Study Guide Exam 2
Study Guide Exam 2 CLAS 220
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Date Created: 10/17/16
Chapter 2 Historical Background: 8/24/16 Palace centers; Mycenae (city of king who led Trojan war; chief city of Greece), Pylos Thebes “Cyclopean walls” = All had wall like cities; want to fight (border) o Bricks used cyclopean o Thought only the Cyclops can actually move them Mycenaean Shaft Grave (C. 1700) Inside graves found: o Mask of Agnagon o Trade from Sardinia to Western Asia (products) o Piracy (used boats) o Wanax political term for head king o Feudal system top people like lords will have workers Many gods, often female Zues, Hera, Poseidon, Hermes, Athena, Artemis, possibly Apolllo, Ares, Dionysus Local, non Indo-European divinities also known Wanax represents gods, but not divine Fedual type of military Leather/bronze armor Unknown tactics Boar tusk ivory helmets (for the wealthy people) Many lions but killed them Chariots in Greece c. 1600 B.C. (showed wealth) Troop transport Prestige item Trojan War Archaeological Record o 1250-1150 B.C. o Troy was burned down Mythic Record o 1184 B.C. End of Mycenaean Age C. 1200/1100 B.C. Burn levels at main palaces Loss of population Power vacuum Darkness descends over Greece Theory: sea people showed up or northern doorian came from central Europe (Spartans) The Dark Age C. 1100 B.C – C. 800 B.C. (THIRD) o Low population o No palace culture (set up camps outside the walls) o No writing o No central authorities Basileus (Homer uses) Aristocracy (Aristrocrats start running things) o Decline of king ship in Greece Archaic Age C. 800 B.C. – C. 500 B.C. Literacy o Phoenicians ‘purple people’ = sold purple dye to the Greeks o Also brought the alphabet; Greeks modified it to their own language o Poetry o First work was Homer Homer 8 century th th Hesoids 8 /7 century Mythology Panhellenism o Olympic Games (776 B.C.) criteria was you had to be Greek o Said no to Masidonians o New political systems Tyranny Oligarchy o Barbarians (people who were not Greek) people who they do not understand and do not speak Greek Q: Which of the following periods of Greek history came THIRD? Dark Age Chapter 3: Myths of Creation 8/26/16 I. Parallels with other traditions a. Sumerian, Hebraic, etc. II. Homer? III. Hesoid a. Theogony (Poem) b. 8 /7 century B.C. c. Differences with Homer IV. In the beginning a. Chasm (chaos) i. “Infinite darkness”? V. From Chasm a. Earth (Gaia) feminine form of Earth itself b. Tartarus (Depths of Earth) regions of the underworld c. Erebus (Darkness of the depths) d. Night VI. Eros a. “…the most handsome among the immortal gods…” b. “… who overcomes the reason and purpose in the breast of all gods and all men.” i. Known to Romans as “Cupid” VII. Let there be light! a. Night begat Bright Air (Aether) High heaven and Day i. Sexual union with Erebus VIII. Mother Earth a. “Earth bore first of all one equal to herself, starry heaven (Uranus)… b. Mountains c. The Sea i. The barren deep with its raging surf IX. The Heavens and the Earth a. Gaia lay with Uranus i. Titans (Parents of the Gods) 1. Oceanus, Koios, Kreios, Hyperion, lapetus, Thea, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne (Memory), Phoebe, Thethys, Kronos 2. Deifications of nature 3. Parents of gods X. The Cyclopes a. Brontes (Thunderer), Steropes (Lightner), Arges (Whitebolt) XI. The Hundred – Handers a. Kottos b. Briareos c. Gyges XII. Remember the Titans? a. Ocean and Tethys i. Oceanids 1. Rivers, waters, springs, etc. Who makes the thunderbolts for Zeus? Cyclopes I. Hyperion and Thea a. Helius (sun), Selene (moon), Eos (dawn) i. Phaethon II. Phaethon (son of the sun) a. Story from Ovid’s Metamorphoses b. Son of Helius c. Proof of divinity d. Two themes of mythology i. Hubris to beat someone, above society, above gods, pride ii. Glory e. Eos (Aurora) i. “Rosy Fingered Dawn f. Tithonus (mortal husband) i. Eternal life, not eternal youth III. Uranus and Kronos a. Uranus and his children did not want them, stuck children back into Earth (womb) b. Trapped inside of Gaia c. A wife’s revenge i. Plotting with Kronos d. Plan: when heaven comes = “Great Heaven came bringing on the night and desirous of love, he spread himself over the Earth stretched out in every direction” IV. The castration a. Adamantine sickle V. Life giving blood a. Erinyes (furies) b. Giants c. Meliai (Nymphs of ash trees) VI. The Birth of Aphrodite a. Uranus’ genitals cast into sea b. Born in white foam arising from genitals of Uranus i. Love born of violence? ii. Love is violent force to Romans (destructive and creative) iii. Violence transformed to love? VII. Phorcys and Ceto a. The birth of monsters VIII. Monsters a. Gorgons snake haired beasts (ex. Medusa, Stheno, Euryale) b. Echidna IX. The Birth of Zues a. Cronus marries Rhea, Cronus ate his children i. Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades,Posidon, Zues b. Circumvention of fate i. Devours all except Zeus because mother teamed against Uranus and Gaia c. Counsel of Uranus and Gaia i. Zues replaced with stone (Cronus ate stone instead of Zues ii. Hidden on Crete Which immortal being ate his children? KRONUS Chapter 4: Zues’ Rise to Power I. Zues and Kronos a. Overthrows father b. Kronus forced to regurgitate his children c. Theme of children overcoming parents II. The Titanomachy (machy= battle) a. The Gods i. Zues, Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon ii. Cyclopes iii. Hecatonchires (Hundred- Handers) iv. Themis and Prometheus b. The Titans i. Kroos, the Titans (except Themis and Prometheus) c. Battle i. Zues hurls his thunderbolts ii. The Hecatonchires hurl stones, missles iii. Titans defeated, chained in Tartarus III. The Battle with Typhoeus a. Typhoeus i. Born of Earth and Tartarus ii. 100 snake heads, fire shooting from eyes iii. 100 different voices iv. Battle melted much of the earth v. Eveeantly defeated, hurled into Tartarus IV. The Gigantomachy a. Zues versus the Giants b. Giants defeated i. Imprisoned under volcanoes c. Theme of civilization overcoming barbarism V. The Creation of Mortals a. Created by Prometheus? b. Life breathed in by Athena i. Earth and Water ii. Crude earth fashioned into rational being VI. The Five Ages of Man a. Hesoid i. Works and Days ii. All humans created by gods on Olympus, Zeus b. Age of Gold (under Kronos) i. Existed under Kronos ii. Carefree, without toil iii. Died in sleep iv. Inhabit earth as holy spirits, ward off evil VII. Age of Silver a. Children for 100 years b. Lived only a short time as adults because of senselessness c. Arrogant, did not worship immortals d. Hidden away by Zues, covered over by Earth VIII. Age of Bronze a. Warlike, followed Ares b. Did not eat bread (comes from grain and grain has to be respomsible enough to plant and store and save) people who reject bread live off wild c. Spend afterlife in Hades IX. Age of Heroes a. Valiant in war, more just than men of Bronze b. Demigods c. Age of war against Thebes, Trojan war d. Dwell in Isle of Blessed (heaven like) X. Age of Iron a. Age of current humans b. “…Never cease from toil and misery by day or night…” c. Good mingled with evils d. Dishonor gods e. Parents in conflict with children f. Might equated with right g. Praise for evil h. Shame will not exist i. Eventually will be overthrown also XI. Prometheus a. Iapetus and Clymene i. Prometheus (before thought) 1. Protector of man ii. Epimetheus (takes side of man, after thought) 1. Idiot brother b. Tricking Zues i. Wrapped flesh and fat in ox hide ii. Wrapped bones in ox fat iii. Zues never deceived c. Zues denied fire to men d. Prometheus steals fire in fennel stalk i. Givens to men e. Prometheus Bound i. Chained to rock ii. Eagle eats his liver each day and every night it grows back and eagle comes again XII. Pandora a. Punishment for mankind b. Creates women c. Hephaestus created “modest maiden” out of earth i. Face of immortal god d. Athena clothes her, put garlands on head, crown i. Gave skills of weaving e. Aphrodite i. “…shower charm about her head, and painful yearning and consuming obsession” f. Hermes i. “…put in a bitch’s mind and knavish nature” 1. Shameless 2. ii. “…lies and wily pretenses” g. Named Pandora i. “ALL gift ii. Given to Epimetheus iii. “…for formerly the ribes of men on earth lived remote from ills without harsh toil and the grievous sicknesses…” iv. Pandora removed cover of jar 1. Not a box v. Scattered evils, diease throughout earth vi. Hope alone remained in jar 1. Final punishment? vii. Race of women as punishment for men? Who gives us the story of Pandora? Hesiod Zues and lo Lo, Preistess of Hera Loved by Zues (Zues had difficulties with marriage; King of gods) Hated by Hera (Zues wife) Zues’ deception o Transformed lo into cow Juno remains suspicious o Places guard over lo o Argos Panoptes (guard) o 100 eyes in all directions, one is always open o Eyes Hermes o Argeiphontes (Argos-slayer) o Eyes of Argos set into tail of peacock Hera’s revenge o The gadfly (person who has higher part of truth and bugs society) o Bites horse Driven to Egypt Transformed back into woman o Bears Epaphus The wickedness of Mortals o Zues and Lycaon Zues plans to test mortals Lycaon despises the gods, murders guests, eat human flesh House destroyed by Zues Turned into wolf The Flood o The destruction of humanity o Survivors of flood starved o Common mythological theme Deucalion and Pyrrha o Last remaining mortals Just and devout Continue in devotion to gods Prayer to Themis “ Go away from my temple… and toss the bones of the great mother behind your back” The recreation of mankind Tossing stones over their shoulders “Hence we are a hard race and used to toils…” Parallels with Ancient Near East West Asia o Mesopotamia o Epic of Gilgamesh Hero Flood Utnapishtim Prometheous Bound Some Themes 1. Defiance of the gods 2. Suffering for principles 3. Individuals versus society 4. Dangers of tyranny The Situation Aftermath of Titanomachy and Gigantomachy Olympian gods as rulers of universe Enemies of Zues punished harshly Tyranny Stasis in Greek city-states o Wars among aristocrats Rise of Tyrants o Defenders of middle classes o Rule without legal restraint o Building programs o Support for Arts o Second generation Overthrow of Peisistratids Tyrannicidies The Athenian Democracy Conflict with Persia Battle of Marathon (490) Prometheus Bound (480s?) Overthrow of Peisistratids Tyrannicides The Anthenian Deomcracy Conflict with Persia Battle of Marathon (490) Prometheous Bound (490s?) Zues as Tyrant “Many laments and useless moans you’ll utter, for Zues’ heart cannot be swayed: For everyone new to power is harsh” Hephaistos 33-35 “And with laws that are new he wields power unlawfully; Those who had strength before he is now annihilating” Chorus 150- 151 Law separates human from animals “For this is the malady to which Tyranny is somehow prone, to withhold trust from friends (Prometheus, 224-225) o Paranoia stemming from absolute power o Who can tyrants trust? “For such a crime he must pay a penalty to the gods, so that he may be taught to love Zues’ tyranny, and stop his human-loving ways.” (Power, 9-11) o Zues is in fear that he will be overthrown Prometheus as Trickster “…though a sophist, he’s no match for Zues” (Power 62). o Sophist – lives by the argument, can argue anything and can convince you of anything Sophists in Athens o Value of rhetoric o Relatively of truth o Leaders of nation into destruction Assembly – absolute democracy; 35,000 citizens that can vote, each can speak Prometheus called a Sophist , no good sense of truth Prometheus as Savior of Mankind Saved humans from Zues’ destruction Stopped them for brooding on death by giving them blind hopes Fire (236-254) Numbers, letters, building skills, domestication of animals, shipbuilding (445-468) FOSTERED HUMANS Medicine, prophecy, burning offerings, use of metals (476- 506) Prometheus Unrepentent “I did wrong, but by choice, Ill not deny, but by aiding mortelas I found troubles for myself, But I never imagined my panlties would be such… (266- 268) “…nor will I ever cower before his harsh threaths…” (73-74) To the chorus leader “Revere, supplicate, fawn on the powers that be! (937) To Hermes “Not for your servitude, you can be sure, would I exchange my unlucky situation” (966-967). Human reactions to tyranny Fear Obedience Devotion Pity for victims Hephaistos “Such are your rewards for your human loving ways. For you, a god, did not cower before the gods’ but bestowed privileges on the humans beyond is just…” (Hephaistos 28- 30) This handicraft of mine—how much I hate it!” (45) “Ah! Prometheus, I groan for your ideal!” (66) Which god is most sympathetic to Prometheus? > Hephaistos Okeanos “Don’t…kick against the goad, for you must see that a harsh monarch wields power, without controls.” (Okeanos 322-324) Chorus “It was because you did not tremble before Zues, but showed too much reverence for mortals, By your own defiant will, Prometheus” (542-544) Hermes “It was by such acts of self-will before that you got yourself into these miseries” (964-965) Threats about punishment to come (1014-1035) o “Never believe that stubbornness is better than good judgement. (Hermes 1034-1035) The Twelve Olympians 14 Major Deities 1) Zues 2) Hera 3) Poseidon 4) Hades 5) Hestia 6) Hephaestus 7) Ares 8) Apollo 9) Artemis 10) Demeter 11) Aphrodite 12) Athena 13) Hermes 14) Dionysus Reduced to 12 (not part of council) Hades o Lives under the earth o Rarely on Olympus Hestia o Replaced with Dionysus o Virgin goddess o Goddess of hearth, sacred fire o Hearth associated with home Zues Amorous o Numerous affairs, offspring Assocaited with thunder, lightning Bears the Aegis o Goat skin covered shield o Head of Gorgon , when shakes shield it causes fear to everyone Exemplifies divine justice Portrayed differently by different authors Never absolute patriarchy o Fates o Aphrodite, love Zues and Hera Hera Zues sister Brother-Sister Marriage between sky-god and earth-goddess Hera as vengeful wife, mother o White Armed Hera because shining and white armed o Ox-eyed (Hera she has ox eye) o PEACOCK HERA Hera as a goddess of Women Mothers Morality Marriage Hera is not nice, bitter and mean and spiteful Important in Roman religion Great porsecutor Children of Zues and Hera Eileithyia o Goddess of Childbirth o Shares roles with Hera Hebe o Goddess of youthful bloom o Primary cupbearer of Olympians o Marries Heracles Joined/Replaced by Ganymede Interpretations of myth of Ganymede as the cupbearer o Spiritual Enlightment o Zues as sexual predator th Sexual mores of 5 century BC Hephaestus God of forge Linked with Athena o Skill, wisdom, crafts, arts Lame from birth o Parthenogenetic birth? o Cast out of Olympus by Hera o Cast our of Olympus by zues Defender of Hera (Hephaestus) o Husband of Aphrodite Marriage of beauty and deformity, intellectual and sensual Aphrodite and Ares Ares o God of war Destructive war Righteous war o Father of Eros with Aphrodite? Ambivalence of Greeks o Hated, honored Escpeically honored by Romans as Mars o Father of Roman race o Picture of cow with utters The Nine Muses o Born of Zues and Mnemosyne Varying numbers, eventually settled at 9 Various duties o Calliope (Epic poetry), Clio (history) Euterpe (lyric poetry), Melpomene (tragedy), Terpsichore (choral dancing), Erato (love poetry), Polyhymnia (sacred music), Urania (astronomy) Thalia (comedy) The Free Fates o Daughters of Zues and Themis ? Night and Erebus ? o Clotho Spinner of thread of life o Lachesis Measures thread o Atropos Cuts thread, ends life o Sometimes unified o Moira o Closer to Fortune, Necessity Master of all gods? o Interplay of gods and fate What is Ganymede's home city? >Troy In Greek religion, Hera tends to be seen as >Goddess of mothers Hephaestus is most often said to be the child of >Hera Which of the following gods is/are the most powerful? Fates Which of the following is not associated with Zeus? Hearth Because of association with thunder and lightning >??? Not Pan Mediterrian Chapter 6 The Nature of the Gods and Greek Religion Anthropomorphism Human form o Anthropos means human o No evidence Greeks ever worshipped animals o Morph does not mean change but means shape Gods of upper air and upper world (MOST important) o Olympians Eat ambrosia food of Gods Drink nectar drink of Gods Bleed ichor do not have blood; cant