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AP Study Guide

by: Sasha Lopez

AP Study Guide

Sasha Lopez
Lorain County Community College

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My first study guide based off what my professor wanted us to know.
Anatomy and Physiology I
Study Guide
AP, anatomy, Anatomyandphysiology, Studyguide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sasha Lopez on Monday October 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Lorain County Community College taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology I in Anatomy at Lorain County Community College.

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Date Created: 10/17/16
Study Guide for Exam #1: Chapters 1­4                                  Exam date: 9­12­16 Chapter 1 What is a negative feedback? This process returns a regulated variable to within the  normal range and the activity of the effector then declines. (Most common type of  feedback) An example is your body regulating its body temperature. If your body  becomes too hot, your body will go throu the negative feedback to regulate its  temperature. What is a positive feedback? An escalating response to a deviation from a normal  range. When the effector response is triggered, it triggers additional effectors, which  amplifies the response. This cycle is ended by an outside event. An example is  childbirth because while a woman is in labor, a hormone called oxytocin is released to  intnesifiy and speeds up contractions. What is homeostasis? The body's processes work to keep the regulated variables of  the internal environment within set ranges. An example is your body keeping a  temperature of 98.6 degrees. What is anatomical position? When the body is standing upright and the feet are  shoulder width apart, with the upper limbs at the sides of the trunk and the head and  palms facing forward.  Anatomical Sections: ­Sagittal plane: When body is divided into left & right sections.          *Midsagittal: Divided into equal left & right parts.          *Parasagittal: Diving into unequal left & right parts ­Frontal plane or coronal plane: When the body is divided into anterior & posterior parts. ­Transverse/horizontal plane or cross section: When the body is divided into superior &  inferior parts. ­Oblique plane: Taken at an angle that are useful for examining structures like the knee  joint. The 5 body cavities: Cranial Cavity: Holds the brain Vertebral Cavity: Holds the spinal cord Thoracic Cavity: Holds heart and lungs etc.. Abdominal Cavity: Holds stomach and spleen etc.. Pelvic Cavity: Holds the reproductive organs and the urinary bladder etc.. Pericardial Cavity: A cavity within the mediastinum in the thoracic cavity that surrounds the heart. Pleural Cavity: Right and left cavities that surrounds one lung. Located within the  serous membrane.  Peritoneal Cavity: Subcavity within the serous membrane that holds some organs of  multiple systems. What are the names of the 2 membranes in them? The visceral layer is the inner layer that contacts the organ itself and the parietal layer  which is the outer layer that attaches its surrounding structures. The 4 quadrants: RUQ: Right Upper Quadrant  LUQ: Left Upper Quadrant (Stomach, spleen) RLQ: Right Lower Quadrant  LLQ: Left Lower Quadrant  The 9 main sections: Right & Left hypochondriac regions (lie below cartilage) Epigastric region (middle top between hypochondriac regions) Right & Left lumbar regions (lies over stomach) Umbilical region (lies over the umbilicus) Right & Left iliac or inguinal region (lie in the inguinal region) Hypogastric region (lies below stomach between the iliac regions) Chapter 2 Which is smaller and larger? Protons have a positive charge. Neutrons are slightly larger than protons and have no  charger. Electrons have a negative charge and are tiny.  Which charge is associated with each? Neutral atom What molecules are starch made of? Starch is a polysaccharide made up by chains of glucose molecules that are joined  together by glycosidic bonds.  What is a monosaccharide? The simplest form of sugar or carbohydrates that consist of one unit. They are the  building blocks for more complex carbohydrate forms. (Ex: glucose, fructose) A disaccharides?  A molecule with two monosaccharides joined by a polar covalent bond. (Ex: sucrose,  lactose) How are disaccharides digested? Enzymes break down disaccharides (hydrolysis). What are the 4 main types of organic molecules? Carbohydrates: Composed of carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen. Function as fuels.  Lipids: Nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules composed mostly of carbon & hydrogen. Proteins: Functions as enzymes, play structural roles, involved in movement, used as  fuel and more. Nucleotides: A monomer composed of three parts: a nitrogenous base, a sugar, & a  phosphate group. Name 3 lipid types and their functions. Triglycerides (fats or oils): Energy storage. Phospholipids: Self assemble into bilayers that shield the tail from the water forming  membranes.  Steroids (cholesterol, steroid hormones): Plays a role in cell repair, formation of new  cells, plays a role in the production of hormones. What is a peptide bond?  Two amino acids that are joined by a polar covalent bond.  What is the function of DNA? To give genetic instructions to living things and long­term storage of information. (A, G,  C, T are only found in DNA) What is the function of RNA? Protein synthesis. Involved in transcription and translation. It is a copy of the protein  from DNA. It helps to assemble amino acids into a protein outside the nucleus via  translation. Chapter 3 What chemicals is a plasma membrane made of? Phospholipids and proteins embedded in. Definitions of Organelles. (Look at Lab cell definitions) What is diffusion and passive transport? Diffusion is a type of passive transport in which molecules move down their  concentration gradient until equilibrium is reached. Passive transport transports  substances across the membrane with no ATP expenditure.  