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Unit 2 Exam Study Guide

by: Caroline Wescoe

Unit 2 Exam Study Guide KINS 1223

Marketplace > Temple University > KINS 1223 > Unit 2 Exam Study Guide
Caroline Wescoe

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Notes that were covered on the Unit 2 Exam of Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6
Mr. Harris
Study Guide
anatomy, Physiology
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Wescoe on Monday October 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KINS 1223 at Temple University taught by Mr. Harris in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 10/17/16
Unit 2 Chapter: end of 3 Movement of Materials through Plasma Membrane ● Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, filtration, pinocytosis, phagocytosis,  receptor­mediated endocytosis, and solute pumping ● Active/Passive Transport ● Passive: does NOT use ATP ○ Diffusion­ tendency of a molecule or ion to scatter evenly  throughout its environment to establish equilibrium ■ Factors Influencing Diffusion 1. Concentration gradient (Steepness matters, the steeper, the  faster they move away from eacher) 2. Size of Molecules 3. Temperature (Teabag in cup of water at room temperature  versus teabag in boiling water) ○ Facilitated Diffusion­ requires carrier molecule and concentration gradient ■ Carrier is embedded in membrane ■ High concentration to low concentration ■ Example: Sodium­Glucose Transport Protein ● Like Pearson­McGlougal doors.  Can't turn back around ○ Osmosis (deals with cell membrane) ■ Passive ■ Special case of diffusion ■ Diffusion of water across a selectively­permeable  membrane ■ Water moves freely, solutes do not, solutes want to  push away each other because they physically cannot move ■ Water can move across the membrane ■ Osmotic Pressure­ pressure that solutes create  wanting to push away from each other (pulls water across) ■ Hydrostatic Pressure­ the weight of water ● Osmotic and Hydrostatic are  OPPOSITES! ● Osmosis continues as long as  osmotic pressure is higher than hydrostatic Osmosis Continues until 1 of 2 things occur: 1. Solutes are at equilibrium 2. Hydrostatic pressure > osmotic pressure Tonicity of Solution ● Tonicity­ measure of the ability of a solution to cause change in cell shape or n ○ Filtration ○ Pinocytosis ○ Phagocytosis ○ Receptor­Mediated Endocytosis ○ Solute Pumping­ Active transport, enzyme­like protein carriers,  move solutes in and out of cell against concentration gradient ■ Driving Forces: Concentration/Voltage differences  across the plasma membrane, Permeability Differences ■ Example: Sodium­Potassium Pump       Chapter 4 Genetics and Cellular Function  Mendelian genetics­ deals with parent­offspring and larger family relationships to  discern and predict patterns of inheritance within a family line. Cytogenetics­ uses the techniques of cytology and microscopy to study chromosomes  and their relationship to hereditary traits. Molecular genetics­ uses the techniques of biochemistry to study the structure and  function of DNA. Genomic medicine­ comprehensively studies the entire DNA endowment of an  individual (the genome), how it influences health and disease.  4.1 ­ DNA and RNA­ the nucleic acids DNA structure and function: ● DNA is a long threadlike molecule with a uniform diameter of 2nm ● DNA and other nucleic acids are polymer of Nucleotides.                        ­ Nucleotides consist of: A sugar, a phosphate group, and a single­or  double­ringed Nitrogenous base. ● Two bases in DNA                ­Cytosine and Thymine                      ­have a single carbon­nitrogen ring and are classified as pyrimidines ● The other two bases               ­Adenine and Guanine                   ­ have double rings and are classified as purines ● Structure of DNA:                      ­Double Helix (staircase)                               ­Each sidepiece is a backbone composed of phosphate groups  alternating with the sugar deoxyribose.                                ­ the steplike connections between backbones are pairs of  nitrogenous bases                               ­ The bases face the inside of the helix and hold the two backbones  together with hydrogen bonds.                              ­ across from a purine there is a pyrimidine­ which gives it, its width ● Adenine and thymine form two hydrogen bonds with each other ● Guanine and cytosine for three                  ­A­T and C­G = base pairs ● Law of complementary base pairing­ one strand governs the base  sequence of the other ● Essential function of DNA­ carry instructions called Genes, for synthesis of proteins ● 2% constitute only of DNA and 98% is noncoding DNA, which plays  various roles in chromosome structure and regulation of gene activity.  Chromatin and Chromosomes ● DNA is complexed with proteins to form a fine filamentous material called  Chromatin. ● In most cells, the chromatin occurs as 46 long filaments called  chromosomes. ● Nondividing cells:                        ­ chromatin is so slender that it usually cannot be seen with a light  microscope.                        ­Each bead is a disc­shaped cluster of eight proteins called histones                          ­ DNA molecules then wind around like ribbon                         ­ the average chromatin thread repeats almost 800,000 times and  appears divided into segments called nucleosomes.                                              ­each of these consist of a core particle and a short  segment of linker DNA leading to the next core particle. ● When a cell is preparing to divide, it makes a exact copy of all its nuclear  DNA. ● Each chromosome then consists of two parallel filaments­ sister  chromatids ● Two genetically identical, rodlike sister chromatids joined together at a  pinched spot called centromere.                      ­ on each side of the centromere, there are protein plaque called  kinetochore­ which as a role in cell division Discovery of the Double Helix: ● Credit goes to James Watson and Francis Crick  ● Also, Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins, who worked on techniques  called X­ray diffraction RNA Structure and Function:     ­Messenger RNA (mRNA)    ­ Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)    ­ Transfer RNA ● RNA is much smaller than DNA ● Consist of only one nucleotide chain ● The sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose ● Nitrogenous bases contain: adenine, cytosine,guanine and uracil ● The essential function of the three principle RNA’s is to interpret the code  in DNA and use those instructions to synthesize proteins.  ● Works mainly in the cytoplasm 4.2­ Genes and their action What is a gene? ● The body had millions of proteins but only 20,000 genes­ not a gene for  every protein. ● Several human genes produce only RNA molecules that never go on to  direct the synthesis of a protein ● Genes overlap each other, so some segments of DNA belong to two  different genes:short genes embedded within longer ones. ● Gene: an information containing segments of DNA that codes for the  production of a molecule of RNA, which in most cases goes on to play a role in  the synthesis of one or more proteins. The Genome Genome: The 46 human chromosomes come in two sets of 23 each, one set from each parent. All the DNA, both coding and noncoding in one 23­chromosome set. ● The human body contains about 3.1 billion nucleotides                   ­The human Genome Project (HGP)­ carried out from 1990 to 2003,  biologist now know the base sequence (A,T,C,G) of more than 99% of the genome.                                 ­Homo sapiens has far fewer genes than 100,000 previously  believed.                                 ­these genes develop millions of different proteins, so gone is the  old idea of one gene for each protein.                                 ­ genes average 3,000 bases long, but range up to 2.4 million  bases.                                 ­ all humans worldwide are at least 99.99% identical,various  combinations of these single­nucleotide polymorphisms account for all human genetic  variation.                                  ● Genomics: the comprehensive study of the whole genome and how its  genes and noncoding DNA interact to affect the structure and function of the  whole organism. The Genetic Code Genetic Code: is a system that enables these 4 nucleotides to code for the amino acid  sequences of all proteins. Base triplet: is a sequence of 3 DNA nucleotides that stand for 1 amino acid Codon: 3 base sequence in mRNA ­ Sometimes two or more codons represent the same amino acid Stop Codons: UAG,UGA,UAA ­­­> they signal “end of message”(like the period at the  end of a sentence)                ­enables the cell's protein­synthesizing machinery to sense that it has reached  the end of the instruction for a particular protein. Start Codons: the codon AUG play two roles­­­­­> to code for methionine and as a start codon Protein Synthesis How DNA and RNA collaborate to produce proteins….. ­the genetic code in DNA specifies which proteins a cell can make.  ­all of the body's cells except the sex cell and some immune cells contain identical  genes.  ­different genes are activated in different cells           Ex. genes for digestive enzymes are active in stomach cells but not in muscle  cells.  Protein Synthesis= DNA­­­­> mRNA­­­­­> protein                         ­Most mRNA migrates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, when it serves  as a code for assembling amino acids in the right order to make a protein.                      ­ DNA to mRNA = transcription (occurs in the nucleus)                       ­ mRNA to protein = translation (occurs in the cytoplasm)     Chapter 5 Tissues are divided into four categories 1. Epithelial                   ­Has a high density of cells                  ­Specialized contacts                  ­Polarity                  ­ Avascularity                  ­ Regeneration ●     Protection ●     Absorption ●     Filtration ●     Excretion ●     Surface transport ●     Sensory functions­ taste, smell 2.     Connective 3.     Nervous 4.     