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PUR3000: Exam 2 Review

by: Anna Cappelli

PUR3000: Exam 2 Review PUR3000

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These notes cover all lecture and textbook information for all chapters that will be covered on Exam 2
Principles of Public Relations
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This 34 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Cappelli on Monday October 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PUR3000 at University of Florida taught by Kong in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views.


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Date Created: 10/17/16
Ch.5 Research Lecture Preliminary Questions  What is the real problem?    What kind of information is needed?  How will the results of the research be used?  What specific public should be researching?  Should the organization do the research in-house or hire an outside consultant?  How will the research data be analyzed, reported, or applied?  How soon with the research data analyzed, reported, or applied?  How soon will the results be needed?  How much will the research cost? Using research To achieve credibility with management To define audiences and segment publics To formulate strategy To test messages To help management keep in touch To prevent crises To monitor the competition To sway public opinion To generate publicity To measure success Types of Research  Secondary- existing research, less-expensive Online databases: LexisNexis The World Wide Web: Statista  Primary new and original research generated through a research design  Qualitative-descriptive, right insight, often exploratory Content analysis: measure the amount of media coverage and the nature of the coverage Interviews: intercept interview, in-depth interview Intercept interview: convenience poll, unscientific but can give an organization some key messages In-depth interview: more comprehensive information Focus Group: identify attitudes and motivations of important publics 8-12 people who represent the characteristics of the target audience, such as employees, consumers, or community residents a trained facilitator directs an informal discussion Quantitative-numeric Survey- mail, telephone, piggyback, web, email Uses the Lickert scale (1-7) Experiment – is the only way that we can definitely test whether something actually causes a change in something else Research Techniques  Archival materials - review of organization internal and external materials  Communication audits - review of archival materials to determine how the organization communicates to its internal and external stakeholders 2  Analysis of phone calls, emails, or written correspondence  Internet and web – Google not a bad place to start but you need more  Library – reference books, academic journals, trade publications SWOT Analysis  Strengths: internal resources, capabilities, or situations  Weaknesses: internal deficiencies in resources or capabilities  Opportunities: External or outside factors or situations  Threats/Challenges: external or outside factors or situation that can affect an organization in a negative way Scientific Sampling  Random/Probability Sample – everyone in target audience has an equal chance of participating  Non-probability sample, nonrandom  Quota sampling – draw a random sample that matches characteristic of the audience  Typical sample size: 1000-1500 for national poll, 2-3% margin of error of the time 200-500 is relatively accurate, 5-6% margin of error 100, 10% margin of error Questionnaire Design  Avoid biased wording, edit-out leading questions (semantics) A question that encourages a particular or desired answer, carefully phrased to 3 manipulate the person’s answer, contains hints and eliminates many other possible answers  Use simple, familiar words    Timing and context  Watch questions that elicit politically correct or courtesy bias answers  Be aware of your answer categories  Guarantee anonymity Publicizing research: name of research company, sponsor, when the survey is completed Ch.5 Research Textbook The importance of Research Research, planning, communication, and measurement Research is a form of careful listening and two standards are commonly considered for this listening process: validity and reliability Quantitative research – uses scientific surveys and complex statistical tabulations Secondary research – uses existing information in books, magazine articles, databases, etc. Primary research – uses new and original information that is generated through a research project and is directed to answer a specific question Qualitative research – professional conducts interviews or focus groups, carefully reads news coverage transcripts 4 Primary techniques are content analysis, interviews, focus groups, copy testing, and ethno-graphic observation and role-playing Archival research is a major component in audits that are intended to determine how an organization communicates to its internal and external publics Content analysis is the systematic objective counting or categorizing of information Focus groups- formulate or pretest message themes