PSYC 110 Mid-Term study guide
PSYC 110 Mid-Term study guide Psyc 110
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This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danelle Woodman on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 110 at Azusa Pacific University taught by Matthew Heller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in phsychology at Azusa Pacific University.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 1 Prologue: The Story of Psychology Psychology is: Behaviors include: Mental processes include: History of Psychology has Philosophical roots, includes free will determination, and nature/nurture. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING THEORY PIONEER/PSYCHOLOGIST DEFINITION Functionalism Behaviorism Structuralism PIONEERS Wilhelm Wundt Edward Titcher William James John Watson Mary Calkins Margret Washburn Sigmund Freud The Cognitive Revolution of the 1960s included A. Focusing on what makes us humans B. Helping people optimize their potential C. What structures hinder us and make us bad D. All of the above. Modern Influences and Directions of Psychology includes which of the following? Biology and Neuroscience Positive psychology (preventing illnesses and making people the best they can be) Evolutionary Psychology (behavior and brain) Biopsychosocial approach (looking at Culture psychology in all lens) Gender What are the major subfields of psychology PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 2 CHAPTER 1—Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Explain the main ideas/steps of the scientific methods below Observe Detect Hypothesis Conclude Major Approaches to scientific Data Collection Connect the approach to its definition Description Research There are independent variables, dependent variables, random assignments, experimental/control groups involved in this type of research. Includes case studies, naturalistic observation, Correlation Research interactive surveys. This type of research is not trying to change people, only trying to observe. Includes quantifying variables, the directions of Experimental Research causality and third variable. An example would be scatter plots. TYPE OF RESEARCH STRENGTHs WEAKNESSES Description Correlation Experimental How are statistics used in research, and how might they be misused? PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 3 TERM DEFINITION EXAMPLE NOTES TO REMEMBER Theory Replication Hypothesis Operational Definition CHAPTER 2—The Biology of the Mind What is the difference between somatic and Automatic? Somatic: Automatic: You accidently touched a hotplate while heating up tea. Using the picture below, what would represent the brain, nerves in the fingers, and the output reaction? PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 4 Fill in the blanks to complete the diagram Match the terms to its description Resting potential Sodium is pushed outside and potassium is “called” inside. Action Potential Excitatory; inhibitory; all or nothing response Implication Stopping action potential How do neuron cells function and communicate? What do the CNS and PNS consist of and what do the components of each system do? How is the brain studied? What are the major differences between these techniques? What are the various regions and lobes of the brain? What are their main task? How does split brain research teach us about the function of the brain? PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 5 CHAPTER 3—Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind What is consciousness? Consciousness is unique to humans: True False Dual Processing is the two track mind: True False Thin slicing is making judgements consciously in a split second: True False Most of our cognition is NOT subconscious: True False Match the following term to their definition Dual processing A condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it. Cognitive Neuroscience The interdisplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition. Blind sight The principle that info is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks. Spontaneous states include Physiologically Induced Psychologically Induced A. Food or Oxygen states include states include starvation A. Hypnosis A. Orgasm B. Daydreaming B. Hallucinations B. Sensory Deprivation C. Drowsiness C. Orgasm C. Hypnosis D. Dreaming D. Food or Oxygen D. Mediation starvation Consciousness does not include internal awareness: True False F Our consciousness in small: True False T The brain operates on a conscious and subconscious level: True False T N-REM helps us learn: True False F PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 6 Define the following: TERM DEFINITION Parallel Processing Selective Attention Inattentional Blindness Change Blindness At what time (hours) is each sleep stage at? NREM-1 NREM-3 REM Why do we sleep? Give 5 reasons and why they are important. Why We Sleep Significance PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 7 Define the following: Insomnia Narcolepsy Sleep Apnea Night Terrors Sleepwalking Sleep talking Dream Manifest Content Latent content Daydream REM Dreams REM rebound What are the major families of drugs and how do they affect the body? Give examples of each. Explain the stages of sleep. PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 8 What is hypnosis and how does it work? DREAM THEORIES—Complete the chart THEORY EXPLANATION CRITICAL CONSIDERATIONS Freud’s Wish-fulfillment Information-processing This does not explain why we experience meaningful dreams REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories, which our sleeping brain weaves into stories Cognitive Development Dream content reflects dreamers’ level of cognitive development- their knowledge and understanding. Dreams stimulate out lives, including worst-case scenarios. Match the term to its definition Substance use disorder Psychedelic (“mind-manifesting”) drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in Psychoactive Drug the absence of sensory input The diminishing effect