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by: Jo

Biol2220 BIOL2220


GPA 3.91

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Test 2 Objectives
General Biology
Professor Chase
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jo on Monday October 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL2220 at Northwest Nazarene University taught by Professor Chase in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Northwest Nazarene University.


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Date Created: 10/17/16
Test 2 Study Guide How is gene expression Turned on in need, off when regulated to meet the not Genes clustered together needs of the cell? sugaunder control of single for promoter and is the regulatory What is one situation that Pregregion requires gene regulation Embryo needs more for the development of life? hemoglobin receptors. Fetus requires less of the gene that binds hemoglobin. Adult needs even less of the gene. Prokaryotes use Transcriptional –regulates transcriptional regulation, how much mRNA is made what is this? from genes. Controls the rate of transcription, protein level, occurs on many levels, controls degradation. Eukaryotes use The use of activators and combinatorial control, what repressors in certain ways. is this? 1 or more activator proteins can signal RNA polymerase to initiate transcription. 1 or more repressor proteins can inhibit RNA polymerase. Promotor Initiates transcription Enhancer Present in Eukaryotic Transcription, regulatory element, affects RNA Polymerase ability to begin and the rate of transcription Activator Binds to DNA and increases transcription rate Repressor Transcription factors bind Test 2 Study Guide Operon How is the lac operon Operator- lacO site, sequence regulated in bacteria? of nucleotides that prevents a binding site for repressor protein CAP site- DNA sequence recognized by an activator protein lacI gene- encodes lac repressor, regulates the lac operon. Has own promoter (also called regulatory gene) function and regulates the expression of other genes. What is necessary to initiate Core Promoter – TATA box and eukaryotic transcription? (Trans Transcription Start Site. TATA factors, polymerases) box is 25 base pairs upstream of Trans Start Site, determines precise start Regulatory Elements- DNA segments. Enhancers, Silencers. Can be located away from promoter but still have strong affect. Eukaryotic organisms use By splicing pre-mRNA, this splicing for what purpose? provides gene regulation and increases proteome with out increasing the number of genes Example of transitional control To prevent toxicity of iron. in eukaryotes? mRNA that encodes ferritin (iron) is controlled by binding protein IRP. When iron is low in cytosol, IRP binds to regulatory element known as IRE. Forms a stem-loop structure. By binding this prevents transcription. When iron is high, IRP is bound and cannot bind to IRE= no Test 2 Study Guide ferritin gene production. How does estrogen work in cell Estrogen is non-polar and signaling? passes through lipid bilayer without binding to membrane receptor. Binds to a special receptor in cytoplasm and then is modified and taken to cell nucleus to activate transcription. Role of histones in gene They tightly package DNA. regulation? When an enzyme unwinds the histone, the accessibility of DNA is controlled and allows DNA binding proteins to bind with the exposed sites to activate transcription Chapter 14 Objectives 2 physical mechanisms by Inherited (Spontaneous)- which mutations occur? mutations resulting from abnormalities in DNA sequence or process (change of single or multiple adjacent base pairs, or the deletion and addition of them) Induced (Acquired) mutations- cause by environmental agents that alter DNA structure (nitrous acid, nitrogen mustard, x-rays, UV light) Missense Base substitution that changes a single amino acid Silent No alteration due to degenerate code Nonsense Normal codon to stop codon Frameshift Addition or deletion of nucleotides not in sets of 3 Oncogene Abnormally high gene expression=cancer Test 2 Study Guide SNP (S)ingle (N)ucleotide (P)olymorphism – responsible for diversity. Ma change the encoded amino acids, can be silent or occur in noncoding regions. Can influence gene expression, mRNA binding ability Cancer Uncontrollable cell growth How does NER work? 1)2 uvrA & 1 uvrB form complex, goes down DNA track and finds damage 2) 2 ucrA are released at damage site, uvrC makes cut several nucleoties away on each side of damage 3) uvrC is released then uvrD (helicase) binds ucrB 4) uvrD separates strand and uvrB is released 5) ucrD is released 6) DNA polymerase fills gap 7) DNA ligase connects the segment. DONE. Example of how a mutation in A mutation can occur in a a specific gene can lead to tumor-suppressor gene that cancer: induces an early stop codon preventing the expression of the gene Benign Not cancerous, does not invade surrounding cells Malignant Loses normal growth regulation Metastasis Invades healthy tissue and becomes cancerous Chapter 4 Objectives Cell theory All living organisms are composed of 1< cells Test 2 Study Guide