Exam 3 Information - BIOL1320
Exam 3 Information - BIOL1320 BIOL 1320
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ailia Owen on Friday April 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1320 at University of Houston taught by Brian C Mahon in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 229 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Natural Sciences and Mathematics at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 04/03/15
CH 23 Circulation 4315 545 PM STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF BLOOD Plasma fluid cells are suspended in 55 of blood 0 90 water solvent for carrying other substances 0 Ions blood electrolytes Sodium potassium calcium magnesium chloride bicarbonate Osmotic balance pH buffering maintaining ion balance of interstitial fluid 0 Plasma proteins osmotic balance and pH balance Fibrinogen clotting Immunoglobins antibodies defense 0 Substances transported by blood Nutrients Waste products of metabolism Respiratory gases Hormones Cellular Elements 45 of blood 0 Red blood cells erythrocytes 56 million Transport OZ and some COZ bound to hemoglobin 0 White blood cells leukocytes 510 thousand defense and immunity Function in and out of circulatory system Fight infection and cancer Basophils Eosinophils lymphocytes Neutrophils monocytes called phagocytes engulf and digest bacteria and debris from our own dead cells 0 Platelets 250400 thousand blood clotting Anemia causes fatigue due to lack of oxygen in tissues 0 low amounts of hemoglobin RBC Erythropoietin EPO hormone that regulates RBC production 0 Athletes artificially increase RBC production by Training at high altitudes Injecting EPO Withdrawing storing and reinjecting RBC before competition Can lead to stroke clotting heart failure or death 0 Blood vessel damaged 0 Platelets attach to exposed connective tissue Cluster forms a plug 0 Clotting factors released from platelets and in plasma trigger conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin threadlike protein that helps form a clot Within an hour fibrin clots form gt platelets contract pulling torn edges closer together Chemicals released by platelets also stimulate cell division in smooth muscle and connective tissue healing Multipotent stem cells are unspecialized and replace themselves throughout the life of an organism in bone marrow Lymphoid stem cells can produce 2 types of lymphocytes immune system 0 Myeloid stem cells differentiate into 0 Erythrocytes o Other WBC o Platelets Leukemia 0 Cancer of WBC 0 Extra leukocytes that do not function properly 0 Fatal unless treated by Radiation Chemo Replace cancerous bone marrow with healthy Chapter 28 The Nervous System 4315 545 PM Spinal cord injuries 0 disrupt communication between the 0 Central nervous system brain and spinal cord 0 Rest of the body 0 Happen more often in men 0 Teens and 205 Caused by vehicle accident gunshots falls 0 Permanent spinal cord cannot be repaired NERVOUS SYSTEM STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 0 Sensory input information o Sensory neurons convey signals from receptors to CNS 0 Integration processing of sensory information o Interneurons only in CNS integrate gt to motor neurons 0 Motor output sends commands to effector cells muscles that carry out responses 0 Motor neurons convey signals to effector cells 0 Central nervous system CNS brain and spinal cord 0 Peripheral nervous system PNS outside CNS 0 Nerves bundles of nerves wrapped in connective tissue 0 Ganglia clusters of neuron cell bodies Neurons functional units of nervous system 0 Specialized cells for carrying out signals 0 Cell body nucleus and organelles o 2 extensions for conducting signals Dendrites receive signals Axons transmits signals a Myelin sheaths enclose axons 0 Cellular insulation 0 Speed transmission 0 Synapse junction of nerve cell where signals are transmitted between 2 neurons or neurons and effector cells Presynaptic sending signal across Postsynaptic receiving signal NERVE SIGNALS AND THEIR TRANSMISSION Membrane potential energy potential of a plasma membrane at rest 0 Just inside cell slightly negative 0 Just outside cell slightly positive 0 Resting potential voltage across plasma membrane of a resting neuron o Exists because of differences in ion concentration of fluids inside and outside a neuron Inside K high NA low Outside K low NA high 0 Stimulus any factor that causes a nerve signal to be generated 0 Alters the permeability of a portion of the membrane 0 Allows ions to pass through 0 Changes membrane s voltage 0 Action potential nerve signal that is o A change from membrane voltage gt from the resting potential gt to a maximum level gt back to resting potential 0 Self propagated in a oneway chain reaction along a neuron o All or none event 0 Frequency not strength changes with strength of signal 