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SOC Midterm

by: Amy Chapman

SOC Midterm SOC 101

Amy Chapman


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Covers Chapters 1-5
Margaret Taylor
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Chapman on Monday October 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 101 at Greenville Technical College taught by Margaret Taylor in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Sociology in Sociology 101 at Greenville Technical College.


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Date Created: 10/17/16
Hi Gang,  Below are the terms and concepts that you want to make sure you are comfortable with for our  upcoming quest and exam.  As always, if you have any questions or concerns ­ please call, email  or drop by during my office hours.  Be sure to prepare well! Chapter One – The Sociological Imagination The sociological imagination: the vivid awareness of the relationship between experience and the wider society The intersection between biography (who you are) and history (where and when you are) Who you are has everything to do with the where and when How/Why sociology began: It hasn’t been around for long, about 175 years. It comes out of things going crazy, chaos, upheaval, and disorder. Specifically started in Europe. 3 Revolutions: Enlightenment (Intellectual) French (Political)  Industrial (Technilogical) Revolution: The change takes place in people’s minds and in their behavior, ideology and practice. A major change that takes place in a society The contributors of early sociology (there are nine) 1. August Comte: (1798 – 1857) Functionalist – Father of Sociology – Positivism: the  belief that accurate information is going to come from objective, scientific measures  ­­  If we can find out how people tick, we can control it a. Social Reform: Sociology is taking information and fixing something 2. Harriet Martineau: Translated for Comte from French to English – Wrote the first  book on sociological methods 3. Herbert Spencer: (1820­ 1903)Functionalist – Founder of Sociology – Don’t mess  with sociology, it will fix itself – Viewed society as an organism – Society is  constantly changing a. Social Darwinism: the fittest among us will be the most successful  4. Emile Durkheim: (1858 – 1917) Functionalist – What holds society together? (Top 3) First Professor of Sociology – Suicide Studies: lower social integration commit  suicide at higher rates a. Collective conscience: common ways of thinking, behaving, and feeling  within a certain group of people b. Social Solidarity: the glue that binds us to one another i. Social Integration: the strength of the glue/ how deeply we are tied to  our society 1. (Solidarity type) Mechanical: happens in an extremely similar  society (Amish) 2. (Solidarity type) Organic: based on difference, everyone is  interdependent in this society (USA) 5. Max Weber: (1864 – 1920) Interactionist – What does it mean to them? (Top 3)  a. Verstehen: understand the world the way other people experience their world,  not the way you think they experience it b. Abandon the scientific method 6. Karl Marx: (1818 – 1883) Conflict Theorist – Who is in control of important  resources? (Top 3) (Big words: Competition, Power Differences) a. Each class is competing for the needed resources (wealth, land freedom,  power) b. Change is a good thing 7. W. E. B. Dubois: Important black protestor a. He was given little credit for his important contributions to the discipline of  sociology b. Knowledge is essential to fight prejudice and achieve justice c. Saw the importance in religion in society  d. Coined the term “double consciousness” : where an identity has many  different facets 8. C. Wright Mills: Coined the term “social imagination”:  a. Sociological Imagination: the vivid awareness of the of the relationship  between experience and the wider society b. “What I might fight, may not be what my grandparents were afraid of” 9. Jane Adams: (1860 – 1935) Social reformer dedicated to studying and improving  society a. Political Activist b. Wanted to great a more equal society c. Known for settlement housing project  The 3 theoretical perspectives Theory: something that tries to explain and make sense of the data we collect.  Generally  use the scientific method 1. Functionalist 2. Conflict  3. Symbolic Interactionism Be able to apply the 3 perspectives to particular scenarios (you did this with CARS) Functionalism: It meets all our needs Provides protection A sense of loyalty, and pride Conflict Theorist Culture being used as a weapon Reinforces inequality Culture can be a source of coercion on different subjects Symbolic Interactionalism People who share a culture; have the same beliefs You need people to have a culture Culture changes in face to face interactions Maintained, changed, enforced, on face to face level Macro and micro level perspectives Macro is the study of society in its entirety Micro is studying one individual aspect Reading: An Invitation to Sociology Chapter Two – Sociological Research The specific ways that sociologists collect data   Surveys (Interview or Questionnaire), Ethnography (Observation), Experiments  (artificially created situation that you can manipulate variables) The steps of the scientific method: 1. Define the problem (Select a topic) 2. Review the literature 3. Formulate a testable hypothesis 4. Select a research design (Collect and analyze data) 5. Develop the conclusion 6. Ideas for further research Reliability: the extent to which data produces consistent results  Validity: Does it measure what it’s suppose to measure? Reading: Telling the Truth