What is carrier mediated transport? The movement of molecules across the cell membrane via special transport proteins  that are embedded within the cellular membrane. What is facilitated diffusion? The process of spontaneous passive transport of molecules or ions across a biological  membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins. What is active transport? Transport substances across the membrane using ATP. What is osmosis? A type of passive transport in which water moves across from a lower solute to a region  of higher solute. Explain endocytosis. The process by which large molecules enter the cell and there are two types called  phagocytosis and pinocytosis. Explain exocytosis. The process by which large molecules exit the cell. The molecules are packed into a  vesicle that fuses with the plasma membrane, releasing the molecules into the  extracellular fluid, a process known as secretion. Where is the cells genetic code found? In all forms of life on Earth. In the DNA. What is a codon? A complementary RNA "copy" of the DNA triplet. What are 3 types of RNA? mRNA, tRNA, rRNA What is mitosis/meiosis? Mitosis is when cells divide. It divides the cells replicated DNA between the two  daughter cells. And Meiosis is when chromosomes are copied, paired up and separated to create a sperm and eggs.  Explain the steps in DNA replication. 1. The DNA strands are unwound by helicase 2. Builds the RNA primers 3. DNA polymerase builds the new DNA strands by adding  complementary bases to  the template strands Steps to make protein 1. Transcription ­ conversion of DNA to mRNA.  2. Translation ­ Conversion of mRNA to amino acids  3. Post translation processing ­ conversion of amino acids to polypeptide chains and  transporting to the site of action. Transcription and translation. During the process of transcription, the cell copies the information in the gene into a  messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript with the help of enzyme RNA polymerase. During  the process of translation, the code in the mRNA transcript of a gene is translated into  the amino acid sequence of a particular polypeptide. (Takes place in a ribosome) Chapter 4 4 tissue types: Epithelial Tissue: Consist of sheets of cells that are tightly packed together with no  visible ECM (extracellular matrix). Covers and lines all body surfaces & cavities. Connective Tissue: Connects all other tissues in the body to one another.  Muscle Tissue: Composed of cells that can contract and generate force, with little EMC  between the cells. Nervous Tissue: Unique EMC, as well as cells that can generate, send, receive  messages, and other cells that support this activity.  2 types of glands; Endocrine and exocrine: Endocrine glands: Release their products to the apical surface of the epithelium. The  product is secreted through a duct line with epithelial cells. Local actions only.  Exocrine glands: Lack ducts and secrete their products, usually hormones, directly into  the blood. 4 types of connective tissue: Connective Tissue Proper: Connects tissue and organs to one another & forms part of  the internal architecture of some organs. Cartilage: Found in joints between bones (nose, ears, certain respiratory passages)  Tough but flexible. Types are hyaline, fibrocartilage, & elastic cartilage) Blood: It's ECM is fluid. The ECM of blood is called plasma & consists largely of water,  dissolved solutes & proteins.  Bone: Also called osseous tissue, supports our body protects the vital organs,  provides a place for muscle of voluntary movement to attach to, stores calcium, &  houses bone marrow (the tissue that produces our blood cells and stores fat) 3 types of cartilage and a example of each: Hyaline Cartilage: Covers the end of bones where they form joints. (Ex: trachea, in the  nose) Fibrocartilage: Filled with bundles of collagen fibers. (Ex: fibrous joints & in the  intervertebral discs) Elastic Cartilage: Filled with elastic fibers which allows tissue to vibrate & assist in  detection of sound in the air plus the production of sound by the larynx. (Ex: Larynx,  epiglottis)  2 nerve cell types and function of each: Neurons: Send & receive messages. Neuroglial Cells: Smaller cells that surrounds neurons (supportive cells). Anchor  neurons & blood vessels in place, monitor the composition of ECM fluid, speed up the  rate of nerve impulse transmission, & circulate the fluid that surrounds the brain and  spinal cord. They can divide by mitosis. 6 epithelial cell types and where are they found? Simple: One single layer of cells. Stratified: More than one cell layer. Squamous: Flat cells (scales) Cuboidal: Short cube cells Columnar: Tall & elongated Pseudostratified: Fake, appears to be stratified. Transitional: Type of stratified & appears to be between cuboidal & squamous.                      ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­>(Look at page 134 to see where it's located)<­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ Types of exocrine glands are: Simple glands: Have a unbranched duct. Compound glands: Have a branched duct. 3 main elements of connective tissue; special cells of connective tissue: Fibers: Numerous, large molecules embedded in the ground substance. (Collagen  fibers, elastic fibers, reticular fibers) Ground substance: Shapeless and gel like. Contains extracellular fluid consisting of  water, ions, nutrients etc.. Cells:  A type of structure that exists within the tissue of some multicellular organisms.  Provide contact between neighboring cells by multiprotein complexes. Specialized connective tissue includes tendons and ligaments, Bone and Cartilage,  hematopoietic tissue, blood and adipose tissue. 3 muscle types and are they involuntary or voluntary? Skeletal Muscle Tissue: Found mostly attached to the skeleton, where its contraction  produces body movement & its voluntary movement. Cardiac Muscle Tissue: Found only in the heart & its involuntary movement. Smooth Muscle Tissue: Found in the wall of nearly every hollow organ and as well as  the walls of blood vessels, eyes, skin, and the ducts of certain glands & is involuntary. Tissue repair and how is it done? During regeneration, damage cells are replaced with cells of the same type and the  tissue is able to fulfill its normal function. During fibrosis, fibroblasts, fill in the detect with dense irregular connective tissues, forming scar tissue. The tissue is unable to resume  its normal functions after fibrosis has taken place. *Epithelial tissue typically undergo regeneration. *Most connective tissues heal by regeneration; however, cartilage often heals by  fibrosis. *Smooth muscle tissue is capable of regeneration. Skeletal & cardiac muscle cells heal  primarily by fibrosis. *Nervous tissue heals primarily by fibrosis, although certain axons can regenerate if the  cell body of the neuron is in intact. *Nutrition and blood supply to the damaged tissue are important factors in the ability of  a tissue to heal. Carcinoma: Cancer of epithelial tissues Sarcoma: Tumor in bones & connective issues Lymphoma: Group of blood cell tumors that develop from lymphocytes. Cancer of the  lymphatic system. Adenoma: A benign tumor formed from glandular structures in epithelial tissue.


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