Soc 101: Exam #3 Study Guide
Soc 101: Exam #3 Study Guide Soc 101
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hailey Hansen on Monday October 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 101 at University of Mississippi taught by Dr. Miguel Centellas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views.
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Date Created: 10/17/16
THE THIRD EXAM IS ON FRIDAY, OCTOBER 21, 2016 This exam will cover material from Chapters 7, 8, & 9. Learning Objectives Chapter 7 1. Describe the dimensions of social stratification in the United States. Social stratification is the hierarchical differences and inequalities in economic positions, as well as in other important areas, especially political power and status or social honor. It is seen as (from the top of the pyramid down) the upper class (1%), middle class (44%), working class (43%), and lower class (12%). The layer that you fall in is determined by the following three dimensions: social class, status, or power. oSocial class – one’s economic position in the stratification system, especially one’s occupation, which strongly determines and reflects one’s income and wealth oStatus – the prestige attached to a person’s positions within society oPower – the ability to get others to do what you want them to do, even if it is against their will 2. Identify the factors involved in U.S. economic inequality. Inequality is defined as the condition whereby some positions in society yield a great deal of money, status, and power, while others yield little, if any, of these. The factors that are involved in economic inequality are income and wealth. oIncome – the amount of money a person earns in a given year from a job, a business, or various types of assets and investments oWealth – the total amount of a person’s assets less the total of various kinds of debts 3. Identify the types of social mobility in the United States. Social mobility is defined as the ability or inability to change one’s position in the social hierarchy. oVertical mobility – upward and downward mobility oHorizontal mobility – movement within one’s social class Intergenerational mobility – the difference between the parents’ social class position and the position achieved by their children Intragenerational mobility – movement up or down the stratification system in one’s lifetime 4. Discuss structural/functional, conflict/critical, and inter/actionist theories of social stratification. Structural/Functional – The structural/functional theory argues that all societies are, and have been, stratified, and contends that societies need a system of stratification in order to exist and to function properly. The social stratification system seen as functional for the larger society. It assumes that higherlevel occupations, are more important to society than lowerlevel occupations. Conflict/Critical – The conflict/critical theory takes a hard look at who benefits from the existing stratification system and how those benefits are perpetuated. They wonder whether higherlevel positions are always more important. They don’t think that providing huge sums of money is the only way to motivate people to pursue an advanced education or whatever is necessary to occupy highranking positions. Inter/Actionist – The inter/actionist theory believes that social stratification is not a function of macrolevel structures but of microlevel, individual actions and interactions, and that inequality ultimately depends on what happens in faceto face interaction. They also think that those at the top must not show too much sympathy for those below them, and those at the bottom must not display too much anger toward those above them. 5. Explain the relationship between consumption and social stratification in the United States. Georg Simmel – argued that those in higher levels of the stratification system continually seek to distinguish their consumption from that of those below them. Thorstein Veblen – theorized about elites shifted more towards conspicuous consumption, wanting others to see what they were able to consume especially those things that served to differentiate them from those in lower social classes. Pierre Bourdieu – argued that the desire for distinction, or the need to distinguish oneself from others, motivates the consumption and leisure habits of elites. 6. Describe the positions in global stratification. Global North – countries with the highest status in the world; United States, China, Germany, France, Great Britain, Japan Global South – countries that rank at or near the bottom in terms of global wealth, power, and prestige; countries in Africa and Asia, Afghanistan, Yemen oHighincome economies – economies in countries with the highest wealth and income in the world, defined by the World Bank in 2014 as having a gross national income per capita of at least $12,746 oMiddleincome economies – economies in countries with income that is average for the world, defined by the World Bank 2014 as having a gross national income per capita of between $1,046 and $12,745 oLowincome economies – economies in countries with the lowest levels of income in the world, defined by the World Bank as a gross national income per capita below $1,046 7. Discuss global economic inequalities. Global Digital Divide –The low incomes in areas in the Global South make complex digital technologies extremely expensive. Additionally, most websites on the Internet are in English, which limits access to other viewers. Global Health Inequality – those in poor nations tend to have poorer health as a result of limited access to health services, sanitation, and adequate nutrition. 90% of the total burden of disease is concentrated in low and middleincome economies, which account for only 10% of health care expenditures. Gender Stratification – Globally, women tend to earn lower wages than men, and mothers earn less than fathers. The migration of domestic workers in caregiving work creates global care chains that involve a series of personal relationships between people across the globe based on the paid or unpaid work of caring, which includes social, health, and sexual care services. 