and communication strategies before launching a full campaign Advocacy research – sometimes people send out surveys with questions using highly charges words to elicit an emotional reaction form the respondent – such questions could be considered “loaded” because they are intentionally skewed to generate a predictable response Benchmarking – use software to track and monitor a client’s reputation almost on a daily basis Ch.6 Program Planning Lecture Management by Objective (MBO) Client/employer objectives Audiences/publics/stakeholders Audience objectives Media Channels Media Channel Objectives Sources and questions Nonverbal support of the message 5 Strategic Planning Model (Ketchum) Facts Category facts: recent trends Product/service issues: what are the significant characteristics of the product, service or issue Competitive facts: what are the competitors, what are their competitive strengths and weaknesses, similarities and differences Customer facts: who use the products and why Goals Business objective: what are the company’s business objectives? Role of PR: how does PR fit into marketing mix? Sources of new business: what sectors will produce growth? Audience Target audience: who are they? (Hot button issues) Current mindset: how do they feel about the product, service or issue? Desired mindset: how do we want them to think, feel, believe, or behave Key message Main Point: what one key message must be conveyed to change or reinforce mindsets Campaign Elements 1. Situation analysis 5. Tactics 2. Objectives 6. Calendar/Timetable 3. Audience 7. Budget 4. Strategy 8. Evaluation 6 Situation Analysis Understand the challenge, the organization, the industry, and the environment to set clear and valid objectives Typically, 3 types of situations: One-times specific project – launch a new product or service Remedial program to overcome a negative problem Reinforce an ongoing effort to preserve reputation or public support SWOT Analysis Strengths: internal resources, capabilities, or situation Weakness: internal deficiencies in resources or capabilities Opportunities: external or outside factors or situations Threats/Challenges: external or outside factors or situations that can affect an organization in a negative way Objectives Specific & measurable Stated as impact & outcome instead of input (end rather than means) Types of objectives: Informational Attitudinal Behavioral Goals: 7 A conceptual/directional statement of what you plan to achieve Address problems of organization (credibility, or awareness) Does not promise to do something (e.g. to improve employee morale) Objectives: Measurable statement of what you place to achieve your goals What you want to achieve specifically (e.g. to increase the # if employees who participated in the employee picnic by 20%, to increase the # of employees who nominate co- worker for employee of the month by 20%) Audiences PR campaigns are directed toward specific and defines target audiences Internal vs. external audiences Media may or may not be an audience What’s the difference among: Audiences (focus on communication aspect) Publics (who are interested in your organization) Stakeholders (stock holders are a part of stakeholders) Strategy Strategy describes how and why campaign components will achieve objectives 8 Provides guidelines and themes for the overall program Provides rationale for the actions and program components that are planned Key messages reiterated throughout the campaign Examples: use nontraditional channels to encourage latent employees to attend company picnic; make it easy for employees to run in employee nomination forms) Tactics Specific activities that put the strategies into operation and help achieve overall goal and stated objectives Nuts and bolts Use tools of communication Uses tools of management Uses tools of production/service Bottom line: all businesses and communication tools are available are available to excellent practitioners Example: host a fair in the break room during lunch to distribute tickets; make presentations at weekly staff meetings about upcoming nomination form on the web site)  A tactic is not an objective Calendar/Timetable Deciding when a campaign should be conducted Determining the proper sequence of activities Compiling a list of steps that must be completed for each topic 9 Budget How much will this campaign cost? Either there is an upfront budget or the PR staff can determine 2 major budget categories: staff time (70%) out of pocket expenses (OOP) good practice to allocate approx. 