Sociology Study Guide: Exam 3
Sociology Study Guide: Exam 3 Socy 1000
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Notetaker on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Socy 1000 at Auburn University taught by Carl Backman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 120 views.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Types of Societies Typology of societies – (based on societies and their primary mode of subsistence) o Primary hunting and gathering – no plant cultivation horticultural – cultivation but no plow agrarian – cultivation with plow industrial – use of inanimate energy o Secondary: Fishing Herding Maritime Hybrid (combination of types) Hunting consequences o Add protein/energy rich food to diet o Encourages/rewards teamwork o Expands productivity of an area Productivity = yield per unit of land (ex. Calories/acre) o Encourages gender division of labor men stronger 3 Characteristics of Hunter-Gatherer Societies o nomadic eventually you eat all of the edibles in a place and kill or drive off all the game move discourages having stuff to drag around encourages joint decision making o limited (small) size only so much food per acre more people = higher need for food o limited knowledge of alternatives of science extraordinary knowledge of surroundings Hunter-Gatherer Demography o Close balance overall between births and deaths Slow growth rates o Equilibrium perhaps due to High death rates from disease and accidents Diet fertility relationship Lousy diet low fertility Nursing reduces fertility Maternal mobility increases risk of miscarriage Late marriage, post-partum sex taboos Widespread infanticide and abortion Hunter-Gatherer Families o Kinship Extended families Bilateral descent Fictive kin Clans Maximizes support Hunter-Gatherer Religion o Typically, animistic Attribution of a soul to plants, inanimate objects, and natural phenomena Hunter-Gatherer Polity o Some groups will have group heads and shaman o Everyone has equal access to weaponry Later developments of military specialists create serious gaps in power of groups o Ex. Farmers vs. mounted soldiers Hunter-Gatherer Economy o No advantage to surplus Problems with storage and transport o Famously do not work too hard No benefit to getting more than needed Hunter-Gatherer Demise o Hunter-gatherers didn’t ‘go away’ but were eclipsed o Plant domestication leads to greater productivity for proto- horticulturalists o Land under cultivation takes land from HG activity o HG replacement by horticulturalists = not abrupt o Still find HG’s in difficult places for planting Deserts, jungles Now live in some form of hybrid arrangement o Other factors Climate change (globalization) (global warming) Affects game animal ranges Affects plant availability Population growth Growth rate increasing Horticultural Societies o Horticulturalists cultivate plants Clear land = plant crops o Requires domestication of plants o Requires knowledge of how to process the plant Ex. Remove heads from stalk (wheat) etc. o Like to have surplus Average horticulturalists can produce more food than needed for one person Surplus allows some people to focus on something other than food Tends to generate enough surplus for full-time occupational specialization Creates a division of labor o Can increase/strengthen social integration Folks not producing food/surplus must find a way to convince producers to share their surplus Horticulture: o When and Where Horticulture societies appear about 10,000 years ago with domestication of wheat, barley, lentils, beans and maize o Technology Land is cleared by burning Ash from burn fertilizes Land fairly quickly loses productivity Nutrients used up Weeds pop up o Occasionally need to relocate Advanced horticulture adds metallurgy to the technology Copper alloys like bronze and brass Metal makes and holds better edges Valuable for tools and weapons Weapons improved More warfare o Demography Larger societies than HG Permanent settlements Some migration eventually inheritable due to loss of fertility Multiple communities in one society o Social Characteristics Accumulation of property by individuals Gender based division of labor Trade Warfare Inequality Some others may have more stuff and more power than others Surplus may be appropriated Agrarian Societies o Horticultural and agrarian societies both prepare soil, plant seeds, tend plants and harvest o ‘soil’ worked by horts is a couple of inches deep, fertilized by ashes of burned plants quickly loses fertility, left fallow for years o plow allows for more use of soil soil needs less fallow time o draft animals are key to plowing stronger than humans requires domestication more than meet many inventions to help with plowing harness wheel and axle o more surplus with plow allows for further elaboration of the division of labor use of iron allows distinguishes between simple and advanced o slavery o estate of systems 2 large categories of people landowners and everyone else o Colonialism Maintenance of political, social, economic and cultural dominance over people by a foreign power Most important examples for today are European colonies over much of the world Social Stratification Structured inequality of entire categories of people who have different access to social rewards as a result of their category’s position in a social hierarchy Economic poverty – o Success in the market Social/prestige – o ‘social honor’, respect political/power – o power stratification is about how things are distributed conflict theory is all about people trying to get things that benefit them conflict approach doesn’t say much about stratification social rewards tend to be distributed to individuals on the basis of the social categories assigned to the individual o Plumbers Law Socially undesirable things are found disproportionately among people at the bottom of the social ladder o Basic Conflict Social life is a constant battle between individuals and groups o Rational Choice Proposition Within the limits of their information and available choices, guided by their preferences and tastes, humans will tend to maximize o Bounded Rationality Principle People do not have perfect information to use in making decisions One form of power = ability to control information Reflects uncertainty Exists about what is going on now and consequences of particular actions o Power Principle Actors with power will tend to use it to benefit themselves By trying to hold onto or expand their power May also benefit other o Mosca “proof” of inevitability of stratification Gaetano Mosca (1858-1941) offered a “proof” that all societies must be stratified Societies require a hierarchy of authority Someone must be able to force at least some