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AU / Psychology / PSYC 2010 / What is the difference between humans and computers?

What is the difference between humans and computers?

What is the difference between humans and computers?


School: Auburn University
Department: Psychology
Professor: Jennifer daniels
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Unit 2 Study Guide
Description: This study guide has lecture notes (plus some) and possible essay answers for the test! Hope this helps.
Uploaded: 10/17/2016
28 Pages 77 Views 7 Unlocks

Study Guide Unit 2 Test 

What is the difference between humans and computers?

This study guide is a tool to help you on this test. This is NOT an answer key and doesn’t guarantee that things will or won’t be on the test on this study guide, but it will include everything I believe will be on the test. I have taken extensive class notes and notes from the book. According to the syllabus the test will be to 40 multiple choice questions (worth two points each) and two essay questions (worth 10 points each). This is what I will be studying for the test and I hope it helps you out! Email me at cky0002@auburn.edu if you have any questions. If you want vocabulary from this unit check out my studysoup page for Vocabulary Test #2! 


Development of Cognitive Psychology

-Humans vs Computers

What is the ability to learn from the experience?


Input -> Processing -> Output

-Human mind able to develop new learning goals, rules, relationships, concepts and patterns

-Human mind is aware of itself

-Human mind has rich consciousness

-Artificial Intelligence

-Up to 1950’s, behaviorism and psychoanalytic primary schools of thought -Late 1950’s, into hey day in 1980’s, cognitive psychology rising If you want to learn more check out Is the sociological imagination just individual minds added together?

-Cognitive psychology e​ xplains observable behavior by investigating the mental processes and structures that we cannot directly observeWe also discuss several other topics like Autosomal dominant means what?


-The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations

Analytical intelligence means what?

-In research studies, intelligence is whatever the intelligence test measures. This tends to be “school smarts”

General Intelligence

-The idea that general intelligence exists comes from the work of Charles Spearman (1863-1946) who helped develop the factor analysis approach in statistics

(e.x. Vocabulary exams- paragraph comprehension exams- verbal intelligence) Types of Intelligence? Don't forget about the age old question of How do you identify entrepreneurial opportunities?

-Is there more than one type?

-Gardner’s Eight Frames of Mind

-Verbal- Think in words and use language to express meaning


-Spatial- Think three dimensionally

-Bodily- Kinesthetic- manipulate object and could be physically


-Musical- Sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm and tone

-Interpersonal- Understand and interact effectively with others

-Intrapersonal- Understanding oneself

-Naturalist- Observe patterns in nature and understand natural If you want to learn more check out What is health and nutrition like in early childhood?
We also discuss several other topics like How do you identify corynebacterium diphtheriae?

and human made system

Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory

-Analytical Intelligence- Analyze, judge, evaluate, compare and contrast -Creative Intelligence- Create, design, invent, originate, and imagine If you want to learn more check out What does an archeologist study?

-Practical Intelligence- Use, apply, implement and put ideas into practice, “Street smarts”

Intelligence and Creativity

-Creativity is the ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable. It correlates somewhat with intelligence

-Expertise; A well developed knowledge base

-Imaginative Thinking; The ability to see things in novel ways

-A venturesome Personality; A personality that seeks new experiences

rather than following a pack

-Intrinsic; A motivation to be creative from within

-Creative Environment; Creative and support environment allows

creativity to bloom

-Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive, understand, and use emotions -The test of emotional intelligence measures overall emotional intelligence and its four components

1) Perceive emotions

2) Understand emotions

3) managing emotions

4) Using emotion

Assessing intelligence

-Psychologists define intelligence testing as a method for assessing an

individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with others using numerical scores

Alfred Binet

-Alfred Binet and his colleague Theodore Simon developed intelligence questions that would predict children’s future

Lewis Terman

-In the US, Lexis Terman adapted Binet’s test for American school children and named the tet the Stanford Binet Test (1916). The following is the formula of IC, introduced by William Stern

David Wechsler

-Wechsler developed the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) (1939) and later the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) (1955), an intelligence test for school aged children and then the (WIPSI) for preschool aged children