about Damned Lies and Statistics  Chapter Three  ­ CULTURE Be able to define culture: the entire way of life of a people; totality of all that they are Lens through which we see the world Material culture: all tangible, concreate creations of society that are transmitted across  generations  Non material culture: the abstract creations of society that are transmitted across generations 1. Cognitive component: What people think and believe a. Knowledge b. Beliefs  2. Normative Component: How people feel and act a. Values: Ideas that are near and dear to our heart b. Norms of Social Behavior: Rules that guide interaction i. Folkways: behavior that guide everyday interactions (Ladies first) ii. Mores: norms of behavior that are especially important, central  significant to societies. Ex. Right/ Wrong Behaviors iii. Laws: official norms of behavior that are written down. Sanctions are  fairly clear and they include the state. 3. Symbolic Component: How a people communicate a. Symbols: anything to which we can attach meaning and use to communicate b. Language: Symbols that we can combine in a infinite number of ways to  communicate Sanctions (both formal and informal) Mechanisms of social control that enforce norms and can be either positive or negative Formal: are written down and codified Ex. Diploma Informal: just understood Ex. Smile Dominant, sub and counter cultures Dominant: culture of the most prominent group in a society.  The most powerful group in society/ the culture that is reinforced the most Subculture: groups of people who have some material or non­material culture different from the dominant culture (there are thousands) Counter Culture: subcultures that are created in opposition or in reaction to the dominany culture; almost always non­material culture (there are only a few) Ethnocentrism, culture shock and cultural relativism Ethnocentrism: judging another culture by the standards of one’s own Culture Shock: a confusion and disorientation that people feel when they encounter a culture different from their own Cultural Relativism: attempting to understand a culture on its own terms, without judging it as better or worse Culture Lag, Cultural Diffusion, Cultural Universal – not covered in class Cultural Lag: non­material culture is struggling to adapt to new material conditions We have technology to work on things but our values won’t let us Cultural Diffusion: the process by which a culture a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society. Ex. Mcdonaldization  Cultural Universal: an element, pattern, trait, or institution that is common to all human cultures worldwide Ex. Family, Law Article – Where Fat is a Mark of Beauty Chapter Four ­ SOCIALIZATION What is socialization? Life­long process by which people learn the different aspects of their culture The process in which we become a whole person Agents of socialization Groups show you the way of your culture 1. Family (most important) 2. School 3. Peer Group 4. Mass Media / Technology 5. Workplace 6. Religion / State Resocialization – may not be covered in class Discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition Ex. Therapy Groups; Alternative School Anticipatory socialization – may not be covered in class Prepare yourself for a future change; Prepare for it before assuming the status Ex. High School student looking into colleges Chapter Five  – Social Structure & Interaction Know the definition of social structure The way in which society is organized into predictable relationships Know the elements of social structure  Culture: MOST IMPORTANT  Statuses: a position one occupies in society; how people see you o Ascribed: status given to you at birth and during life cycle stages;  involuntary. Ex. Gender, Age o Achieved: status that you gain through personal efforts – good or bad;  voluntary. Ex. Student, Wife o Master: 1 or 2 statuses that overshadow all the others (3 big ones: Age,  Gender, Race)  Roles: set of norms and values that define the expected behavior of a social status; the work you put into your status; performance varies from person to person  Groups:  o Primary: Best friends/ Family o Secondary: Work/ Classmates. No real emotion (temporary) o Reference: use to judge ourselves whether good or bad Ex. Athletes,  Celebrities o In Groups: any group that we are intensely attached to. (use “us” or “we”) o Out Group: extremely aware we are not that; rivalry (Ex. Football teams)   Social Class: people who share similar income, education and occupational  prestige. **  Social Institutions: patterned & established way a society goes about meeting its  basic needs; How a society gets stuff done  Role set, role strain, role conflict, role exit Role strain: the difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations. Ex. Police Officers are suppose to be stern, but  sometimes their own beliefs conflict with what they’re suppose to be doing Role conflict: occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person. Ex. Police Officers Role exit: describes the process of disengagement from a role that is central to one’s self identity in order to establish a new role and identity  1. Doubt: unhappiness with accustomed status 2. Search for alternatives 3. Action Stage/ departure – Clear turning point 4. Creation of a new identity Please be aware that this is a study GUIDE only.  Unless otherwise directed, you are responsible  for ALL MATERIAL assigned on the syllabus, discussed in lecture and\or given out in class.   However, if you are comfortable with the material on this guide you should perform very well on the Quest and test.


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