Cells are the smallest units of life New cells come only from pre- existing cell division Why do scientists need various Resolution provides the ability microscopes? to distinguish two separate but similar structures (like chromosomes). Contrast: allows visual contrast so we can identify separate structures. Depends on the structure Differences between Eukaryotic- contains Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic membrane bound organelles, Cells? like nucleus. Prokaryotes- no nucleus or membrane bound organelles. Both have a cytoskeleton Functions of: Ribosome Polypeptide synthesis Nucleus Area where genetic material is organized and expressed Vacuoles (Plant cell) Holds materials and wastes ER Site of protein sorting and secretion Lysosome Macromolecules that are degraded Mitochondria/chloroplast Mitochrondria- ATP synthesis Chloroplast- photosynthesis Cell membrane –Eukaryotic Controls movement of cells substances into and out of cell (cell signaling) Identify the different parts of Includes: the endomembrane system: Nuclear Envelope (encloses nucleus and ER), Golgie Apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and peroxisomes Fate of cytosol-destined Involved in cellular processes protein: and remain in the cytosol Fate of secreted protein: Polypeptide chain is Test 2 Study Guide synthesized and goes from ribosome in to RER, modified, put in vesicle, sent to Golgi apparatus, secreted by vesicles through membrane and released in to extracellular fluid Semiautonomous Mitochondria and Chloroplasts. Organelles grow and divide to reproduce themselves, but do depend on other parts of cell for some internal components Structure and function of Mitochondria- converts mitochondria and chloroplasts: chemical energy stored in covalent bonds in to ATP. Involved in synthesis, modification, and breakdown of several types of cellular molecules. Chloroplasts- capture light energy and use some of it to synthesize molecules like glucose Chapter 5 Objectives Phospholipids 2 membrane layers Hydrophobic tails form the middle Provides framework for cell, most abundant Proteins Integral and peripheral Sterols Cell membrane structure and function as precursor to fat- soluble vitamins and steroid hormones (ex. Cholesterol) Transmembrane (Integral) 1 or more regions are Protein physically inserted in hydrophobic region of Test 2 Study Guide phospholipid bilayer Lipid-Anchored Protein Lipid molecule covalently attached to an amino acid side chain, the fatty acid tails are inserted into the hydrophobic region Peripheral Protein Noncovalently bonded to regions of integral membrane proteins, bound by hydrogen or ionic bonds Cholestrol Affects depend on temperature. High temperature = less fluidity, low temperature= more fluidity Saturation The formation of a double bond makes neighboring cells harder to interact Length of Fatty Acids Shorter tails are less likely to interact=greater fluidity FRAP A fluorescent die was used to die cell, a laser was used to bleach a section of the cell changing the proteins from red to white. In a short amount of time they became red again showing that transmembrane proteins are capable of rotational and lateral movement (not all of them however) What does glycosylation do? Definition: Process of covalently attaching a carbohydrate to a lipid or protein. Attached to a lipid creates a glycolipid Attached to a protein creates glycoprotein Purpose: serves as cell-cell Test 2 Study Guide recognition and protection The cell membrane is what Hydrophobic type of barrier? Passive Diffusion Transport of a substance from a high concentration to a low concentration Facilitated Diffusion A transport protein provides a passageway for the substance to cross the membrane, does not require energy input Active Transport Moves a substance from an area of low concentration to high concentration or against a concentration gradient with the aid of transport protein, requires ATP Osmosis To create equilibrium, water moves from hypotonic (low concentration) and diffuses across a membrane into hypertonic (high concentration) to equalize solute concentrations on both sides of membrane Osmotic pressure maintain Turgor pressor (plant cells) – what in plant cells? pushes plasma membrane against the cell wall to maintain proper structure Objective 6 Example Ligand-gated channel protein – open and close in response to noncovalent binding of small molecules like hormones or neurotransmitters, they do not use ATP and are a form of passive transport. Important in the transmission of signals between nerve and muscle cells or between nerve cells. Endocytosis Plasma membrane folds inward Test 2 Study Guide and forms vesicle to bring substances in to cell. Proteins forma coat causing the membrane to form vesicle and once inside cell the protein coat is shed. Exocytosis Material in cell is packed into vesicles and excreted into extracellular environment. Protein coat forms around emerging vesicle and coat proteins on the surface of the Golgi membrane cause a bud to form. Coat is shed once vesicle is released from Golgi apparatus.


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