10% for contingencies or unexpected costs   be specific and correct learn basic rules of accounting Evaluation Measured against objectives Typically need baseline #s for comparison Evaluation criteria: realistic, credible, specific and in line with client’s or employer’s expectations Formal or informal Qualitative and quantitative methods Pre test, mid point, conclusion, ongoing Determines our success and failures Helps us get paid 10 Ch.6 Program Planning Textbook The second step of the PR process, following research, is program planning The best planning is systematic – gathering info, analyzing it, and creatively applying it for the specific purpose of attaining an objective Management by objective (MBO) – provides focus to a direction for formulating strategy to achieve specific organizational objectives 3 traditional situations often prompt a PR program: the organization must conduct a remedial program to overcome a problem or negative situation, the organization needs to conduct a specific one-time project to launch a new product, or the organization wants to reinforces an ongoing effort to preserve its reputation and public support objectives are either informational or motivational a strategy describes how and why campaign components will achieve objectives tactics describe the specific activities that put each strategy into operation and help to achieve the states objectives strategy establishes why something is being done and why it will work but it is the tactics that actually get the job done a budget is divided into 2 categories: staff time, and out-of- pocket expenses 11 Ch.7 Communications & Theories Lecture What is communication?  Communication is a transactional process based on a shared interpretation of reality via symbols    The goals of communication process are to inform, persuade, motivate, or achieve mutual understanding. Objectives of Communication Message exposure accuracy in dissemination of the message Acceptance of message attitude change Change in overt behavior 5 Communications Elements Wilbur Schramm’s messa model ge A sender/source interpret Schram interpret A message er, model er, decoder encoder A channel messa A receiver ge Feedback Little or no communication is achieved unless the sender and receiver share the experience 12 2-Step Flow Theory Mass opinion leaders: Media Lazarsfeld et al. suggested that “ideas often flow Opinion from radio and Leaders print to the opinion leaders and from the to Followe Followe the less active rs rs sections of the population” 1. Another mass media influence acts as an opinion leader affecting the receiver’s impression of the initial message 2. The message goes through an opinion leader and then is transmitted to a follower 3. Both the opinion leaders and the followers receive the same message 4. The followers received the message but the opinion leaders do not Word-of-Mouth One of the best forms of Ads/PR Viral marketing via Internet Consumer decision making Use & Gratification Theory Recipient selects information that may be useful to them, either to be entertained, informed, reinforce their opinion and decision making, and decision making about products or services Passive and Active Audiences Active vs. Passive audience 13 Your primary target audience may be different on different occasions Your primary public might be comprised of different people at different times You have to be flexible because the public is not static High involvement (you don’t care about form of information, just the content of the information) vs. low involvement Interaction & Media Dependency Theory Interaction: tell me and I will forget show me and I will remember   involve me and I will understand Media dependency Theory: The less direct contact we have with an issue, the more we depend on media Processing Perceptions Uncertainty reduction Theory: People need information about the other party in order to reduce their uncertainty Sociologist Harold Laswell: “who says what, in which channel, to whom, with what effect.” PR professor Walk Seitfert: “Dissemination does not equal publication, and publication does not equal absorption and action.” Social learning theory: Bandura’s social learning theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling 14 Social construction of reality theory: Society is a product created by humans Cognitive Dissonance People desire to have consistency in their lives If campaigns demonstrate 2 conflicting beliefs, they will feel cognitive dissonance Source Credibility Expertise sincerity Trustworthiness attractiveness 5 Stage Adoption Process Awareness – interest – evaluation – trial - adoption Diffusion of Innovation Theory 1. Innovator: individuals who are eager to try new ideas 2. early adopter: opinion leaders 3. early majority have a pragmatic approach to adopting ideas 4. late majority: eventually bow to peer pressure 5. laggards: very traditional, and the last group to adopt new ideas relative advantage – a product innovation is perceived as better than existing alternatives better performance, increased comfort, saving in time and effort, or immediacy of reward compatibility- how innovation fits into a person’s way of doing things overcome perceptions of incompatibility through heavy advertising to persuade consumers complexity – an innovation’s degree of perceived difficulty the more difficult, the slower the rate of adoption 15 trialability – an innovation can be used on a limited basis prior to making a full blown commitment trial reduces risks of dissatisfaction with a product after having permanently committed to it through outright purchase Observability – consumer or others can observe the positive effects of new product usage Higher the visibility, more rapid the adoption rate Ch.7 Communications & Theories Textbook The 3 step in