For a psychological test to be acceptable it must fulfill the following three criteria -Standardization; A ​ test involved administering the test to a representative sample of future test takers in order to establish a basis for meaningful


-Normal Curve; ​Standardized tests establish a normal distribution of

scores on a tested population in a bell shaped pattern called the normal


-Extremes of intelligence; T​ wo extremes: The intellectually disabled

(IQ70) and high intelligence (IQ135). These two groups are significantly


-Reliability; ​A test is reliable when it yields consistent results

-Split half reliability;​ Dividing the test into two equal halves and

assessing how consistent the scores are

-Test-Retest Reliability;​ Using the same test on two occasions to

measure consistency

-Inter Rater Reliability;​ This is a type of reliability assessment in 

which the same assessment is completed by the same rater on 

two or more occasions 

-Validity; ​Reliability of a test does not ensure validity. Validity of a test refers to what the test is supposed to measure or predict

-Content Validity; ​A measure of represents all aspects of a given


-Predictive Validity

-Discriminant Validity; ​Obtained when we measure two things

that are thought to be dissimilar and our measures can

discriminate between them

-Flynn Effect;​ In the past 60 years, intelligence scores have risen steadily by an average of 27 points. This phenomenon is known as the Flynn effect

-Biases in Intelligence Testing


-Socio-economic status


-Education of your parents

-Urban vs Rural

-Primary Language

Aging and Intelligence

-Phase 1; Cross Sectional Evidence

-Intelligence declined as age increases

-Mental decline part of aging process

-Phase 2; Longitudinal Evidence

-Followed same cohort

-Until late in life, intelligence is stable

-Phase 3; Steeper intelligence decline after 85

-Intelligence not a single trait

-Older people have slower neural processing

-Crystallized Intelligence; Accu ​ mulated knowledge as reflected in vocabulary and analogies tests

-Fluid Intelligence;​ Ability to reason speedly and abstractly


-By age 4, intelligence tests predict scores as adolescents and adults

-Scores at 11, predict living independently at 77, less likely to have Alzheimer’s -More intelligent children and adults live longer

Extremes of Intelligence

-Low scores and poor adaptive functioning= Intellectual Disability

-Low IQ score = 70 or below

-Poor adaptive scale

High Extreme

-IQ= 130 and above

-Healthy, well adjusted, academically successful

-Some critics don’t want to have “gifted” programs because of self fulfilling prophecy of others

-Need to have proper developmental placement


-Do genetics influence intelligence?

-Heritability- 50-80%

-Twin studies

-Identical twins brains are virtually the same in areas associated with

verbal and spatial intelligence

-Intelligence is polygenetic

-Genetic influence, not environment become more apparent and gain life experiences

Genetic influences

-Studies of twins, family members, and adopted children together support the idea that there is a significant genetic contribution to intelligence

Adoption Studies

-Adopted children show a marginal correlation in verbal ability to their

adopted parents


-Impoverished Environments


-Sensory deprivation

-Social isolation

-Early Neglect

-Can depress cognitive development

-Increased schooling correlates with higher


What is learning?

-​A relatively permanent change in behavior that occur through experience -Behaviorism-​ theory of learning that focuses only on observable behaviors, not mental activity

-Associative Learning- a​ n association is made between two events

-Conditioning-​ a processing of learning associations

How do we learn?

-We learn by association. Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence -2,000 years ago, Aristotle suggested this law of association. Then 200 years ago Locke and Hume reiterated this law

Associative Learning;

-Learning to associate one stimulus with another

-Learning to associate a response with a consequence

*Famous psychologist Watson

After observing children in the field, Watson 

hypothesized that the fearful response of 

children to loud noises is an innate 

unconditioned response. He wanted to test 

the notion that by following the principles of 

the procedure now known as "classical 

conditioning", he could use this 

unconditioned response to condition a child

to fear a distinctive stimulus that normally would not be feared by a child 

Classical Conditioning

How was it first operationalized….?