die Gods of earth o Chthonian (greek word for earth) Unifying Factors o Superhuman strength, knowledge o Limited by fate o Immortal Divine Hierarchy Olympians, immortals (top of food chain) Lesser creatures o Gorgons (giant snake monsters) o Nymphs (very popular) Muses Oceanids Nereids Demi gods o Children of gods and mortals (heros) o More than human, less than gods o Heroes o Often become chthonic deities after death Religious system allowed for many gods o Definitions never clearly defined o When meet another group, they are friendly, accept that others have different gods o Accuse Christians as atheist (god is invisible) Zues and Monotheism Monotheistic aspects of Zues o Justice ! o Weather o Morality o Knowledge ! “The gods,” “the god” o Unity of divine purpose Hesiod o Stories of multiple gods o Unity of divine punishments toward unrighteous Poets, authors, philosophers o Changing conceptions of divinity Xenophanes (pieces of fragments put together) o Condemns Hesiod, Homer for anthropomorphism Say they are making a mockery of image Exhibit human sins Fragment = quoted in some other book o All people conceive gods as themselves Ethiopians, Thracians, etc 90% of ancient literature is lost o Unified god, not like humans in form or thought Greek theology o Mixture of myth, religious custom, philosophy o Strict customs for cults o Strict moral, ethical codes of behavior o Sincere speculation on god, immortality of the soul, vice and virtue, afterlife, and inevitability of fate Cults o Cult = small religious group, Greek used o Each city has famous cult, Athens have a lot of cults o Discussion of myth is different than religion, poetry and literature vs bible o Herodotus o “Father othHistory” 5 century B.C. First person of all humans to write history, take one historical event and analyze importance and cause o Fusion of mythic, historical, theological attitudes How did Greeks defeat Pursians? >Went to Egypt, Lybia, etc and talked to all people Croesus o King of Lydia o Wealthiest man in world? Invented MONEY o Entertaining philosophers o Meeting with Solon o Designed laws o “Before he dies do not yell call him happy, but only fortunate” o Solon said happiest man o Nemesis raised up against Croesus o Role of fate o Role of Oracles o Loss of son o Loss of kingdom o Attacked city for Helen o When someone thinks too much of themselves Huber puts Nemesis upon them Omnipresence of divine justice o Hubris/Nemesis Irresistible fate Mixture of joy and sorrow in human life What is the name of the divine force which rises up against people when they are guilty of hubris? >Nemesis Terpsichore Dance Greek Mythology and Religion Mythology different than religion Diversity of Greek religion o Not unified o Individual cults 2000 cults in Attica o Patron deities Athena (Athens) Hera (Argos) Artemis (Ephesus) Civic Religion of the Polis No word for “religion” o No concept of “secular” No separation of “church and state” Civic functions with religious purpose o Olympic games (religious festival) God festival o Gods like sports/ competitions Life organized around religious calendar o 170 annual festival days in Attica Heroic cults o Local heroes o Not immortal o Acted beyond grave Priests and priestesses Appointed by lot, elected, purchased Different requirements for each cult Males and females in leading roles “Technicians of gods” Julius Caeser (priest) Seers Recognize and interpret signs from gods o Flight of birds (biggest signs) o Dreams o Weather, natural occurrences o Examination of scarified animals Mystery religions (mythic story) o Personal connection with deity o Acceptance of doctrine Sacrifice o Officiated by preist o Ritual slaughter Unblemished Throat cry o Thigh bones wrapped in fat, topped with meat Offering for gods o Other meat roasted for humans o Feast o Catch blood in dish Elaborate festivals o Games o Dramatic contests END OF EXAM 1 Chapter 6-7 Posedion and Athena Importance of sea to Greeks Common to die at the sea Object of fear Object of comfort Poseidon Similar in appearance to Zues o More severe and rough o The Trident o Chariot drawn by horses The Earthshaker o Earthquakes o Surge of sea Posedion and Amphitrite o Similar to Zues and Hera o Jealousy of Amphitrite Scylla (had affair with Posedion) turned into dog headed monster Charybdis as child of Poseidon and Ge Trident = ocean o Other notable children of Poseidon o Polyphemus (Odyssey) most famous – mean nasty o Proteus (?) Shapeshifter Theseus (?) Notable descendants of Poseidon (not born but in his family) o Pegasus o Cerberus o The Lernaean Hydra o The Chimaera o The Theban Sphinx o The Nemean Lion Athena Daughter of Zues and Metis o Born from Zues’ skull, SPLIT WITH AXE o Ate Metis, storing her wisdom in her head o In full battle dress (?) o Born from man, not woman Aphrodite most important, Athena best second Goddess of war and wisdom o Combination of highest aspects of man and woman o Zues’ favorite child Patron goddess of Athens o Contest with Poseidon Poseidon offers salt spring Athena offers olive tree o Poseidon remains important to Athens o Pallas Athena Triogeneia o Origins, meaning of names disputed Pallas Daughter of Triton, friend of Athena (?) Maiden (?) Glaukopis Grey-eyed, shining eyed goddess Athena and Arachne Hubris/Nemesis o Parthenon On Athenian Acropolis o Panathenaea Athenian festival honoring Athena o Appearance Helmet and Spear The Aegis (causes fear and panic) Accompanied by an Owl