the PR process is communication – also called execution – most visible part of PR work Patrick Jackson, who was editor of pr reporter believed that the communicator should ask whether the proposed message is (1) appropriate (2) meaningful (3) memorable (4) understandable (5) believable to the prospective recipient Wilbur Schramm, a pioneer in communication theory, first conceptualized a one-way linear model that shows the 5 basic elements of source, encoder, signal, decoder, and destination nd The 2 model developed by schramm takes into consideration the idea that communication occurs only if both the sender and the receiver have a field of shared experience, like common language and similar educational levels The 3 model, which incorporates the concept that there is constant feedback between the source and the receiver in a continual loop 16 Grunig postulates that the ideal PR model should be 2-way symmetrical communication, that is, communication balanced between the sender and the receiver Media Uses and gratification theory of communication: basic premise is that the communication process is interactive – the communicator wants to inform and persuade; recipient wants to be entertained, informed, or altered to opportunities that can fulfill individual needs. Mass media is used for surveillance, entertainment, reinforcement, and decision-making Grunig and Hunt suggest that communication strategies be designed to attract the attention of 2 kinds of audiences: those who passively process information and those who actively seek information Passive audiences use communication channels like billboards or radio spots They need messages with style and creativity Channeling – begins a message with a statement that reflects audience values and predispositions There is a large significance in branding Semantic noise – source of blocked communication – technical and bureaucratic jargon Avoid euphemisms – “an inoffensive word or phrase that is less direct and less distasteful than the one that represents reality.” Sleeper effect – there is decreased tendency over time to reject the material presented by a untrustworthy source Entropy- the messages continually lose information as media channels and people process the information and pass it to others 17 Roger’s research shows that people approach innovation in different ways: Innovators – venturesome and eager to try new ideas Early adopters – keep up with new ideas – often opinion leaders Early majority – take a deliberate, pragmatic approach to adopting ideas Late majority- often skeptical and somewhat resistant by eventually bow to peer pressure Laggards – very traditional and the last group to adopt a new idea Ch.8 Evaluation Lecture The systematic assessment of a program and it results To assess progress toward objectives To raise accountability of PR To improve subsequent/ongoing programs To assess return on investment of time & money Management must concur about objectives Realistic, credible, and measurable objectives Plan evaluation – don’t wait Sophisticated techniques and more expertise Computerization (not just clip service), survey, quasi- experimental design 18 Evaluation is an increasing trend, about 5% of budget now, projected to be about 10% of budget in next decade Many evaluation tools borrowed from marketing and advertising Measurement of Production Very basic form of evaluation, not very meaningful Count how many news releases, feature stories, photos are produced in a given time Only emphasizes quantity instead of quality   Measurement of Message Exposure Most widely practiced form of evaluation is the compilation print and broadcast mentions, often called “clips” Media impression – how many people have been exposed to the message Hits on the internet Advertising value equivalency (concentrate on output not outcome) Systematic tracking – more sophisticated software, analyze the content of media placements by such variables as market penetration, type of publication, tone of coverage, sources quoted, and mention of key points 800 numbers/requests for information CPM (cost per thousand) is calculated by taking the cost of the publicity program and dividing it by the total media impressions E.g.: produced a sports video for $50,000 but reached 150,000 high schools students. A per person cost of 33 cents 19 Measurement of Audience Awareness Determines if the audience:  Actually became aware of the message  Understood the message   Audience surveys Day-after recall – see change in awareness afterwards – good outcome or bad outcome? --------- Measurement of Attitude Changes Changes to audience’s perceptions and attitudes  Can be evaluated using pre- and post-measurements of attitudes Benchmark/baseline surveys Audience surveys Measurement of Audience Action Ultimate objective of any PR effort Raising awareness and interest is important, ultimately, the goal is to motivate people to adopt an idea, vote, use a service or buy a product Measurement of Supplemental Activities Communication audits: as assessment of an organization’s entire communications program Pilot tests and spilt messages Meeting and event attendance Newsletter readership Content