-Pavlov's dogs;

<During the 1890s Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov was looking 

at salivation in dogs in response to being fed, when he noticed 

that his dogs would begin to salivate whenever he entered the 

room, even when he was not bringing them food.> 

-Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)-​ A stimulus that unconditionally, 

naturally and automatically, triggers a response without prior learning 

-Unconditioned Response (UCR)- U​ nlearned, naturally occurring 

response to the USC 

-Conditioned Stimulus (CS)-​ An originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an US, comes to trigger a conditioned response 

-Conditioned Response (CR)-​ The learned response to a previously 

neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)

-Acquisition-​ ​The initial learning of the stimulus- response link. Neutral 

stimulus should come about .5 seconds before the USC 

-Salience-​ Does the CS “stand out”? (e.x. Soft Russian Ballad vs Bell) 

-Intensity-​ ​Usually, the more intense a UCS, the more readily 

conditioning takes place 

-Frequency- T​ he more often the conditioned stimulus and the 

unconditioned stimulus are paired together the more likely conditioning is to take place 

-The time between the UCS and CS pairing is important 

-Contiguity-​ Connectedness in time and space, needs to occur close 


-Contingency-​ Predictability of the occurrence of one event in the 

presence of another 

-Generalization-​ A new stimulus that is similar to the original CS is likely to elicit a response that is similar to the CR 

-Discrimination- T​ he process of learning to respond to a certain stimuli 

and not to others 

-Extinction-​ The weakening of the CR in the absence of the UCS 

-Spontaneous Recovery- A ​ CR can recur after a time delay without 

further conditioning 

-Baby Albert (John Watson experiment); 

<The Little Albert Experiment demonstrated that classical 

conditioning—the association of a particular stimulus or 

behavior with an unrelated stimulus or behavior—works in 

human beings. In the experiment, psychologist John 

Watson was able to condition a previously unafraid baby to 

become afraid of a rat. Classical conditioning plays a 

central role in the development of fears and associations.> 

Operant Conditioning 

-Type of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior 

change the probability of the behavior’s occurrence 

-Voluntary behavior 

-Edward Thorndike; Cats in puzzle boxes

-Law of Effect-​ Over time, behaviors that are rewarded are strengthened. Behaviors that have negative consequences are weakened 

-Acquisition-​ ​Occurs because a certain behavior was reinforced 

-Extinction-​ ​Person will no longer perform behavior if not reinforced 

-Generalization-​ Behavior can generalize if wider range of behaviors are reinforced 

-B.F. Skinner; Father of behaviorism 

-Skinner Box 

-Principles of Reinforcement- T​ he process by which a stimulus or an event strengthens or increases the probability of a behavior or an event that it follows (Positive and Negative) 

-Primary Reinforcer-​ An innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink -Conditioned Reinforcer-​ A learned reinforcer that gets its reinforcing power through association with the primary reinforcer

-Extinction-​ ​The weakening of the CR in the absence of the USC 

-Spontaneous Recovery-​ A CR can recur after a time delay without 

further conditioning 

*Little Albert- Watson 

-Conditioned Reinforcer-​ ​A learned reinforcer that gets its reinforcing power through association with the primary reinforcer 

Ratio Schedules; 

-Fixed Ratio Schedule-​ ​Reinforces a response only after a 

specified number of responses 

-Variable Ratio Schedule-​ ​Reinforces a response after an 

unpredictable number of responses 

(e.x. Behaviors like gambling or fishing) 

-Fixed Interval Schedule- R​ einforces a response only after a 

specified time has elapsed (e.x. Prepare for an exam only when 

the exam is close by) 

-Variable Interval Schedule-​ Reinforces a response at 

unpredictable time intervals which produces slow, steady 

responses (e.x. Pop quiz) 

*Schedules of Reinforcement (Example) 

-Fixed Ratio Schedule- R​ ewarded every 10th time 

-Variable Ratio Schedule-​ Rewarded on average every 10th time 

-Fixed Interval Schedule-​ Rewarded every 10 minutes 

-Variable Interval Schedule-​ Reward on average every 10 minutes 

*Things to remember about Interval/Ratio schedule 

-Interval = Time (minutes/hours/days) 

