Intro to Psychology Midterm 4 Study Guide
Intro to Psychology Midterm 4 Study Guide PSYC 1101
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chapman Lindgren on Monday October 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Achee in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 464 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/17/16
Psychology Notes Week 9 These notes cover what is in the book chapter 3.1,3.2,3.3, and 3.4 Neurology is the study of the brain and nervous system 1. The Nervous System i. How the brain communicates with the body ii. The nerve “wiring” of your boy iii. Electrical signals travel between nerves and muscles b. The Central Nervous System (CNS) (brain and spinal cord) i. Physical center of nervous system ii. Nerves branch off the spinal cord and create a system through the rest of the body c. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) i. The web of nerves branching off from the CNS (rest of nerves in the body) ii. Nerves travel in the PNS from the CNS all the way to extremities such as fingertips and toes iii. There are 2 different types of nerves in the PNS: 1. Somatic Nervous System (SoNS) is responsible for voluntary movements a. Sensory nerves: stimulations like sight, touch, smell, etc. travel to the brain b. Motor nerves: brain sends signals out to the rest of the body c. Somatic nerves: connected to the parts of the body you have voluntary control over i. To move a hand voluntarily, the brain sends signals through the somatic nerves 2. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) is responsible for involuntary movement a. Autonomic nerves are connected to parts of the body that operate automatically (breathing, blinking, etc.) i. When Dr. Achee, screamed through his microphone in class, your hand probably jerked and your heartrate spiked. Your brain automatically did these things through autonomic nerves to protect you ii. Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS): activates what is often termed the flight or fight response 1. Autonomic nerves that prepare your body’s reation to fight, flight (flee), or freeze iii. Parasympathetic Nervous System 1. What “calms you down” after a reaction from the SNS Psychology Notes Week 9 a. After Dr. Achee screamed into the microphone, the parasympathetic nervous system relaxed your muscles and lowered your heartrate CNS and PNS d. The Endocrine System i. A system of glands (glands produce chemicals / hormones for the body) ii. Endocrine glands are controlled by the autonomic nervous system 1. When Dr. Achee yelled into the microphone, the SNS caused adrenal glands to release epinephrine, which raises heartrate 2. The PNS triggered the release of norepinephrine to bring heartrate back down Psychology Notes Week 9 2. The Neuron: the “building block” of the nervous system a. A never cell is abnormally complicated for a cell b. Nerve cells are very active (constant neuron firing) A. The Synapse or Synaptic Cleft a. A synapse is where the first neuron and second neuron “connect b. 1 neuron fires (synapse) 2 ndneuron fires Psychology Notes Week 9 This study c. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are released into the guide does synaptic cleft and travels to the receptors on the dendrite not include 1. Excitatory neurons: chemicals that make other neurons Wednesday’s excited and more likely to fire notes. Please 2. Inhibitory neurons do the opposite email me at cjl10562@ug 3. Drugs simulate brain activity because they often have a.edu for the the same shapes as neurons and stimulate neuron firing complete 4. Neurotransmission: chemical firing study guide 5. SSRI- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: typically using the code used as anti-depressants. “PSYCH4”. 1. SSRIs increase serotonin quantities in the brain 3. The Brain a. Basically just a big bundle of nerve cells A. The Source of the mind a. the brain controls (and creates) your mind I. Evidence from damage proves this When people damage their brain it can also severely affect the mind, personality, and emotions Psychological/behavioral damage always occurs with brain damage Broca’s Area: speech center of the brain o Autopsies of people who couldn’t speak showed they all had damage to their Broca’s area o When there’s sudden brain trauma there’s instant psychological change o Phineas Gage II. Evidence from imaging 1. Wernecke’s Area is the center for our ability to understand others a. If a 70-year-old experiences damage here, they wouldn’t be able to recognize their native tongue Psychology Notes Week 9 2. Brain scans show which areas of the brain are working at a specific time III. Evidence from stimulation 3. Electrons are put in certain places in the brain to force neurons to fire and produce a certain action reaction 4. Direct simulation of the brain 5. There are no pain sensing nerves in the brain (why some patients are kept awake during neurosurgery) B. Localization a. Specific parts of the brain perform specific functions 1. Phrenology 1. Like going to the gym for your brain 2. Assumption that the skull is flexible (false) 3. Doctors study the shape and size of the cranium as a supposed indication of character and mental abilities 2. Parts of the Brain 1. Hindbrain, Midbrain, and Forebrain a. Divided up by specific function(s) b. Hindbrain is in the back of the brain, midbrain is in the middle, and forebrain is the section at the front of the brain c. Localization of function: i. Hindbrain: controls basic, biological bodily functions 1. Brain death can result from a damaged hindbrain ii. Midbrain: has more psychological features such as memory and emotion iii. Forebrain: where higher thought processes, speech, etc. occur 1. We have proportionally more forebrain than any other mammal iv. Limbic system: all parts of the nervous system that have to do with emotion (fall parts of the brain have some influence on emotion despite localized functions) Psychology Notes Week 9 3. Cerebral Cortex a. Part of the forebrain b. Most thinking occurs here c. left and right cortex 1. 4 Lobes of the Cortex i. each division of the cortex is physically divided into 4 parts a. Frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal (FPOT) b. Frontal i. contains most of the dopamine- sensitive neurons in the cerebral cortex. The dopamine system is associated with reward, attention, short-term memory tasks, planning, and motivation c. Occipital: related to vision, any activity here gives a sensation of vision i. Brain scans: this area of the brain can light up during dreams/when seeing things ii. Perception of vision (you might not always be seeing something, just thinking you are d. Temporal: has auditory cortex i. Involved in processing sensory information to look for meaning of visual Psychology Notes Week 9 memory, language comprehension, and emotion association e. Parietal i. Contains the Somatosensory cortex (sense of touch) ii. Integrates sensory information from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors) iii. Language processing
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