analysis PR effectiveness yardstick: basic, intermediate, advanced 20 Ch.8 Evaluation Textbook The fourth step of the PR process is evaluation Media impressions – the potential audience reached by a periodical, a broad-cast program or a website Each instance of a person accessing a site is called a hit or a visit Advertising Value Equivalency (AVE) – the 3 most used measurement method in calculating monetary value of message exposure Weighted media cost method measures the cost of media space or time as a means to evaluate Dollar-value approach to measuring publicity effectiveness - should be used judiciously The most important concern is that AVEs concentrate on outputs not outcomes Ch.9 Public Opinion & Persuasion Lecture Public Opinion  Sum of individual opinions on an issue affecting those individuals, collection of views held by persons interested in the subject  Concept matured in 20 C with public opinion polling, especially after WW1 between 2 world wars it became empirical  Once self-interest involved, difficult to change 21  Passive vs. active opinion holders  Highly sensitive to events  Very difficult to measure Do you lead or follow? Opinion Leaders    Types: formal and informal  Highly interested in subject  Better informed on the issue  Heavy consumers of mass media  Early adopters of new ideas  Good organizers  Particular socio/eco/demographic characteristics Role of Mass Media  Agenda-setting theory- ability of the news media to influence the salience of topics on the public agenda. What to think, not what to think  Media Dependency theory - media effects more powerful when can’t verify through experience  Framing theory – how story framed from journalistic or PR - practitioners – how people might spend hours taking a picture/editing it to make their lives look fantastic but in reality, they’re spending so much time on making their life look cool, they aren’t actually enjoying the experience - select different angles  Cultivation theory- repetition cultivates a mediated reality (TV) – the more time people spend in watching the TV world, the more likely they are to believe social reality portrayed on TV How to gauge public opinion Personal contact letters & phone calls Media reports staff meetings 22 Field reports polling & sampling Persuasion  The act of influencing an audience – an act of power  Formalized by the ancient Greeks  Persuasion is a communication process in which communicators attempt to change awareness, attitude, belief or behavior in a context of free choice.  Aristotle – ethos (source credibility), logos (logical argument), and pathos (emotional appeal) o Appeals to Ethos: “As a doctor, I am qualified to tell you that this course of treatment will likely generate the best results” o Appeals to Pathos: “you will never be satisfied in life if you don’t seize this opportunity. Do you want to live the rest of your years yearning to know what would have happened if you just jumped when you had the chance?” o Appeal to Logos: “the data is perfectly clear: this investment has consistently turned a profit year- over-year, even in spite of market declines in other areas.” Persuasion V.S. Coercion Friend’s attempt to influence another’s threatening messages opinion of motives Employer’s directives advertising political campaigns interrogation health public service messages communication in dangerously abusive relationships Uses of Persuasion  Change or neutralize hostile opinion  Crystallize latent opinions and positive attitudes 23  Conserve favorable opinions Persuasion Ethics    Do not use false evidence  Do no intentionally use unsupported reasoning  Do not falsely represent yourself  Do not use irrelevant appeals as diversions  Do not make false links to favorable values, motives, or goals  Do not cover up consequences  Do not use baseless emotional appeals  Do not oversimplify complex situations  Do not feign certainty  Do not advocate what you don’t believe yourself Factors in Persuasion  Appeal to self-interest  Audience analysis (e.g. psychographics: any attributes relating to personality, values, attitudes interests or lifestyles)  Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: food, security, belonging, love, self-actualization  Source credibility (expertise, sincerity, trustworthiness, and attractiveness)  Clarity of message  Timing and context Facts in Persuasive Communication  Content and structure of messages  Drama, statistics, surveys, polls, examples, testimonials, endorsements  Emotional appeals Propaganda  “propaganda is the deliberate and systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions and direct 24 behavior to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist” (Jowett & Donnell) o difference from persuasion is that propaganda sells a belief system or constitutes political or ideological dogma o really about manipulation rather than discussion Aggressiveness  intimidation, control, fighting, manipulation  no regard for other person’s feelings  anger-driven    loss respect and trust   Passiveness    Anxiety driven  Taken advantage of  Avoids confrontation  Intimidated Assertiveness  More effective and appropriate  Focus on specific issues