-Ratio= Not a specific time (ex:minutes) but a different kind of time measurement -Fixed = On an exact time 

-Variable = On an apx/random schedule

-Punishment-​ An aversive event that decreases the likelihood a behavior will occur -Positive Punishment 

-Negative Punishment 

Advantages and Disadvantages of using punishment… 

-Can enforce better or worse behaviors 

-Intrinsic Motivation- ​The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake -Extrinsic Motivation-​ ​The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment 

-Adverse Conditioning- ​Avoiding a particular behavior or setting as a consequence of punishment in association with the given behavior or setting

-Premack Principle-​ A more desirable activity serves as a reinforcement for a less desirable one 

-Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive (e.x. Can teach a mouse to press a lever for food, but can’t teach a mouse to clap its hands/paws) 

What is the main differences between classical and operant conditioning? 

operant conditioning​ is based on voluntary behavior 

classical conditioning​ often involves involuntary reflexive behavior 

What are the similarities between Classical and Operant conditioning? 

They both share the basic principles of acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, and stimulus generalization are common to both types of learning 

Cognitive Processing and Operant Conditioning 

-In fixed interval schedule, an animal expects that repeating the response would soon produce a reward 

-Rats in mazes develop a cognitive map (mental representation) even with no rewards by demonstrating latent learning ( learning became apparent only when there was some incentive to demonstrate) 

Learning by Observation 

-Observational Learning 

-Modeling; Bandura -> Bobo doll study 

<”Monkey see, monkey do”, children would act towards a blow up doll 

depending on how they saw an adult treat the blow up doll. Violence was a recurring pattern in children that were exposed to seeing adults treat the bobo doll with violence> 

-Infants imitate as young as 8 months 

Prosocial effects 

-Most effective when actions and words are consistent

Antisocial effects 

-Movies, TV, Video Games, Aggression in home, etc


Prenatal Development


-1 egg and 1 sperm join to form one cell

-Zygote-​ A fertilized egg with 100 cells that become increasingly diverse. At about 14 days the zygote turns into an embryo

-At 9 weeks, an ​embryo​ ​turns into a fetus​ ​Teratogens are chemicals or viruses that can enter to placenta and harm the developing fetus

-At birth, most brain cells are present. After birth the neural networks multiply resulting in increased physical and mental abilities

-Newborns are born with different reflexes and different types of cries

-The development of the brain unfolds based on genetic instructions, causing various bodily and mental functions to occur in sequence- called maturation

Physical Development

-Sitting- 6 months

-Crawling- 8/9 months

-Beginning to walk- 12 months

-Walking Independently- 15 months

Cognitive Development

-Cognitive development is influenced by our biological make up and our environment, as well as the errors we make

-Schemas-​ ​“mental molds” that help make sense of our experiences

-Assimilation involved incorporating new experiences into our current


-Accommodation is the process of adjusting a schema and modifying it

Piaget’s Stage of Development

-Sensorimotor Stage

-In this stage, babies take in the world by looking, hearing, touching,

mouthing and grasping. Children younger than 6 months of age do not

grasp object permanence

Sensorimotor Criticism

-Piaget believed children in the sensorimotor stage could

not think- they do not have any abstract concepts or ideas

-Recent research shows that children in this stage can

think and count

Preoperational Stage

-The second stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development. This stage begins around age two as children start to talks and last until approximately age seven. During this stage, children begin to engage in symbolic play and learn to manipulate symbols.

Preoperational stage Criticism

-Children as young as 3 have a harder time looking at things not through their own perspective

-Egocentrism-​ Can’t perceive things from another’s point of view

Concrete Operational Stage

-Given concrete materials, 6 to 7 year old grasp conservation problems and mentally pour liquids back and forth into glasses of different shapes conserving their quantities

Formal Operational Stage

-At around 12 years old, our reasoning ability expands from concrete thinking to abstract thinking. We can now use symbols and imagined realities to

systematically reason

Piaget’s Stage of Cognitive Development

-Birth- 2 years- Sensorimotor- Experiencing the world through senses and actions

-Object Permanence

-Stranger Anxiety

-2 years- 6/7 years- Preoperational- Representing things with words and images; using intuitive rather than logical reasoning

-Pretend Play


-7/11 years- Concrete Operational- Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations


-Mathematical Transformations

-12- Adulthood- Formal Operational- Abstract reasoning

-Abstract logic

-Abstract reasoning

-Potential for moral reasoning

What we know now that Piaget didn’t?