0 Electrical synapse electrical signals pass between cells 0 Chemical synapse o Neurotransmitter chemical signal secreted by presynaptic cell the ending Some excite a receiving cell Others inhibit a receiving cells activity by decreasing its ability to develop an action potential 0 Synaptic cleft Neurotransmitter crosses to bind to a receptor on the surface of the postsynaptic cell receiving 0 Receiving neurons membrane receive signals that are Both excitatory and inhibitory From many different sending neurons Determines if a neuron will transmit a nerve signal 0 Psychoactive drugs act at synapses and affect neurotransmitter ac on o Caffeine counter effect of inhibitory neurotransmitter o Nicotine acts as stimulant by binding to acetylcholine receptors 0 Alcohol depressant ANIMAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS Bilaterally symmetrical o Cephalization concentration of NS at head end 0 Centralization CNS distinct from PNS Vertebrates o CNS Brain and spinal cord Spaces filled with cerebrospinal fluid a Ventricles in the brain a Central canal of spinal cord n Surrounding brain 0 PNS cranial nerves spinal cord ganglia Motor mostly voluntary n Signals to and from skeletal muscles n Responds to external stimuli Autonomic mostly involuntary n Regulates internal environment a Controls smooth and cardiac muscle organs and glands of digestive cardiovascular excretory and endocrine system a 3 divisions Parasympathetic rest and digest primes body for activities that gain and conserve energy Sympathetic fight or flight prepares body for intense energyconsuming activities Enteric network of neurons in digestive tract pancreas gallbladder that control secretion and peristalsis THE HUMAN BRAIN Forebrain o Cerebrum sophisticated integration major role in memory learning speech emotions forms complex behavioral responses Largest and most complex Cerebral hemispheres most of the integrative power is in the cerebral cortex of the 2 n Cerebral cortex less than 5mm thick 0 80 of total human brain mass 0 specialized integrative regions 0 somatosensory cortex 0 centers for vision hearing taste smell 0 Motor cortex directs responses Association areas make up most of cerebrum n Concerned with higher mental activities reasoning and language Lateralization right and left cerebral hemispheres specialize in different mental tasks 0 Thalamus input center for sensory data going to cerebrum output center for motor responses leaving cerebrum sorts data 0 Hypothalamus homeostatic control center controls pituitary biological clock Midbrain subdivisions of the hindbrain thalamus and hypothalamus 0 Conduct information to and from higher brain centers 0 Regulate homeostatic function 0 Keep track of body position 0 Sort sensory information auditory visual reflexes Hindbrain o Pons controls breathing o Medulla oblongata controls breathing circulation swallowing digestion o Cerebellum coordinates body movement role in learning and remembering motor responses Disease 0 Alzheimer s confusion memory loss personality changes Difficult to diagnose o Parkinson s motor disorder difficulty in initiating movement slowness rigidity Chapter 29 The senses 4315 545 PM Bats Echolocation 0 High pitched sound produced in larynx o Emitted from mouth and nose 0 Brains process the time delay and spatial arrangement of the echoes to determine size shape location speed and direction of objects in the environment Marine mammals dolphins whales Ultrasonic clicking noises in nasal passageways 0 Focus the sound by bouncing it off of skull bone and an oil filled structure in the forehead 0 Receive echo in a narrow window of bone behind the jaw SENSORY RECEPTION Sensory receptors sense originate specialized cells or neurons that are tuned to the 0 Conditions of external world 0 Internal organs 0 Detect stimuli all stimuli are a form of energy 0 Sensory transduction detect stimuli and convert to electrical signals 0 o All sensory receptors 0 Trigger and action potential 0 Send information to the central nervous system 0 Sensations depends on part of the brain the receives action potential 0 Sensory receptors in a taste bud detect sugar 0 Sugar molecule enters taste bud gt bind to sweet detectors specific protein molecules embedded in a taste receptor cell membrane gt binding triggers signal transduction pathway that causes some ion channels to open and others to close gt changes in flow of ions create a graded change in membrane potential receptor potential Stronger stimulus more neurotransmitters released by receptor cell and more frequently the sensory neuron transmits action potential to the brain 0 Sensory adaptation repeated stimuli cause the sensory receptors to become less sensitive 5 categories 0 Pain receptors detect dangerous stimuli high heat and pressure Only receptor in epidermis o Thermoreceptors detect