people not to be free ridens Free rider someone who obtains benefits without making contributions People higher in authority hierarchy have more power People with power will use it to benefit themselves personally Get more stuff than they would without power o Exploration Principle Actors often obtain outcomes that benefit themselves by engaging in exchanges that are disadvantageous to others o Incorporation Principle Actors become accustomed to advantages Social advantages tend to quickly become incorporated into a person/group’s way of life Including norms and internalized views of how the world ought to operate o Fair and Square Principle Actors don’t give up advantages freely Sometimes actors aren’t aware of advantages until they’re threatened o Creaming Principle Actors with greatest appropriate resources are best able to take advantage of opportunity structure Money is usually a valuable resource o Opportunity Hoarding One way groups maximize their interests is by limiting opportunities so that only (or mainly) group members can take advantage of them o Catch 22 Principle “they” can do anything to you that you can’t keep them from doing if you want to leave the war, obviously you are sane o only when you want to stay in misery are you insane o Working the System Principle Actors learn how to take advantage of systems that enmesh them This is a version of uncertainty reduction People are often resistant to give up even a lousy system once they have it figured out Inequality some people have more than others Money is important in studies of inequality o Income vs. wealth Income – refers to money received, during a period of time o Pre-tax income Wealth – refers to economically valuable possessions o Net worth o House is most important source of wealth Marx and Weber on Stratification o [Karl Marx] (1818-1883) considered one of the founders or most important thinkers in sociology, political science, economies, philosophy and history gives first modern treatment of class systems born in west Prussia received a “classical education” before going to college in Bonn, Berlin and Jena fondness especially for Greek writers was lifelong under influence of father and neighbor (Engels) became familiar with enlightenment o idea of progress: things are just going to get better got into deceased philosopher George Heger received PhD in philosophy politically unemployable as a professor, became journalist young Hegelians married childhood sweetheart and moved to Paris to study political economy wrote with various radicals in Paris The Enlightenment o Era in European intellectual history from Glorious Revolution in England (1688) to French Revolution (1789) Emphasis was on powers of human reason Not just in science but ethics, aesthetics and social policy Great belief in the idea of progress Progress was here to stay The Enlightenment and French Revolution o French Revolution “should” have been the successful end of 100 years of enlightenment Intellectuals marked uneasy end to optimism of the Enlightenment o Law of Progress every day, in every way, things are getting better because we’re smarter o Ambivalence toward napoleon’s effort to be “enlightened despot” Communist Manifesto o (1848) o most influential pamphlets of all time by Marx and Engels o explains emergence of capitalism o predicts future of capitalism o owner controlled system will be replaced by a worker controlled system o still widely read o 10 demands no private ownership of land heavy progressive income tax no rights of inheritance free public education abolition of child factory labor “equal liability of all to labor” various roles for the state in manufacturing, banking, communication, transport and planning Marx on Stratification o “all history is the history of class conflict” classes are defined in terms of relationships with the means of production ruling class is class that controls means of production economic system is foundation of the society superstructure is rest of society’s institutions superstructure supports the position of the ruling class when ruling class changes, the superstructure changes o emerges from conflict Dialectical Change o Marx borrowed Hegel’s model of dialectical change There is an established way of doing things (thesis) Existence of thesis generates some opposition (antithesis) Over time conflict between thesis and antithesis yields new way of doing things (synthesis) synthesis becomes new thesis process repeats called dialectic Marx on Capitalism o Every historical epoch has its own ruling class and set of other classes Own epoch = capitalism o Most important classes in capitalism are the bourgeoisie (capitalists, owners of factories, ruling class and proletariat factory workers) o Other classes: petit bourgeoisie (self-employed professionals, artisans, shopkeepers) would be absorbed into 2 classes o When proletariat overcomes false consciousness it will overthrow the bourgeoisie Private property will be abolished No bourgeoisie False consciousness- misunderstanding by a class of its true interests o Marx was an optimist Better than feudalism? Marxist Utopia o Communist utopia o Rule for distributing effort and “goodies” will be from each according to his abilities and needs o Class consciousness understanding your class’s true interests Are objective and therefore knowable to social scientists o False consciousness not understanding your class’s true interests o Class in itself a class that has not recognized its real interests o Class for itself a class that knows it’s real interests o revolution will come when consciousness change, but not before Weber’s Spheres of Stratification o Economic/property- one’s life chances are based on the market o Social/prestige – based on “social honor” o Political/power – “the ability to influence the behavior of others, even in the absence of their consent” Reflected in state gov’t Weber on Class o “class” for Weber = a collection of people who are affected in the same way by the market/economy many classes possible without shifting boundaries more classes than Marx one persistent boundary: between those who sell labor and those who buy labor o those who sell want high wages o those who buy wants low wages Weber on Status o Stratification based on social honor, respect, prestige, lifestyle o Gradations of honor/respect/prestige more important in Europe than US Weber on Power o Definition of power The ability to influence the behavior of others, even in the absence of their consent o Definition of state an entity which successfully claims a monopoly on the legitimate use of lethal violence o disagrees with Marx on which of property, prestige or power is most important
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