-Development is a continuous process

-Children express theory mental abilities and operations at an earlier age -Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition

Lev Vygotsky

-By age 7, increasingly use words to think and learn

-Rely on inner speech

-Emphasized how the child’s mind grows through interaction with the social environment

-Scaffolding- Teaching new words right above what the child already knows, helps the child move to higher levels


-Harlow’s Monkeys

<"In Harlow's initial experiments infant monkeys were separated from 

their mothers at six to twelve hours after birth and were raised instead 

with substitute or 'surrogate' mothers made either of heavy wire or of 

wood covered with soft terry cloth. In one experiment both types of 

surrogates were present in the cage, but only one was equipped with a 

nipple from which the infant could nurse. Some infants received 

nourishment from the wire mother, and others were fed from the cloth 

mother. Even when the wire mother was the source of nourishment, the 

infant monkey spent a greater amount of time clinging to the cloth 


-Mary Ainsworth;​ an American-Canadian developmental psychologist known for her work in the development of attachment theory. 




-Anxious Ambivalent

-What happens when someone is deprived of attachment?

-Withdrawn, frightened, unable to develop speech

Parenting Styles

-Authoritative; D​ emanding, but caring, good child-parent communication -Authoritarian; Asse ​ rtion of parental power without warmth

-Indulgent; ​Warm toward child, but lax in setting limits

-Neglecting; I​ ndifferent and uninvolved with child


-Begins at puberty

-11 girls, 13 boys

-Egocentrism;​ Imaginary audience; personal fable

-Primary and secondary sex characteristics develop

-Neural connects increase until puberty and the pruning begins to take place

Developing Morality

-Kohlberg- Development of moral reasoning stages

Should a person steal medicine to save a loved one’s life?

3 Basic Levels of Morality

-Preconventional Morality;​ Before age 9, children show morality to avoid punishment or gain reward

-Conventional Morality;​ By early adolescence social rules and laws are upheld for their own sake

-Post Conventional Morality; ​Affirms people’s agreed-upon rights or follows personally perceived ethics or principles

Parent and Peer Influence

Forming an Identity

Becoming Independent

Relating to parents

Peer approval

Emerging Adulthood

-18-25 years old

-College, work, leaving ome, average age of marriage- mid 20s

-Difficult to break down in stages of development

-Peak of physical development- 20 years old

Middle Adulthood

-Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory abilities and cardiac output begin to decline after the mid twenties

-Around age 50, women go through menopause and men experience decreased levels of hormones and fertility

Marriage and Family

-Most people parry or have a family union

-High expectations for marriage

-Successful marriage

-Emotional closeness

-Positive communication (Gottman; 5-1 ration for marriages to be


-Agreement on basic values and expectations

-Willingness to accept and support changes in partner

-Happier, live longer, and subjective well-being higher than unmarried adult -Midlife crisis- myth- not age but circumstance


-Love; one person at a time

-Divorce Rate


Well Being Across the Lifespan

-Well being and people’s feelings of satisfaction are stable across the lifespan

The Aging Body

-Potential lifespan for the human body is est to be about 122 years

-Life expectancy refers to the average expected life span

-The worldwide average has increased from 49 in 1950 to 69 in 2010. In 2012 -South America- 49

-Cameron- 55

-Pakistan- 66


-United States- 75

Why don’t we life forever?

-Nature/Environment; An​ accumulation of stress, damage, and disease wears us down until one of these factors kill us

-Genes;​ Some people have genes that protect against some kinds of damage -Even with great genes and environment, ​telomeres​ wear down with the generation of cell duplication and we stop healing well

Why do People Claim to be Happy Even as their Body Declines?