heat or cold 0 Mechanoreceptors respond to Mechanical energy Touch Pressure Sound 0 Chemoreceptors respond to chemicals Sensory receptors in nose and taste buds o Electromagnetic receptors respond to Electricity Magnetism Light sensed by photoreceptors HEARING AND BALANCE 0 Human ear channels sound waves 0 Outer ear pinna flap like gt auditory canal gt eardrum separates outer ear from middle ear gt chain of bone in middle ear malleus incus stapes gt fluid in cochlea inner ear gt Eustachian tube connect pharynx to middle ear for pressure equalization 0 Pressure waves transmitted to fluid of cochlea 0 Bend hair cells in organ of Corti against basilar membrane 0 Triggering nerve cells in the brain 0 Louder sounds generate more action potentials 0 Various pitches stimulate different regions of the organ of Corti 0 Outer ear 0 Pinna o Auditory canal Eardrum separates outer and middle ear 0 Middle ear concentration in the middle ear 0 Hammer 0 Anvil o Stirrup Oval window separates middle and inner ear 0 Inner ear organ of Corti stimulated o Cochlear canals Upper Middle Lower o 3 organs detect body position and movement 3 semicircular canals detect changes in head s rotation or angular movement 2 chambers detect position of the head with respect to gravity n Utricle n Saccule All function on same principle bending of hairs on hair cell 0 Deafness loss of hearing 0 Causes inability to detect sounds from Middleear infections Ruptured eardrum Stiffening of middle ear bones Damage to sensory receptors or neurons 0 Progressive and permanent Motion sickness conflicting signals between eyes and inner ear 0 Can be reduced by Closing eyes Limiting head movement Focusing on stable horizon Sedatives Dramaminebonine Longlasting drug containing skin patches VISION the ability to detect light 0 Photoreceptors contain pigment molecules that absorb light 0 Light receptors are based on these cells 0 Eye cup simplest light detecting organ 0 Planarians 0 Sense light intensity and direction 0 2 major types of image forming eyes 0 Compound eyes insects Ommatidia light detectors several thousand Function as acute motion detector Excellent color vision 0 Singlelens eyes Pupil small opening in the front center of the eye Iris controls pupil Lens dislike structure that light passes through Retina light focused here u Contains many photoreceptors Rods contain visual pigment rhodopsin o Absorb dim light can detect shades of grey Cones contain visual pigment photopsin o Absorb bright colored light see color in bright light When absorb light 0 Chemical change alters the permeability of the cell s membrane 0 Resulting receptor potential triggers a change in the release of neurotransmitters from the synaptic terminals 0 Initiates complex integration process in retina Fovea center of focus a Highly concentrated photoreceptors Evolved independently in vertebrates but are similar in structure Human eyes single lens that focus by changing position or shape 0 Sclera outer surface of tough white connective tissue At front of eye sclera becomes the n Cornea lets light into the eye and helps focus light Surrounds the n Choroid pigmented layer Anterior choroid forms the iris eye color 0 Lens and ciliary body divide the eye into 2 chambers Large chamber behind the lens filled with n Vitreous humor jellylike substance Small chamber in front of lens filled with n Aqueous humor thinner substance Humors help maintain shape of eyeballs and circulate nutrients and oxygen to lens cornea and iris Conjunctiva lines the inner surface of the eyelid and folds back over the whites of the eyes but not the cornea Conjunctivitis imflammation of conjunctiva by bacteria or virus 0 Gland above eye secretes tears that clean and moisten 0 Lens focuses light in the retina by bending light rays 2 ways a Back and forth squid fish a Changing shape using mammals Muscles attached to choroid Ligaments that suspend the lens 0 Near vision accommodation light from near objects diverging rays Ciliary muscle contracted Ligaments slacken 0 Distance vision light from distant objects parallel rays Ciliary muscles relax Ligaments pull on lens 0 Visual acuity ability of the eyes to distinguish fine details Measured by reading standardized eye charts from 20 feet 2020 ability to see normally 0 Common vision problems corrective lenses can bend light rays to compensate for these problems Nearsighted inability to focus on distant objects a Eyeball too long Farsighted inability to focus on near objects a Eyeball too short Astigmatism blurred vision Misshapen lens or cornea Ch 29 4315 545 PM Describe the essential roles of sensory receptors Explain how electromagnetic receptors help the hammerhead shark perceive its world Define sensory transduction receptor potential and sensory adaptation and provide examples of each Describe the five general categories