MODULE 7 STUDY GUIDE
MODULE 7 STUDY GUIDE ANT 3241
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sharon Stambouli on Monday October 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 3241 at Florida International University taught by Jean Muteba Rahier in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Anthropology, Myth, Ritual and Mysticism in Anthropology at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 10/17/16
ANTHROPOLOGY MODULE 7 STUDY GUIDE MAGIC AND DIVINATION Summary Magic refers to activities by which a person can compel the supernatural to behave in certain ways. Key components of magical acts are the words that are spoken or the spell and objects that are manipulated in set ways. Magical rituals usually can be performed only at special places and at special times. The performer must often observe certain restrictions such as abstention from sexual intercourse and avoidance of certain foods. A magician is usually a worker in the kind of magic that is on the whole public and good, whereas a sorcerer deals in matters that are evil and antisocial. Frazer articulated the Law of Sympathy, which states that magic depends on the apparent association or agreement between things. There are two parts to the Law of Sympathy. The first is the Law of Similarity, which states that things that are alike are the same. The second is the Law of Contagion, which states that things that were once in contact continue to be connected after the connection is severed. The Law of Similarity gives rise to homeopathic or imitative magic, and the Law of Contagion to contagious magic. Tylor addressed the question of why people believe that magic works. The answer is be- cause magic appears to never fail. There are several reasons for this. Because magic always works, failure must be due to the inadequacies of the magician. Magic usually attempts to bring about events that will naturally occur; people do not generally ask impossible things of magic. Finally, there is the issue of selective memory. Techniques for obtaining information about things unknown, including events that will occur in the future, is known as divination. Inspirational forms of divination involve some type of spiritual experience, such as a direct contact with a supernatural being through an altered state of consciousness. Non- inspirational forms are more magical ways of doing divination and include the reading of natural events as well as the manipulation of oracular devices. Fortuitous forms simply happen without any conscious effort on the part of the individual; deliberate forms are those that someone sets out to do. Examples of divination include omens, presentiments, possession, prophecy, ornithomancy, oneiromancy, necromancy, astrology, dowsing, flipping a coin, ordeals, palmistry, phrenology, and reading tarot cards. Definitions ü Aleuromancy: Divination by use of flour, as in fortune cookies. ü Apantomancy: Divination by a chance meeting with an animal. ü Artificial divination: Refers to non-inspirational divination. ü Astrology: The belief that all of the stars, planets, as well as the sun and moon influence the des- tiny of people and that the sky can be used as a divination technique. ü Cleromancy: Divination by the casting of lots such as the rolling of a die or the drawing of straws. ü Contagious magic: Magic that is based on the Law of Contagion, utilizing things that were once in physical contact with an individual. ü Deliberate divination: Divination that someone sets out to do. ü Divination: Supernaturally based techniques for obtaining information about things unknown, including events that will occur in the future. ü Doctrine of signatures: Belief that physical structures found in nature, such as the shape of a plant, are indicative (or signatures) of their potential use in healing. ü Dowsing: Method of divination whereby water and other underground resources are located by use of a forked stick. ü Emotive divination: Inspirational divination. ü Empirical: Made through our senses. ü Fortuitous divination: Divination that simply occurs without any conscious effort. ü Graphology: Divination through handwriting analysis. ü Haruspication: Divination by the examination of entrails of sacrificed animals. ü Homeopathic: Magic that is based on the Law of Similarity. ü Hypothesis: In science, a tentative statement based upon experimental and observational data that is subject to further study. ü Image magic: A form of homeopathic magic in which an image represents a living person, which can be killed or injured through doing things to the image. ü Imitative magic: Magic that is based on the Law of Similarity. ü Increase rite: A type of ritual whose purpose is to aid the survival and reproduction of a totemic plant or animal. ü Inspirational divination: A type of divination that involves a spiritual experience, such as a direct contact with a supernatural being through an altered state of consciousness. ü Law of Contagion: Things that were once in contact continue to be in contact after the physical connection is severed. ü Law of Similarity: Things that are alike are the same. ü Law of Sympathy: Magic depends on the apparent association or agreement between things. ü Magic: Ways in which a person can compel the supernatural to behave in certain ways. ü Medium: A practitioner who intentionally communicates with the supernatural to find information. ü Natural divination: Inspirational divination. ü Necromancy: Divination through contact with ancestors or the dead. ü Neo-Paganism: A revival of pre-Christian religious practice. ü Non-inspirational divination: Forms of divination that are performed without the direct involvement of supernatural beings. ü Omen: A fortuitous happening or condition that provides information. ü Oneiromancy: Divination by the interpretation of dreams. ü Oracle: A specific device that is used for divination. ü Ordeal: A trial by divination that is performed on the body of the accused person to determine guilt or innocence. ü Ornithomancy: Divination from reading the path and form of a flight of birds. ü Palmistry: Divination through the reading of the lines of the palm of the hand. ü Phrenology: Divination through the study of the shape and structure of the head. ü Possession: An altered state of consciousness that is interpreted as a deity taking control of a person’s body. ü Presentiment: A feelings that a person may have. ü Prophecy: Divination through the communication of a prophet. ü Scapulamancy: A divination technique in which a dried scapula, or shoulder blade is placed in a fire and the pattern of cracks and burns are interpreted. ü Sorcerer: A magician who specializes in antisocial, evil magic. ü Spell: The words that are spoken in a magic ritual. ü Tasseography: Divination through the reading of tealeaves. ü Testable: The ability to develop new experiments and observations that will test the validity of a conclusion. ü Theory: In science, a framework for understanding that is supported by a large amount of consistent scientific data.
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