with regular use of the same Tolerance dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug’s effect. Addiction Continued substance craving and use despite Depressants significant life disruption and/or physical risk. Hallucinogens A chemical substance that alters perception and moods Stimulants Drugs (e.g alchohol) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions. Excites neural activity and speeds up body functions. PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 9 Adopted individuals who have biological parents with a history with an alcohol addiction use disorder is not likely to be at risk to have an addiction: True False If a fraternal twin has an alcohol use disorder or Marijuana addiction, the other is at risk: True False Boys at age 6 who are impulsive and fearless are less likely to smoke drink, and/or use drugs: True False Those with drug abusing parents are at risk for drug abuse, indicating a genetic influence: True False Which of the following are Whish three groups are experimental Brain-Imaging Techniques include: psychological and social/culture interventions? influence of drug use and addiction? A. Functional magnetic A. Brian surgeries, animal resonance imaging (FMRI A. Peer influence surgeries, and Electrical B. Computerized axiel B. Parental use recoding (EEG) tomography (CAT) scan C. Feeling that life is B. Lobotomies, brain surgeries, C. Electrical recoding (EEG) meaningless and and electrical recoding (EEG) D. Position emission directionless C. Functional Magnetic imaging, tomography (PET) D. A and C only Electrical recoding (EEG), E. A, B, and D only E. A only and Lobotomies D. None of the above PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 10 CHAPTER 4—Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity Identical twins are: A. Monozygotic twins<<< B. Developed from two separate fertilized eggs C. The complete instructions for making an organism D. Developed form a single fertilized egg the stays as one, creating two genetically different organisms Complete this sentence: Genes are… A. Our instructions to grow B. Our codes for life C. The non-genetic influence in our lives D. None of the above Dominate genes express itself all the time: True False T Recessive genes are expressed sometimes: True False F Match the stage in life (Gene) to the Environment Interaction Prenatal Social contact, environmental complexity Postnatal Neglect, abuse variations in care Juvenile Drugs, toxins, nutrition, stress Adult Cognitive challenges, exercise, nutrition PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 11 What are the 5 Critical Assumptions in Evolutionary Psychology? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the Nature/Nurture issue? How do psychologist study Nature and Nurture influences? How does evolutionary psychology attempt to explain complex human behavior? What are some of the major environmental influences and how might they help to explain behavior? What is meant by gender, and how do males and females compare? Males produce more testosterone: True False T We have 45 chromosomes total Females have smaller pelvises: True False F True False F Females are more relationally aggressive: True False T Males are note physically aggressive: True False F 45 of our chromosome are unisex. Genetically, males and females have differing sex True False T chromosomes: True False T Physiologically, males and females have differing concentrations of sex hormones, which trigger their anatomical difference: True False T Biology does dictate gender: True False F PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 12 Complete the chart CONCEPT INDIVIDUALISM COLLECTIVISM Self Life Task What Matters Coping Method Morality Relationships Attributing Behavior PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 1 CHAPTER 5—Developing Through the Lifespan KOHLBERG ERIKSON PIAGET BIRTH Preconventional Morality Basic Trust Sensorimotor 3 Automy Initiative 6 Conventional Morality Competence Preoperational Identity Intimacy Concrete operational 14 Generativity Post-conventional morality Integrity Formal operational for some DEATH Explain Nature and nurture Explain continuity and stages Explain Stability and change Brian development begins in the womb, continuing in infancy and onward: True False In motor development, an infant only exercises its maturing muscles and Nervous system through their skill of sitting: True False Infantile amnesia occurs after our 5 birthday, usually when we can remember our memories: True False Babies sleep a lot because their brains are rapidly developing: True False PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 2 Maturation is the biological growth process that enables orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience: True False Complete the chart on Piaget’s Stages of Development AGE RANGE DESCRIPTION DEVELOPMENTAL PHENOMENOM Birth--2YRS 2—6 or 7yrs 7—11yrs 12yrs—Adulthood What is attachment? How is Stranger anxiety related? Explain the difference between secure attachment and insecure attachment Critical period One person who provides another with a secure base, physically, from which to explore and be a safe haven Permissive Parent when distressed The parent is coercive and they impose rules and Impriintg expect obedience. The process by which certain animals form strong Familiarity attachments during early life. An optimal period early in life of an organism when Body contact exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development. Authoritative Parent The parents are confrontative and are both demanding and responsive. Basic trust Formed in early life to those who provide safety and nutrition and love. Authoritarian Parent The parents are unrestrianing and they make few demands and have few punishments. PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 3 Mere exposure to people and things foster fondness and is a safety signal which breeds content. Complete the chart with the characteristics of Adolescence in each category PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT ADOLSCENE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT EMERGING DEVELOPMENT PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 4 Complete the chart with characteristics from Adulthood in each category PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT ADULTHOOD SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT What are some attitudes toward the elderly, and how much of them are true? Explain Moral Development PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 5 Explain Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory Chapter 6— Sensation and Perception TYPE OF PROCESSING DESCRIPTION PART OF EYE USES Retinal Processing Future Detection Parallel Processing PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 6 Depth perception Visual cliff Grouping Motion Perception Binocular cues Perceptual constancy Monocular cues Perceptual adaption Wavelength Difference threshold Webber’s law Place theory Frequency theory Bottom-up processing Top-down processing Sensation PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 7 Perception Draw an example to each and match the definition Proximity Continuity Closure A. We connect object together in B. We perceive smooth, c. We perceive everything moving a line or order continuous patterns in one direction rather than random object together. Connectedness Closure Common Fate D. We fill in gaps to create a E. We see pictures in patterns F. We group nearby figures complete, whole object rather rather together than discontinuous ones Match the senses to their respective source or receptors. Vision Chemical molecules in the mouth Hearing Movement of the fluid in the inner ear help with balance Touch Cochlear hair cells in the inner ear Smell Millions of receptors at the top of the nasal cavity Body position Kinesthsia Body movement Pressure, warmth, cold on the skin Monocular Cue Binocular Cue How does each picture relate to its cue? PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 8 Name the parts of the ear 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. What is Young-Helmholtz theory of color? Explain the principles of Gestalt Psychology. PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 9 Chapter 7—Learning Learning is: Cognitive learning involves acquiring mental information that guides our behaviors: True False By learning we are able to adapt to our environment: True False Associative learning includes learning that certain events in which occur together: True False Through learning we are able to repeat acts that bring wanted results (operant learning): True False Define Classical conditioning: Fill in the blanks with its respective stimulus or response Match the terms to its definition Operant Conditioning: Negative reinforcement Positive reinforcement Primary reinforce PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 10 Conditioned reinforce A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforce (secondary reinforce An innately reinforcing stimulus that satisfies a Increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. biological need. Increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. What type of reinforcement is used? What type of reinforcement is used? PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 11 c What type of punishment is used? Complete the chart with the terms definitions Fixed-Ratio Variable-Ratio Fixed-Interval Ratio Variable-Interval Ratio CHAPTER 8—Memory What are some characteristics of info processing? In encoding, what is involved? How do we encode memories? PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 12 What is the difference between massed practiced and distributed practice? What is the misconception about how the brain retrieves memories? How are memories really retrieved? What are the errors in memory construction? Explain repression and reconsolidation Parallel processing The processing of information into the memory system The process of retaining encoded information over time Storage The process of getting information out of memory storage Sensory memory The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously Short-term memory The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system Retrieval Activated memory that holds of a few items briefly How I retention measured? Sensory memory is brief: True False Unless rehearsed, verbal information may be quickly forgotten: True False We have a harder time recalling information that is meaningful to ourselves: True False We pay attention to unimportant things, so it is easier to piece together our memories: True False PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 13 Encoding failure happens because A. Encoding failure, storage decay, retrieval failure, and meaningful material B. Encoding failure, storage decay, and proactive approach C. Storage decay D. Encoding failure, storage decay, retrieval failure and interference In order to improve memory, which of the following will help? A. Sleeping more and activating retrieval cues B. Remembering C. Discerning true and false memories D. Calling upon memory consolidation The hippocampus is responsible for what task? A. Processing implicit memories B. Motor skills and cognitive skills C. Processing memories for storage D. Long term potentiation Memory involves four retrieval cues. What are they? A. Priming, state dependent memory, context-dependent memory, and serial position effect B. Priming, state dependent memory, misinformation and imagination effect and interference C. Priming, state dependent memory, Mnemonic devices, and source amnesia D. None of the above Automatic and Effortful are the two memory systems in memory processing: True False The Cerebellum stores implicit memories: True False Long-term potention (LTP) is an increase in a cell’s firing potential after a brief, rapid stimulation: True False Complete the chart with the roles of the brain in memory Frontal lobe Basal ganglia Hippocampus Cerebellum Amygdala PSYC 110 STUDY GUIDE PG 14
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