-Older people attend less negative information and more positive information -They are also more likely to have accumulated many mildly positive memories, which last longer than mildly negative memories

Death and Dying

-The most difficult separation is that of a spouse

-Grief is especially severe when death comes suddenly and before its’ time on the social clock

-Warning of death denying attitudes as we age

-This is beneficial and protective in that it can confirm life and allow people to review their lives with integrity not despair

Possible essay questions for Exam #2

You will have to answer 2 of these essays on your exam.

1) A friend of yours tells you that he is extremely fearful of spiders to the point that he is thinking of moving out of his trailer because he has seen 3 spiders inside in the last month. How would you explain the learning process that occurred initially in your friend to make him so fearful? Please be sure to tell what type of learning occurred, the process of the learning that took place, and label the parts of the learning process if applicable.

Associative learning would cause him to have a fear of his home, because he associates his trailer with the 3 spiders he saw. Than classical conditioning would come into play when

Unconditioned Stimulus: Seeing spiders

Unconditioned Response: The fear of spiders

Conditioned Stimulus: Seeing spiders in HIS trailer

Conditioned Response: The fear of spiders

This is the learning process that took place and resulted in his desire to move.

2) Discuss 6 of the 8 frames of mind as determined by Gardner. Of these, which one do you think is most indicative of “intelligence” and why?

The 8 frames of mind as determined by Gardner are

-Verbal- Think in words and use language to express meaning


-Spatial- Think three dimensionally

-Bodily- Kinesthetic- manipulate object and could be physically


-Musical- Sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm and tone

-Interpersonal- Understand and interact effectively with others

-Intrapersonal- Understanding oneself

-Naturalist- Observe patterns in nature and understand natural

and human made system

I believe that a interpersonal frame of mind is most indicative of intelligence because we as humans learn from experiences with others and use more critically thinking in our environment than stuck in our own heads.

3) How do advertising companies utilize classical conditioning to advertise products? Please give a brief description of two examples of companies utilizing classical conditioning in advertising, label the parts (UCS, UCR, CR, CS) and tell why this is a smart advertising tactic.

Bud Light Commercials

Unconditioned Stimulus: Frogs

Unconditioned Response: Funny

Conditioned Stimulus: Frogs in Budweiser commercial

Conditioned Response: Funny- more applicable to like budweiser

Bud Light Commercials

Unconditioned Stimulus: Sex

Unconditioned Response: Arousal

Conditioned Stimulus: Seeing a hot girl with Hardy’s

Conditioned Response: Arousal

4) Describe Piaget’s Developmental Stages. Be sure to include the name of the stage, age at which it occurs, and the major premise behind each one. What are 2 of the 3 things we discussed in class that “we know now that Piaget didn’t know.”

-Birth- 2 years- Sensorimotor- Experiencing the world through senses and actions

-Object Permanence

-Stranger Anxiety

-2 years- 6/7 years- Preoperational- Representing things with words and images; using intuitive rather than logical reasoning

-Pretend Play


-7/11 years- Concrete Operational- Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations


-Mathematical Transformations

-12- Adulthood- Formal Operational- Abstract reasoning

-Abstract logic

-Abstract reasoning

-Potential for moral reasoning

What we know now is that development is a continuous process and children express their mental abilities at an earlier age.

5) You have been asked to devise a Psychology Achievement Test (PAT) that will be administered to freshmen who declare psychology as their major. What steps will you take to ensure that the PAT is a good intelligence test? (Be sure to include the 3 most important aspects of developing a test).

Standardization, Reliability and Validity are the three most important aspects of developing a test. First off, make sure the test is administered to a

representative sample of future test takers. Next, make sure the test yields consistent results. Finally, make sure the purpose of your test measures the type of intelligence that you are measuring.

6) Sheryl is 13-years-old and in the eighth grade. Describe the developmental changes she is likely to be experiencing according to Piaget, Kohlberg, and Erikson. Piaget: He believes she is in formal operation stage and she will be using abstract reasoning

Kohlberg: He believes she is in the adolescence stage of development, developing your own morals vs legal issues

Erikson: Finding your identity, and self defining who you are

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