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What is the polar jet stream?

What is the polar jet stream?

Description

School: California State University Northridge
Department: Geography
Course: Geog 101
Professor: Mia dittmer
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: geography
Cost: 25
Name: Geog 101, Week 6
Description: Notes from 10/14
Uploaded: 10/17/2016
14 Pages 65 Views 4 Unlocks
Reviews


IV. Global surface pressure systems (handout) /V. Global surface winds (handout)


What is the polar jet stream?



1. Everything begins at the Equator because it’s hot. The air is going to be rising everywhere all along the Equator because of the low pressure.

a. Low Pressure: in and up.

b. High Pressure: down and out.

2. The air always comes back at 30 degrees N and S due to the mid air collision. (Subtropical high pressure).

a. Low Pressure: cloudy skies.

b. High Pressure: clear skies.


What is the global surface pressure systems?



3. The air coming out the high pressure will flow clockwise. We’ll get winds moving towards the low pressure.

4. Westerlies wind belt dominates our weather.

5. Same things happen in the South atmosphere and the air flows in a counterclockwise direction. Don't forget about the age old question of What is broca's area?

6. High pressure at the poles because of descending cold air. Clear skies prevail.

VI. Special winds

A. The ITC​ and monsoons

a. ITC: inter tropical convergence zone. Northeast and Southeast trades wind converging enhance low pressure. ITC follows the subsolar point throughout the year, it’s following where the heat is. It shifts to the North in the summer and shifts South in winter.

B. Santa Anas:

a. They occur in the fall and winter months of the year in CA. It can happen in the spring as well.


Santa anas occur in the fall and?



b. You must have a high pressure condition (from desert great basin in Nevada). The wind has to go over the mountains. They move from 3,000-4,000ft elevation to sea level. Descending air> compression of air molecules > friction > warming. Promotes evaporation > dries everything out (dry wind 5-15% relative humidity).

We also discuss several other topics like What is the economic theory that arose after wwii?

VII. Circulation at high levels

A. Upper air westerlies and the Polar jet stream

a. Upper air westerlies:

i. winds that occur a lot - 7 miles above our heads;

ii. found at 60 degrees North;

iii. low pressure system - cloudy belt, where storms form.

b. Polar jet stream:

i. boundary between cold polar air to the North and warm tropical air to

the South;

ii. the polar jet stream sometimes it might start to get a little bit wavy,

(rossby wave);

iii. guides winter storms (by pushing them along); Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between minority and majority?

iv. supplies energy to the winter storms.

[this diagram will be on the test]

● Know where is Low/High pressure

● Know the wind patterns

B. Rossby wavesDon't forget about the age old question of A tsunami was caused by what?

VIII. Ocean Currents

A. Surface currents

a. Surface currents are driven by global wind pattern. The wind flows across the surface of water and the water follows along where the wind is going. b. Western and Northern Europe are about 10-12 degrees warmer year around thanks to the Gulf stream.

B. Global patterns

a. Gyres

i. Circulation patterns in the world’s oceans, they help redistribute heat energy.

b. Upwelling

i. Upwelling is the vertical rise of deep cold ocean water to the surface along the Western coastlines of our continent. If you want to learn more check out How to achieve independence?

ii. It only happens in the Western coastline of the continent. Trade winds cause upwelling.

iii. Marine fisheries are very strong around cold currents.

iv. Sometimes upwelling gets disrupted.

C. El Nino

a. The Southern oscillation is the reversal of normal pressure and wind patterns. It triggers El Nino;

b. El Nino is the reversal of ocean currents.

Don't forget about the age old question of What are the new techniques in agriculture?

D. La Niña

a. La Niña is when we have cooler than normal sea surface temperatures in the eastern pacific.

b. In CA this creates a persistent high pressure over CA. It will not go away. The high pressure is stuck over California (we get drought in CA). It can last for years. It could reach a 20 year period of droughts or 100 year period of droughts.

c. It blocks the low pressure. Oregon and Washington get our winter storms on top of their storms.

IV. Global surface pressure systems (handout) /V. Global surface winds (handout)

1. Everything begins at the Equator because it’s hot. The air is going to be rising everywhere all along the Equator because of the low pressure.

a. Low Pressure: in and up.

b. High Pressure: down and out.

2. The air always comes back at 30 degrees N and S due to the mid air collision. (Subtropical high pressure).

a. Low Pressure: cloudy skies.

b. High Pressure: clear skies.

3. The air coming out the high pressure will flow clockwise. We’ll get winds moving towards the low pressure.

4. Westerlies wind belt dominates our weather.

5. Same things happen in the South atmosphere and the air flows in a counterclockwise direction.

6. High pressure at the poles because of descending cold air. Clear skies prevail.

VI. Special winds

A. The ITC​ and monsoons

a. ITC: inter tropical convergence zone. Northeast and Southeast trades wind converging enhance low pressure. ITC follows the subsolar point throughout the year, it’s following where the heat is. It shifts to the North in the summer and shifts South in winter.

B. Santa Anas:

a. They occur in the fall and winter months of the year in CA. It can happen in the spring as well.

b. You must have a high pressure condition (from desert great basin in Nevada). The wind has to go over the mountains. They move from 3,000-4,000ft elevation to sea level. Descending air> compression of air molecules > friction > warming. Promotes evaporation > dries everything out (dry wind 5-15% relative humidity).

VII. Circulation at high levels

A. Upper air westerlies and the Polar jet stream

a. Upper air westerlies:

i. winds that occur a lot - 7 miles above our heads;

ii. found at 60 degrees North;

iii. low pressure system - cloudy belt, where storms form.

b. Polar jet stream:

i. boundary between cold polar air to the North and warm tropical air to

the South;

ii. the polar jet stream sometimes it might start to get a little bit wavy,

(rossby wave);

iii. guides winter storms (by pushing them along);

iv. supplies energy to the winter storms.

[this diagram will be on the test]

● Know where is Low/High pressure

● Know the wind patterns

B. Rossby waves

VIII. Ocean Currents

A. Surface currents

a. Surface currents are driven by global wind pattern. The wind flows across the surface of water and the water follows along where the wind is going. b. Western and Northern Europe are about 10-12 degrees warmer year around thanks to the Gulf stream.

B. Global patterns

a. Gyres

i. Circulation patterns in the world’s oceans, they help redistribute heat energy.

b. Upwelling

i. Upwelling is the vertical rise of deep cold ocean water to the surface along the Western coastlines of our continent.

ii. It only happens in the Western coastline of the continent. Trade winds cause upwelling.

iii. Marine fisheries are very strong around cold currents.

iv. Sometimes upwelling gets disrupted.

C. El Nino

a. The Southern oscillation is the reversal of normal pressure and wind patterns. It triggers El Nino;

b. El Nino is the reversal of ocean currents.

D. La Niña

a. La Niña is when we have cooler than normal sea surface temperatures in the eastern pacific.

b. In CA this creates a persistent high pressure over CA. It will not go away. The high pressure is stuck over California (we get drought in CA). It can last for years. It could reach a 20 year period of droughts or 100 year period of droughts.

c. It blocks the low pressure. Oregon and Washington get our winter storms on top of their storms.

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