Athena Nike Accompanied by winged Nike Picture: Grey plate with girl sitting with shield Chapter 9 Aphrodite and Eros Aphrodite Orgin Associations with o Cythera (Aphrodite) o Cyprus (Aphrodite) Called o Cythera o Cypris Twin aspects o Aphrodite Urania (Celestial Aphrodite) Sprung from Unranus alone Ethereal and sublime o Aphrodite Pandemos (Aphrodite of All the People) Sprung from Zues and Dione Physical in nature o Love is more like lust Nature and Appearance (Aphrodite) Goddess of beauty, love, marriage o “Laughter-loving” o “Sweetly-smiling” Temple prostitution o Occasional Magic girdle o Irresistible powers of enticement Archaic/Early Classical periods (c. 800-400 B.C) o Beautiful woman o Typically clothed Late Classical/Hellenistic periods (c. 400-31 B.C.) o Idealization of womanhood o Often nude Thought that u cannot potray love without nudity Attendents The Graces (Charities) o Three in number o Personifications of aspects of loveliness The Hours (Horae) o Children of Zue and Themis o Eventually they become the Seasons Priapus Son of Aphrodite o Deformed with huge, erect phallus (penis) Comic, pornographic Popular charm o Good luck o Apotropaic device (wards of evil) o Houses, gardens o Wind chime intruders will be penetrated anally Pygmalion Women of Cyprus denied Aphrodite’s deity Turned into prostitutes (first ever) Transformed into stone Pygamalion repelled by scandalous women Sculpts ideal woman Prayer to Aphrodite o Galatea Modern portrayals My Fair Lady Pretty Woman Aphrodite and Adonis Adonis male beauty Cinyrus Grandchild of Pygamlion Loved by daughter (Myrrha) had unnatural obsession for dad Myrrha becomes myrrh tree Adonis born from tree (child of Myrrah) Myrrah runs away but is pregnant (fucked her brother) Adonis Beloved by Aphrodite; great lovers; happy relationship Told him not to go hunting Killed hunting by Bohr (mean most likely to kill you) Transformed into anemone Aphrodite and Anchises Anhcises was human, gods told him not to tell anyone The revenge of Zues o Hits him with lightning bolt o Aphrodite and Anchises Aneas o Great shining hero of roman tradition o Escapes from troy o Roman race is born from Aphrodite and anchises Anchises suffering Eros Two origins stories o Cosmic deity (Hesiod) o Child of Ares and Aphrodite Two representations o Mischievous child Makes you fall in love with people and things they shouldnt o Beautiful young man Plato’s Eros Plato’s Symposium o Platonic Love means you don’t want to have sex o Speech’s on boy love Eros as creative force Philosophic love of wisdom Cupid and Psyche The Golden Ass o Apuleius Faily Tale-ish o “Once upon a time” (fairytale) o Three sisters have to get married Old rich and mean men Third: most stunning beautiful, people come from all over to look for her, she cant find husband because she was cursed o Curse (to find most horrible husband) o Unknown suitor (turns out to be Cupid) she is not allowed to look at him and cant tell anyone o Sisters trick her into looking at her and telling people o Transforms into _______ o Happily ever after Chapter 10 Artemis Birth o Child of Zues and Leto Brother of Apollo o Born on Mt. Cynthus on Delos Called Cynthia Appearance and Nature o Virgin goddess Associated with Child-birth, the hunt o Short skirt, sandals, loose clothing Bow and arrow Girl with deer Niobe Women of Thebes honor Leto and children Niobe’s boast o Rich, beautiful, queen mother of seven The vengeance of the gods o Moutain top in Phyrgia o Children killed, and husband o Niobe says ever in her grief shes better than Artmeis Acteon Artemis at the spring o Saw Artmeis naked Innonce of Acteon Punishment o Sacred chasity of Artmeis o Made him a deer o Dog started chasing and killed him and ate him Callisto and Arcas Devout follower of Artemis Loved by Zues o Banned by Artemis o Gave birth to Arcas Punished Hera Ursa Major, Ursa Minor Orion Attempted rape Scropions! A Star is Born! Orgin of Artemis Fertility of goddess? o Association with childbirth, young humans/animals Goddess of moon o Associated with menstrual cycle? Goddess of nature o Virgin huntress Misandry (hatred of men) Lesbian overtones o Virginal, pure The Hippolytus Some Major Themes The arrogance of chastity The humanness of sin The injustice of the man/god relationship Chasity Hippolytus refusing to honor Aphrodite Hippolytus o Since I am pure, I greet her from a distance Servant o Yet she is proud and her fame is great amount mortals Hippolytus o No god who uses the night to work her wonders finds favour Servent o My boy, we must pay the gods their honors Hippolytus o We all have our likes both in gods and among men Hippolytus learns the truth Nurse o My boy, what will you do? Will you ruin the close to you? Hippo o Close? You disgust me. No one who sins can be a friend of mine Nurse o Forgive. People are prone to make mistakes, child. Hippolytus’ reflections on women O Zues, why have you created women to lve in the light of the sun and prove a bane, a counterfeit coinage for mankind? Sin Natural Which goddess does Hippolytus honor most? Artemis Phaedra discussing adultery and hypocrisy I hate those women who lay claim to virtue but in secret dare to commit shameful deeds The Nurse to Pheadra In love with step son “What you have suffered is nothing extraordinary, nothing accountable. The lightning of the goddess’ rage has launched itself against you. You are in love—what is so surprising about that? So are many other mortals