of sensory receptors found in animals and provide examples of each List the structures of the ear in the sequence in which they participate in hea ng Explain how body position and movement are sensed in the inner ear Explain what causes motion sickness and what can be done to prevent it Compare the structures and functions of the eye cups of planarians the compound eyes of insects and crustaceans and the singlelens eyes of humans Describe the parts of the human eye and their functions Compare the structures functions distributions and densities of rods and cones Describe the role of the central nervous system in sensory perception Chapter 30 How Animals Move 4315 545 PM MOVEMENT AND LOCATION 0 Movement is diverse but relies on same cellular mechanism moving protein strands against one another using energy 0 Results from collaboration between muscles and skeletal system 0 Locomotion active travel from place to place requires energy to overcome friction and gravity 0 Swimming supported by water slowed by friction 0 Walking hopping running less friction between air and animal must resist gravity requires balance 0 Burrowing crawling great friction between animal and ground more stable with gravity move side to side or by peristalsis 0 Flying wings as airfoils for lift 0 Skeleton body support movement by working with muscles protect internal organs 0 Hydrostatic fluid held under pressure in a closed body compartment worms Protest body by cushioning them from shock Give shape Support for muscle action 0 Exoskeleton rigid external skeleton Arthropods chitin and protein I Must shed to permit growth Mollusks calcium carbonate shells o Endoskeleton hardleathery supporting elements among the soft tissue of an animal Vertebrates cartilage and bone Sponges framework of tough protein fibersmineral containing particles Echinoderms hard plates beneath skin TH E VERTEBRATE SKELETON Axial skeleton supports trunk of body 0 Skull 0 Vertebrae Cervical 7 Thoracic 12 Lumbar 5 Sacrum Coccyx o Ribs Appendicular skeleton bones that anchor the appendages o Arms Humerus Radius Ulna Carpals Phalanges Metacarpals o Legs Femur PateHa Fibula Tibia Tarsal Metatarsals Phalanges o Shoulder girdle Clavicle scapula o Pelvic girdle 0 Master control genes homeotic active during early development 0 Direct arrangement of skeleton 0 Bones fibrous connective tissue covering the outer surface forms new bone when fractured o Cartilage at end of bones Cushions joints Reduces friction of movement 0 Living cells secrete a matrix surrounding material Protein coagen flexible fibers keep bones fexibe Crystals of a mineral made of calcium and phosphate resist compression 0 Long bones Central cavity store yellow bone marrow Spongy bone at end red bone marrow specialized tissue that produces blood cells 0 Osteoporosis disease of low bone mass and structural deterioration Less likely if n High calcium diet a Sufficient vitamin D a Regular exercise a No smoking 0 Joints allow limited movement of bones o Ligaments bands of strong fibrous connective tissue hold together bones of moveable joints 0 Ball and socket rotation in many directions shoulder hips o Hinge movement in a single plane knee elbow o Pivot rotation on one plane forearm MUSCLE CONTRACTION AND MOVEMENT 0 Muscle and bone interact to produce movement 0 Tendons connect muscle to bone 0 Can only contract requiring antagonistic muscle to reverse the action and relengthen 0 Muscle fibers cells consisting of bundles of myofibrils o Myofibrils Thick filaments composed of myosin n Bind ATP n Extend to high energy states a Attach to binding sites in actin n Pull thin filament to center of sarcomere Thin filaments composed of actin Sarcomeres the contractile apparatus fundamental unit of action O n Repeating groups of overlapping thick and thin filaments Sliding filament model sarcomere contracts when thin filaments slide along thick filaments n Contraction shortens the sarcomere without changing the length of thick and thin filaments a Full contraction thin filaments overlap at middle of sarcomere Skeletal muscle cells are Cylindrical Many nuclei Parallel to each other 0 Motor neuron carries action potential to muscle cell 0 O Releases neurotransmitter acetylcholine from synaptic terminal to initiate contraction Action potential in muscle cell passes along T tubules and into center of muscle fiber Calcium ions released from endoplasmic reticulum and bind to troponin gt moves tropomyosin away from myosinbinding sites gt allow contration Stopping action potential ER pumps Ca back out of cytosol gt binding sites to actin molecule blocked gt sarcomere stops contracting gt muscle relaxes Motor unit motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it controls Forceful contractions additional motor units activated
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