Muscular These tissues differ in the types and functions of their cells, the characteristics of the  matrix (extracellular material) that surrounds the cells, and the relative amount of space  occupied by the cells and matrix. Histology/Microscopic Anatomy: the study of tissues and how they are arranged into  organs Epithelial: Tissue composed of layers of closely spaced cells that cover organ surfaces,  form glands, and serve for protection, secretion, and absorption. Locations: Epidermis, inner linings of digestive tracts, liver and other glands Connective: Tissue with usually more matrix than cell volume, often specialized to  support, bind, and protect organs. Locations: Tendons and ligaments, cartilage and bone, blood. Nervous: Tissue containing excitable cells specialized for rapid transmission of coded  information to other cells. Location: Brain, spinal cord, nerves. Muscular: Tissue composed of elongated, excitable muscle cells specialized for  contraction. Location: Skeletal muscles, heart (cardiac muscle), walls of viscera. Tissue: a group of similar cells and cell products that arise from the same region of the  embryo and work together to perform a specific structural or physiological role in an  organ. Matrix is composed of fibrous proteins and a clear, gel ground substance, tissue fluid,  extracellular fluid (ECF), or interstitial fluid. ● Can be bony or stony in consistency in cartilage or bone ● Contains water, gases, minerals, nutrients, wastes,  hormones, and other chemicals Chapter 6 Integument ­ skin Integumentary system: consists of the skin and its accessory organs ­ the hair, nails,  and cutaneous glands Dermatology: the scientific study and medical treatment of the integumentary system ? Skin ◆ Body’s largest and heaviest organ  ◆ Consists of 2 layers: ● Stratified squamous epithelium ­ epidermis ● Deeper connective tissue ­ dermis ○ below the dermis is another  connective tissue called the hypodermis which is not part of  the skin but is customarily studied in conjunction with it ? Thick Skin ◆ Covers the palms, soles, and corresponding surfaces of the  fingers and toes ◆ Epidermis alone about 0.5 mm thick with a thick stratum  corneum (thick surface layer of dead cells) ? Thin Skin ◆ Covers the rest of the body ◆ Epidermis is about 0.1 mm thick with a thick stratum  corneum ? Functions of the skin ◆ 1. Resistance to trauma and infection ● The epidermal cells are packed with the tough  protein keratin and linked by strong desosomes the give the  epithelium durability ● Bacteria and fungi organisms colonize the  surface but their numbers are kept in check by its relative dryness,  its slight acidity, and certain defensive antimicrobial peptides called  dermcidin and defensins ◆ 2. Other Barrier Functions ● Skin is important as a barrier to water  ● The epidermis is a barrier to many potentially  harmful chemicals ◆ 3. Vitamin D Synthesis ● Skin carries out the first step in vitamin D  synthesis  ◆ 4. Sensation ● Skin is the most extensive sense organ ● Equipped with nerve endings that react to heat, cold, touch, texture, pressure, vibration, and tissue injury ◆ 5. Thermoregulation  ● Thermoreceptors (cutaneous nerve endings)  monitor the body surface temperature ◆ 6. Nonverbal communication ● Self­image and facial communication ? The Epidermis  ◆ Its surface consists of dead cells packed with the tough  protein keratin ◆ Lacks blood vessels and depends on the diffusion of  nutrients from the underlying connective tissue ? Cells of the Epidermis: ◆ 1. Stem Cells ● Undifferentiated cells that divide and give rise  to the keratinocytes ◆ 2. Keratinocytes ● Great majority of epidermal cells ◆ 3. Melanocytes ● Occur only in the stratum basale ● Synthesize the brown to black pigments  melanin ● Phagocytize fragments and accumulate  granules on the ‘sunny­side’ of the nucleus ● The aggregation of melanin granules shields  the DNA from UV radiation ◆ 4. Tactile Cells ● Receptors for touch ◆ 5. Dendritic Cells ● Found in 2 layers of the epidermis called the  stratum spinosum and the stratum granulosum  ● Are immune cells ? Layers of the Epidermis (deep to superficial)  ◆ 1. Stratum Basale ◆ 2. Stratum Spinosum ◆ 3. Stratum Granulosum ◆ 4. Stratum Lucidum ◆ 5. Stratum Corneum                       TopHat Question:   The cell membrane is most permeable to which of the following? C a)  Calcium b)  Sodium c)  Potassium d)  Anions Which of the following does NOT have a concentration gradient? E a)  Filtration b)  Osmosis c)  Facilitated diffusion d)  Diffusion e)  They all have concentration gradients Which of the following correctly lists in order the phases of the cell life cycle? A a)  G1, S1, G2, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase Grow synthesis grow divide. This protein separates the two strands of DNA so that they can be replicated before  mitosis occurs:  DNA helicase The cell membrane is most permeable to which of the following: C a) Calcium b)  Sodium c)  Potassium d)  Anions Cells which line the GI tract absorb nutrients. These nutrients are absorbed on the side  of the cell which faces the lumen and then the nutrients are transported into the blood  vessels on the other side of the cell. This example, highlights which characteristic of  epithelial cells? A a) Vascularity b) Cellularity c) Cell adhesion d) polarity What descriptor of cells would you most likely find in the area which resist friction? ­Stratified  Where would you most likely find simple columnar epithelial cells? ­ GI tract ­ Small and large intestine ­ Stomach  Discussions: What is matrix? ­ Ground substance… What is ground substance? Fluid foundation that  has fibers inside of it. If matrix is composed of fluid and cells give structure, discuss how the consumption of a tissue might change based on the function of that tissue.Try to identify 1 specific  example. Tightly packed tissue with fibers is stronger, less ground substance Not as tightly packed with fibers is easier to move. Direction of the fibers, pull in the same direction. Collagen: thick pretty strong Elastic: thin, stretchy, elastic


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