Related it to same sex marriage Love shouldn’t be controlled, natural No one can bear the force of Cypris (Aphrodite) when she comes in spate. The one that yields to her, purses with gentleness, but whomseoever she finds arrongant or proud, she seizes and you cannot think how violently she treats him" o Rejecting love = makes you suffer “For it is a wise policy or men to let what is not virtuous remain unseen. And mortals should not put too much effort into achieving perfections in their lives… No, if you have more of what is good than what is bad, as a mere human being you would be fortunate indeed.” o Concept of balance = so important Life should live in balance Reject sexuality then reject balance, not natural Hippolytus doesn’t want to be with anyone – not sexual Sex is part of humanity, even sin sex (Aphrodite) Nurse said to be a little more good then bad (Gods measure that) But, my dear girl, lay aside this wrong-headedness, lay aside this willfulness- for it is nothing other than willfulness to wish to be superior to the gods. Love on—go through with it. This is what a god wished to happen. And if it makes you sick, find a good way to control your sickness.” Aphrodite “I am called Cypris, a powerful goddess and not without fame among mortals and in heaven. And of all who dwell between the Black Sea and the bounds of Atlas and look on the light of the sun, I give precedence to whose who rever my power, but those who are arrogant towards me I cast down. For this is characteristic of gods as well as mortals—they take pleasure in receiving honour among men o Gods demand worship but also destroy those who do not o Destroy those who do not exchange in sexuality “…Hippolytus… Says that I am the vilest of the gods. He spurns sex and keeps clear of marriage. It is Artemis, sister of phoebus and daughter of Zues, that he honours, holding her the greatest of the gods, For that I bear him no ill will. Why should I? But for his offenses against me I shall take revenge on Hippolytus” o Aphrodite does not care he likes another god, she wants to destroy him Aphrodite: “No with this hand I shall take vengeance on another man, one of hers, one who is most loved by her above all mortals, with these arrows from which there is no escape ” o Gets revenge on Chapter 11: Apollo Birth Twin brother of Artemis Child of Leto and Zues Born in Delos Nursed by Themis with ambrosia (food of gods) and nectar (wine) Associated with prophecy (future), the lyre (guitar type), archery Zues and Apollo (known for divine strength) Delos Sacred as birthplace of Apollo Important temple complex Home of Delian League (anti purge) Money kept there because holy sacred site in church o So no one would rob it o Delian would not try to take over league Delphi Foot of Mt. Parnassus Defeat of the dragon (Python) o Pytho “I rot” The sun rotting the dragon Association of snake and Apollo with Delphi o The Omphalos “Navel of the World” Apollo Delphinius o Apollos as a dolphin o Cretan priests Pythian Games o Athletic, intellectual games o Second only to Olympics o Every 4 years, 2 years after Olympics o Know known as Winter Temple complex o Near Athens o International Amphictyonic Council The Oracle o Offering, sacrifice by inquirer o The Pythia (goes into temple and gets into hallucination, and says something to priest) o The priest or prophet (give question to them) give it to Pythia o Closed in winter Apollo in land of Hyperboreans Loved tripods and bowls • The Oracle • Offering, sacrifice by inquirer • The Pythia • The priest or the prophet • Closed in winter • Apollo in land of Hyperboreans The Loves of Apollo • Attempted affairs • Second in number of affairs, behind Zeus • Women can successfully reject him, unlike Zeus • Cumaean Sibyl • Prophecy • Asked for eternal life, not Life without youth • Cassandra • Prophesy in vain • Apollo will give her prophesy, then she will refuse to sleep with him • No one will believe her • Marpessa • Grandchild of Ares • Chose mortal (Idas) over Apollo • Cyrene • Athletic nymph • Success! • Child, Aristaeus (means excellence) • Daphne • The sacred laurel • She would rather be a tree than have sex with Apollo • She becomes a tree (why laurel branches become the crowns) • Hyacinth • Young Spartan boy • Kill by discus • Apollo throws discus (still a god, so thrown very hard) • Hits boy in head and kills him • Men and boys would gather, strip down and play games • Cyparissus • Youth boy from Ceos • Loss of deer • Cyparissus loved deer and accidentally kill his deer • The Cyprus Asclepius • Coronis • Cheating on Apollo with mortal • Affair with Thessalian • Apollo’s vengeful arrows – kills Coronis, saves child • Birth of Asclepius • God of healing • Incubation (sleeping in a holy place) • Hospitals • Go and take a nap • Gods will visit you when you’re sleeping • They will heal you or give you a remedy in a form of a dream • Big stick with a snake around it Asclepius or Hermes: Staff or Caduceus • Staff – healing – public practices • Caduceus – making money – private practices Musical Contests • Marsyas the satyr (half man half goat) • Challenged Apollo • Apollo hung him upside down and peeled his skin off • Flayed alive • There were people whose job it was to skin people alive • Remove all skin, but still alive, can see internal organs, then dies • Pan • Flute vs. Lyre • Has a contest against Apollo • Apollo chosen as winner • Midas is there and says Pan is the better musician • Midas’s