and problems  Recognizes values and beliefs  Doesn’t violate other’s rights  Open issues and not persons Assertiveness: A Legitimate Right  To experience and express your feelings  To feel positive about yourself under any conditions  To make mistakes without feeling embarrassed or guilty  To own your own opinions/convictions  To protest unfair treatment/criticism  To be recognized for your significant achievements and contributions 25 Ch.9 Public Opinion & Persuasion Textbook Serving as catalysts for the formation of public opinion are people who are knowledgeable and articulate about specific issues – called opinion leaders who are:  Highly interested in a subject or issue  Better informed on an issue than the average person  Avid consumers of mass media  Early adopters of new ideas  Good organizers who can get other people to take action Types of Leaders  First are the formal opinion leaders, so called because of their positions as elected officials, presidents of companies or heads of membership groups  People in formal leadership positions are also called power leaders  Informal opinion leaders – those who have clout with peers because of some special characteristic o They may be role models who are admired and emulated or opinion leaders who can exert peer pressure on others to go along with something The Flow of Opinion  They found that the mass media have minimal influence on electoral choice, but that voters do rely on person-to- person communication with formal and informal opinion leaders o These findings became known as the 2-step flow theory of communication – a model that remains 26 central to PR strategy 60 years later, in a world the theorists would hardly recognize  They multiple-step flow model starts with opinion makers – derive large amounts of information from the mass media and other sources and then share that information with the “attentive public.”  Another variation of 2-step is N-step theory – individuals are seldom influenced by only one opinion leader but interact with different leaders around one issue Agenda-Setting Theory  One of the early theories, pioneered by Max McCombs and Don Shaw, contends that media content sets the agendas for public discussion  Social scientist joseph klapper calls this the limited- effects model of mass media Media dependency Theory  When people have no prior information or attitude disposition regarding a subject, the mass media play a role in telling people what to think o Media framing and audience framing Conflict Theory  Conflict theory offers insight into differences among individuals or groups and explains conflicting interests, goals, values, or desires.  Public opinion often reflects such different, or even conflicting views, attitudes, and behaviors  Mass media play a role in the unfolding of a conflict and serve to promote public debate by engaging widespread public involvement, a process called escalation Uses of Persuasion  Change or neutralize hostile opinions  Crystallize latent opinions and positive attitudes 27  Conserve favorable opinions Persuasion in Negotiation  PR can be used as a tool leading to the alternative dispute resolution (ADR) process. ADR takes place outside the traditional courtroom and has gained acceptance among PR professionals, the legal profession, and the public at large. Typically, less expensive and often much more efficient  One-sided speeches are most effective with persons favorable to the message, whereas two-sided speeches are most effective with audiences that might be opposed to the message Audience Analysis  VALS is routinely used in PR to help communicators structure persuasive message to different members of the population  Coupled with suitably tailored messages in the appropriate media outlets, is the technique of channeling – persuasive messages are more effective when they take into account the audience’s lifestyles, beliefs, and concerns The 3 factors Expertise, sincerity, charisma  Transfer – to associate the celebrity’s popularity with the product Content & Structure of Message  Case study technique – in which a manufacturer prepares an article on how an individual or company is successfully using the product Competing Message 28  In the 1930s, before much was known about the complex process of communication, it was believed that that people receive information directly, without any intervening variables – bullet theory or hypodermic- needle theory of communication Ch.11 Reaching Diverse Audiences Lecture Diversity is the most significant aspect of the mass audience in the U.S. Audiences    General and target  Stakeholders and stake seekers: stakeholders relate to those who already have vested interest/already involved in an organization while stake seekers are trying to become involved  A successful campaign must be aimed at those segments of the mass audience that are most desirable for its particular purpose and must employ those media most effective in reaching them.  