8. Explain why and how positions change in global stratification. Race to the Bottom – Those countries who rank low in the global stratification system often have to race to become the poorest, before they can have a chance of moving up the stratification system. Foreign Aid and Development – Foreign aid is economic assistance given by countries or global institutions to a foreign country in order to promote its development and social welfare. Foreign aid aims to generate economic growth and domestic savings in recipient countries. 9. Discuss structural/function and conflict/critical theories of global stratification. Structural/Functional – The most significant aspect of the structural/functional theory is the modernization theory, which explains unequal economic distributions based on the structural (especially technological) and cultural differences between countries. In addition to the modernization theory, Edward Tiryakian put forth the neomodernization theory, which explains the differences in the economic and social development of countries based on technological and cultural differences. Walt Rostow saw countries as progressing through four stages in a very linear path on their way to economic development: oTraditional stage: Societies which have lived their lives in the same way for many generations, characterized by hardships and a lack of material comfort. oTakeoff stage: Begin to abandon their traditional values, and begin to save and invest, with a growing desire for material goods. oDrive to technological maturity: Development of more advanced industries, high levels of investment, increasing urbanization, and higher standards of living. oHigh mass consumption: People come to expect the everyday conveniences of consumer society, but values have largely moved away from family and community. Conflict/Critical – Conflict/critical theory is one of the most influential at the global level. The worldsystems theory focuses on the stratification of nation states on a global scale. It focuses on the current stratification system by viewing the world as a single economic entity. It divides the world between the core and the periphery: oCore: Wealthiest industrialized countries, which includes Western European countries, the U.S., Australia, and Japan. oPeriphery: Nationstates that are dependent on and exploited by, the core nationstates, and includes most of Africa, parts of Asia, the Middle East, and South America. Chapter 8 1. Contrast historical and recent views of racial categories and ethnic identities in the United States. Race – a social definition based on some real or presumed physical, biological characteristic of a person, such as skin color or hair texture, as well as a shared lineage Ethnicity – a sense, shared by members of the group, of belonging to and identifying with a given ethnic group Historically, people “scientifically” justified the unequal distribution of wealth, power, prestige, access to resources, and life chances to subordinate racial groups by applying the idea of social Darwinism, meaning racial differences were the result of evolutionary differences among the races. Today, explanations based on social and cultural factors such as religion, language, and national origin are more prevalent. 2. Describe the effects of stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and the social construction of difference on majorityminority relations. Majority – a group in a dominant position along the dimensions of wealth, power, and prestige Minority – a group in a subordinate position in terms of wealth, power, and prestige Stereotypes – an exaggerated generalization about an entire category of peole that is thought to apply to everyone in that category Prejudice – negative attitudes, beliefs, and feelings toward minorities Discrimination – the unfavorable treatment of black Americans and other minorities, either formally or informally, simply because of their race or some other such characteristic 3. Discuss the foundations of racism, including xenophobia, ethnocentrism, and social structures and institutions. Xenophobia – prejudices that cause people to reject, exclude, and vilify groups that are outsiders or foreigners to the dominant social group Ethnocentrism – the belief that one’s own group or culture – including its norms, values, customs, and so on – is superior to, or better than, others Many sociologists believe that a part of the larger culture of the U.S. involves a way of thinking that is potentially racist. oWhite racial frame – an array of racist ideas, racial stereotypes, racialized stories and tales, racist images, powerful racial emotions, and various inclinations to discriminate against blacks 4. Describe how globalization is affecting ethnic identities, ethnic conflicts, and migrations. Diaspora – dispersal, typically involuntary, of a racial or ethnic population from its traditional homeland and over a wide geographic area Orientalism – a set of ideas and texts produced in the West that served as the basis or dominating, controlling, and exploiting the Orient (the East) and its many minority groups Expulsion – removal of a minority group from a territory, either by forcible ejection through military and other government action or by “voluntary” emigration due to the majority’s harassment, discrimination, and persecution Ethnic cleansing – the establishment by the dominant group of policies that allow or require the foible removal of people of another ethnic group Genocide – an active systematic attempt to eliminate an entire group of people Chapter 9 1. Discuss the cultural influences on gender and the effects of gender inequalities. Gender – the physical, behavioral, and personality characteristics that are socially defined as appropriate for one’s sex Today’s culture relentlessly tells us how we should behave according to our gender. This is called hegemonic masculinity and emphasized femininity. Hegemonic masculinity is the dominant form or most idealized vision of masculinity; taken for granted as natural and linked to patriarchy. Emphasized femininity is a set of socially constructed ideas about “model womanhood” organized around accommodating the interests of men and patriarchy. Gender inequalities are things such as labeling some toys for boys (construction sets and cars) and others for girls (princess outfits and play kitchens). Additionally, perhaps the most widely cited inequality is the wage gap (women earn $0.80 to every $1.00 earned by a man). 