ears transformed to donkey ears • Kept his secret from everyone by wearing a turban • Attendant who cuts his hair, he yelled in a hole “Midas has ass ears” • When a storm came hole uncovered and sound out Chapter 12 – Hermes Birth • Zeus and Maia ( daughter of Atlas) • “He was born at dawn, by midday he was playing the lyre, and in the evening he stole the cattle of farshooting Apollo” • Took a turtle shell and strung it as a lyre • Apollo blamed him for stealing his cows, Hermes lie was too good he got away with it • Got praise for being such a great theif • Teaches Apollo to play the lyre • Apollo becomes he patron of the lyre Nature of Hermes • Thief, rogue • Archetypal trickster • God of thieves • Stealing from neighbors is bad, stealing from next town is good • Stealing is good in war • Thieving, cleverness • Messenger • Travelers hat • Sandals • Wings • Caduceus (herald’s wand) Athenian Herms • Statues that were found on street corners, homes, etc. • Sicilian Expedition (415 B.C.) • Large Sicilian army • Bunch of men from the army got drunk the night before attack and knocked off all the penises on the statues • Alcibiades • Athenians decide they’re going to execute him, he flees • Gets the king’s wife pregnant, flees again • Keeps fleeing from place to place • Eventually caught and killed • Rub for luck • Not sure if it’s actually associated with Hermes Hermes Trismegistus • Becomes figure of divine Associated with the great gods Chapter 12 Hermes and Aphrodite Salmacis the nymph Hermaphroditus Birth, Childhood, and Orgin • Zues and Semele • Hera’s wrath • Semele destroyed • Tricks Semele into asking a favor for Zues Dinoysus rescued • Incubated inside Zues’ thigh Phrygian? • Mycenaean Age • Because wears hat (smurfs hat) fringing hats God of • Vegetation • The vine, the grape • God of wine • Making wine • Mob fury (fury does not mean anger, means overwhelemed by passion) • Religious ecstasy Nature of Dionysus and his worship • Ecasttic spiritual release through music, dance • Possession of followers by the god • Ripping apart of animal and eating raw flesh Male leader Plays par of Dionysus Bacchae (maenads) Female devotees Mortal women who become possessed Dionysia (official festival Athenian festival) Second in importance to Panathenaia Plays are performed Competitions o Tragedy (goat song) Trilogy, Satyr Play o Comedy Satyrs o Male counterparts to Maenads o Part man, part animal o Love singing, music, wine o Sexually aggressive Often chasing maenads Sileni o Older, more lecherous versions of satyrs Midas Capture and return to Dionysus The gift The cure o The river Pactolus Pan Similar to satyrs, sileni o Horns, ears, legs of goats o Love of music Creation of panpipe (syrinx) o Lustful Various orgins stories Hermes, Apollo? Musician God of shepards Honored by Athenians Appearance to Phidippides Chapter 13 Dionysus, Pan, Echo and Narcissus Echo and Narcissus Narcissus is a beautiful youth (young boy) Echo the talkative nymph (kept secrets) o Sister nymph engaged to Zues o Distract Kera from finding Zues o Kera punished her by making her voice what was said before and can only speak when spoken too Only the voice remains She falls in love with Narcissus o Can only reply back what he says Narcissus o Nemesis The Man in the mirror Own reflection seen in pool Falls in love with himself Destryoed by love The metamorphosis o Narcissus Narcissism The Bacchae Themes Hubris o Disrespect of gods o Atheism? Inequity of man/god relationship Righteousness of divine punishment Dionysus “Now Cadmus, the old king, has just transferred his power, his royal authority, ti Penthesus, his daughter’s son, who, in my case atleast, fights against the gods, prohibiting me all sacrificial offerings, When he prays, he chooses to ignore me. For this neglect Ill demonstrate to him, to all in Thebes, that I was born a god…” Pregnant she said she had sex with Zues Believe she was lying Pentheus “It so happens Ive been away from Thebes, but I hear about disgusting things going on, here in the city – women leaving home to go to silly Bacchic rituals cavorting there in mountain shadows, with dances honouring some upstart God, this Dionysus, whoever he may be…” “Mixing bowls in the middle of their meetings are filled with wine. They creep off one by one to lonely spots to have sex with men, claiming theyre Maenads busy worshipping. But they rank Aphrodite, goddess of sexual desire, ahead of Bacchus.” Teiresias “Trust me, Pentheus. Don’t be too confident a sovereign’s force controls men. If something seems right to you, but your mind’s diseased, don’t think that’s wisdom” Lived as man and found enchanted snake Tell you future and it will be bad The Capture of Dionysus In chains Insulted Threatened with punishments The Fate of Pentheus Profaning the ceremony A just death Messenger “For a life devoid of grief is one which receives without complaint whatever comes down from the gods—that’s how mortals ought to live. Wisdom is something I don’t envy. My joy comes hunting other things lofty and plain to everyone. They head man’s life to good in purity and reverence, honouring gods day and night, eradicating from our lives customs lying beyond whats right” Chorus: “Lets dance to honor Bacchus, Lets shout to celebrate what’s happened here, happened to Pentheus” Dionysus “Dishonoring me you earn the penalty” Chapter 14 Demeter and the Eleusinian Mysteries The Myth The rape (actual abduction) of Persephone (beautiful young goddess) The wandering of Demeter o The palace of Celeus o Nursing Demophoon Demeter recalled by Zues Persephone and Hades (take her to underground) o The Pomegranate o Once you eat (seed of pomegranate, you can never leave underground) o Allowed to come up to above world for three seasons Persephone causes death rain (3 of life, one of death) The Seasons The Mysteries Interpretation Birth- Death- Rebirth o Crop cycle Zues-Demeter o Sky God-Earth Mother Redemption/Immortality of the soul o Demophoon - o Mysteries The Eleusinian mysteries Eleusis o Near Athens (can control it) Not for everyone; but everyone wants to join Open to men, women, children, slaves Secret ceremony o Hymn to Demeter most important source o Alcibiades Got really drunk and started acting out the mysteries There was a trial involving some of the people and we get some details of the mysteries Lesser Mysteries o Preliminary steps Greater Mysteries o Full initiation Chapter 15 Views of the Afterlife: The Realm of Hades The Underworld Realm of Hades Eternal existence Development of views overtime Homer The Odyssey (Book 11) Odysseus o Shades, blood (to get to the talk) sacrifice Drink the blood, gives life back into them briefly and tell the tale/asks questions o Teiresias (looking for answers, first person to talk to) o Parade of Heroes (always talk to heroes) Achilles (warrior, greatest hero, says I will rather be a slave to the poorest man on earth than to be the king of all hell) Lowest existence is better than after death Agamemnon Ajax Punishments? o Tantalus – sacrificed children in banquet for the gods, so punished eternally with hunger and thirst, in water and tree above o Sisyphus – psychological punishment, symbol, push giant rock up hill and rolls back down, always near completion but never quite Joyless eternal existence Plato Myth of Er (story written by Plato) o The Republic Afterlife o Judgment o Reward Reincarnations o Paid 10 times over o Spend 1000 years in afterlife, punishment or pleasure o Choice of life o The river lethe (washes away all your memories from previous life) Déjà vu Flashbacks to previous life o Rebirth o Pleasure/reward = heaven Soul is without genderand form People and animals All possible choices of life laid out Can choose to be animals or diff animals Vergil The Aeneid o 1 century B.C o Greatest book Aeneas o Trojan hero o Father of Roman race Descent in Italy o Charon, the Ferryman River Acheron Katabasis (going to underworld) o Mythological catalogue Centaurs, gorgons, Briareus, Haripies, etc Cerberus Divided realms o Fields of Mourning Wasted and consumed by “relentless and cruel love” Suicides Dido (ex wife) o Fields of heroes (Hell) Died in combat Tartarus (Heaven) o Punishment for the wicked o Sisyphus, Titans Elysian Fields (Heaven) o Paradise o Anchises (Aeneas’ father) Chapter 16 Orpheus and Orphism Orpheus and Eurydice • They are in love • Death of Eurydice • Snakebite • Orpheus is very sad; isn’t contempt with letting her die • Goes down to the gates of hell • Katabasis • Orpheus plays his lyre; give him his wife back, only one shot • Don’t look back! • Not allowed to look at her until they are completely out of the underworld • He looks back, makes eye contact and she falls back into the underworld • No second chances • Orpheus’ misogyny • Origin of homosexuality in Thrace • So lost in love with his wife, if he was going to have sex it would be with a man • Death • Frenzied gang of women kill him Orphism • Mystery religion • Dionysus • Vegetarians • Transmigration of the soul • The soul crosses from form to form • Emphasis on musical harmony • Influence on Plato & Vergil Chapter 17 – The Theban Saga The Founding of Thebes • Europa • Abducted from Tyre by Zeus; b/c Zeus was in love • He turned himself into a bull until she fell in love with it • He walks into the ocean • Taken to Crete • Mother of Minos • Cadmus (Europa’s brother) • Sets out to find sister • Found city • Cadmeia in Boeotia o Becomes Thebes • Sewing the Dragons teeth • Grows men up and kills them • 5 survivors called “Spartoi” (sown men) • Noble families of Thebes • Marriage to Harmonia • Daughter of Ares and Aphrodite • Introduced writing • Transformed into serpents • Death of Pentheus • New dynasty • Lycus • Son of Chthonius (one of Spartoi) • Lycus, Dirce killed by nephews (Amphion and Zethus) • Amphion and Zethus • Renamed city “Thebes” • Laius • Takes throne after death of Amphion and Zethus • Guestfriend with Pelops (king of Elis) • Abducted, raped Chrysippus (son of Pelops) • Suicide in shame • Origin of homosexuality? • Laius and Jocasta • Cursed by Zeus • Circumvention of fate? • Exposure of Oedipus • Given to Corinthian shepherd • Raised by Polybus (kind of Corinth) • Oedipus • The Delphic Oracle • Avoid home • Travels to Thebes The Seven Against Thebes • Curse of Oedipus • Eteocles and Polynices • Always at war • Should kill each other • Polynices in exile • Marriage to Argea (daughter of Adrastus, king of Argos) • Attempt of reclaim throne • Secen gates of Thebes • Seven leaders: Adrastus, Polynices, Tydeus, Capaneus, Hippomedon, PArthenopaeus, Amphiaraus • Prohey/curse fulfilled • Polynices, Eteocles die Antigone • Creon • New King of Thebes • Forbids burial for Polynices • Symbolic burial • Condemned to be buried alive • Tragedy ensues Suicides of Antigone, Haemon (Creon’s son), Eurydice (Creon’s wife)
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