T.V is the most effective medium in terms of overall popularity and it ability to elicit emotions  Print media is the most effective medium for delivering messages that require absorption of details contemplation by the receiver. Hispanics  The Hispanic/Latino population is the largest ethnic group in the U.S. 29  The represent the heritage of more than 20 nations, ranging from Spain to Mexico, the Caribbean, and South America  Each national group has its own set of values, traditions, beliefs, foods, festivals, consumer patterns, and even differences in speaking Spain. Target takes aim at Latinos with new marketing campaigns  What do the Spanish words “arrullo,” sobremesa” and “estrenar” have in common? o They all have a starring role in #SinTraduccion  Target’s new Hispanic campaign that features words with no English equivalent  A first-of-its-kind for Target, #SinTraduccion is sweeping celebration of moments, traditions, and emotions that are treasured by many in the Hispanic culture  Using a number of these untranslatable terms as inspiration, the cmapaing invites target’s guests to experience the branc in a more personal way. African Americans  The largest racial minority in the U.S. is African Americans because Hispanics are considered an ethnic group  They are not a homogeneous group  One group are citizens whose African relatives were first brought to this country in the 1800s  The more recent group are blacks with Hispanic or Caribbean origin Asian Americans  Four major groups are the Chinese, Asian Indian, Filipino, and Vietnamese  Each group has its own language and culture  50% of Asian Americans over age 25 have undergraduate degrees 30  there are generational differences within each group  one of the common traits among all Asian Americans is the emphasis on family and traditions  higher education, higher household income, generational differences within each group Reaching Diverse Age Group  the millennial generation: individuals born between 1980-1995  E-generation – tech-savvy  80% want brands to entertain them  46% agree that they are more likely to buy a brand that supports a charity  53% are more likely than all U.S. adults to believe that social media sites are very important for finding information Baby Boomers  born between 1946-1964, after WWII  they are concerned about health care, insurance, retirement planning, personal investing, and other issues  they tend to be more involved in social causes Gender/Lifestyle  women: making more than 80% of household decisions  women aged 25-54 are much faster than men to embrace some new media, such as social networking sites, and also to use corporate website.  “mommy bloggers” don’t offend people (aka everyone because this generation consists of weaklings) – LGBT community is not “one size fits all” Religious Group 31  Catholics constitute the largest single group, with about th 70 million followers, making the U.S. the 4 largest Catholic nation in the world  Christians, Jews, Muslims Disability Community  There are almost 60 million people in the U.S. that have some disability  Language and medium are key elements  American sign language  Specialized website: graphic-heavy and text-light  Closed caption Ch.11 Reaching Diverse Audiences Textbook A Multicultural Nation  Audiences are not monolithic – they are complex mingling groups with diverse cultural, ethnic, religious, and economic attributes  The demographics of the U.S. are becoming more multicultural.  Through technology and research, it’s now possible to segments audiences a number of ways that help the PR communicator understand the characteristics of the audience and how to best communicate with them  PR professionals will need to be more culturally literate to understand and communicate with diverse audiences Reaching Ethnic Audiences  3 major ethnic groups in the country are Hispanics, African Americas, and Asian Americans each with own cultural values 32  in general, they are strongly family-oriented and community-minded  the ethnic media in the country are rapidly developing and there are many Spanish speaking media outlets  in conducting campaigns for the Hispanic audience, Spanish is often the preferred language event though the younger generation is increasingly bilingual Reaching Diverse Age Groups  Audiences are generational and each has different values, interests, and needs  PR pracitioners must understand youth audiences as well as the coming tidal wave of baby boomers reaching retirement. Baby boomers and seniors tend to be relatively affluent and constitue the majority of the travel and tourism business  Each group, however, prefers to revive information via different media channels  Although youths prefer information online and via cell phones, seniors still prefer traditional media such as daily newspapers and TV news The Millennial Generation  Individuals born after 1980 are now called the Millennial Generation because many of them entered the workforce at the start of the 21 C  Also called the Y Generation because previous one (born between 1964-1980) is called the X generation  Because they are such voracious consumers of digital media, some pundits have labeled today’s youth audience as the E-Generation Baby Boomers  This age group born between 1946-1964 represents the tidal wave of Americans born after WWII 33 34


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