2. Describe the ways in which social forces and factors constrain sexuality. Sexuality – the ways in which people think about, and behave toward, themselves and others as sexual beings There are many social factors that seem to constrain sexuality: oSocial changes in attitudes and behaviors, such as the increase in casual sexual relationships. oGrowing number of sexually linked social problems, such as HIV/AIDS and sexual violence. Consensual sexual activities – sexual activities agreed upon by the participants, any of whom have the right to decide to stop at any point and for any reason Informed (effective) sexual consent – participants’ understanding of and free consent to specific sexual activities in a mutually understandable way Sexual assault – sexual acts of domination, usually enacted by men against women, other men, and children Rape – penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim oSex tourism – activity that occurs when individuals travel to other countries for the purpose of buying sex from men, women, and sometimes children there; sex is the primary or sole purpose of these trips oSex trafficking – a commercial sex act that includes force, fraud, or coercion and transporting and obtaining a person for sex acts 3. Describe the effects of globalization on gender and sexualities. There are many aspects to the globalization of sexuality: oGlobalized media and technologies oIncreased urbanization Urbanization makes it easier for sex trafficking and sex tourism oGlobalized social movements and social change Women’s movements and LGBT movements are global oIncreased mobility Global travel 4. Discuss global flows related to gender. The increase in women’s labor force participation is a global trend. This increase is known as the feminization of labor, which is the rise of female labor participation in all sectors and the movement of women into jobs traditionally held by men. This is often accompanied by female proletarianization, or the channeling of an increasing number of women into lowstatus, poorly paid manual work. Important Terms: Chapter 7 Achievement – the accomplishment, or the merit, of the individual Ascription – being born with or inheriting certain characteristics (wealth, high status, and so on) Distinction – the need to distinguish oneself from others Feminization of poverty – the rise in the number of women falling below the poverty line Poverty line – the threshold, in terms of income, below which a household is considered poor Structural mobility – the effect of changes in the larger society on the position of individuals in the stratification system, especially the occupational structure Important Terms: Chapter 8 Assimilation – the integration of minorities into the dominant culture Ethnic group – a group typically defined on the basis of some cultural characteristic such as language, religion, traditions, and cultural practices Hegemony – the subordination of one race (or other group) by another, more on the basis of dominant ideas, especially about cultural differences, than through material constraints Institutional racism – racebased discrimination that results from the daytoday operation of social institutions and social structures and their rules, policies, and practices Intersectionality – the confluence, or intersection, of various social statuses and the inequality and oppression associated with each in combination with others; the idea that members of any given minority group are affected by the nature of their position in other systems or other forms of social inequality Majorityminority population – a population in which more than 50% of the members are part of a minority group Pluralism – the coexistence of many groups without any of them losing their individual qualities Racism – the act of defining a group as a race and attributing negative characteristics to that group Segregation – the physical and social separation of majority and minority groups Important Terms: Chapter 9 Gender identity – a person’s internal sense of gender Gender role – the social presentation of gender that includes clothing, hairstyle, and attitudinal and behavioral traits Heterosexism – the belief that heterosexuality is superior to other sexual orientations; individual and institutional discrimination against those with other orientations Heterosexual double standard – a cultural belief system in which men are expected to desire and seek sex from whomever, whenever, while women are expected to be sexual only within committed, romantic relationships Hidden curriculum – a school’s unofficial norms, routines, and structures that transmit dominant cultural norms and values Homophobia – the fear of being, appearing, or seeming gay; fear of anyone or “anything” gay Intersex – a general term used for a variety of (medical) conditions in which a person is born with reproductive or sexual anatomy that does not seem to fit the typical definitions of male or female Sex – a biological term, expressed as female or male; typically reflected in chromosomes, gonads, genitalia, and hormones Sexual identity – an internal sense of one’s sexual self Sexual orientation – involves whom one desires (fantasies), which whom one wants to have sexual relations (behavior), and with whom one has a sense of connectedness (feelings) Sexual scripts – the culturally produced, shared, and reinforced social norms that serve as blueprints, or maps, to guide sexual and gender behavior Transgender – an umbrella term for people whose gender identity and/or gender presentation differs from the gender assigned at birth or in infancy
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