the purpose of fermentation? Rejuvenate electron carriers 46. What are the types of fermentation? -Alcohol fermentation: converts a pyruvate to ethanol -Lactic fermentation: pyruvate is reduced by NADH to form lactate 47. Where does the Calvin cycle occur? In the stroma of the chloroplast - Calvin cycle is a dark reaction 48. What happens to the water in photosynthesis? Split at photosystem II and gives off oxygen. 49. What's the purpose of the light and dark reactions? The dark reactions (occurs in the stroma) make the ATP that power the Calvin cycle makes G3P. The light reactions (occur in the thylakoid) create the ATP using the hydrogen gradient. 50. Summarize the Engelmann's experiment? Figured out which wavelengths of light photo bacteria was best at absorbing, they grew the most in the violet blue and red light and the least in the green light. The bacteria reflects the green light. 51. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carenoids are best at absorbing what? Chlorophyll a absorbs violet blue and red light best Chlorophyll b absorbs blue and orange best Carotenoids absorbs violet blue and green best. 52. What are the special chlorophyll cells at PS2 and PS1? P680 = PS2 P700= PS1 53. What goes into the Calvin cycle and out? In goes 9 ATP, 6 NADH, 3 CO2 and out is one G3P and one rubisco 54. How do c4 plants and CAM plants save CO2? CAM plants store Co2 in temporal separation at night as an organic acid (specific name), c4 is spatial separation in bundle sheets 55. Cyclic electron flow? Avoids both photosystem II and the donation of electrons to NADP+ 56. C3 plants are? are those which fix and reduce inorganic CO2 into organic compounds using only the C3 pathway in photosynthesis. 57. What kind of plant would a C4 and CAM be? C4 plants would be grass and CAM plants would be pineapples and cacti
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