New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam 2 Study Guide

by: runnergal

Exam 2 Study Guide JOUR 201


Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This study guide is a comprehensive overview of Chapters 5-8 and the corresponding online modules.
Principles of Public Relations
Dr. Brooke McKeever
Study Guide
journalism, public relations
50 ?




Popular in Principles of Public Relations

Popular in Journalism

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by runnergal on Monday October 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to JOUR 201 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Brooke McKeever in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Principles of Public Relations in Journalism at University of South Carolina.


Reviews for Exam 2 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/17/16
Exam 2 Study Guide  Chapter 5 o Research  PR professionals do lots of research regarding issue management:  identifying issues and determine which issues will have the largest impact  on the company, business, etc.  Secondary research: reading and reviewing data that has been collected  already, ex. articles, journals, studies, background information, reviewing  records and databases, interviewing key contacts and opinion leaders,  organize special committees or focus groups to determine current feelings  regarding an issue, casual monitoring, etc.  Primary research: conducting original experiments, surveys, and/or  content analysis specific to your target audience.  Quantitative research: research that yields data in numerical form, ex. how many people believe climate change is real.  Qualitative research: research that yields data in categorical form, ex. how  people feel about current climate change reduction efforts.  Descriptive data: values of variables that are used to describe something  about the subjects in the experiment, i.e. gender, race, age, income, etc.  Inferential data: values of variables that are used to describe something  about people that are not in the experiment.  Interviews can be structured (questions with yes/no or multiple choice  responses) or unstructured (questions with open­ended answers).  Probability sampling: where every member of the target population has an  equal chance of being selected as a participant.  Simple random sampling: a sampling method where each member of a  public is equally likely to be selected for the sample. Type of probability  sampling.  Systemic sampling: a sampling method where a sample is chosen by  selecting subjects from a list of names or numbers. Type of probability  sampling.  Non­probability sampling: don’t know or can’t access all members of the  population.  Snowball sampling: where initial participants recommend further  participants.  Purposive/convenience sampling: where participants are whoever is  easiest to survey/interview. o Public Opinion  Mass opinion: the average opinion of a group’s opinion.  Public opinion: the average opinion of the members of a public’s or  subgroup’s opinion.  Environmental monitoring: keeping track of changes in the PR  environment.  Environmental scanning: monitoring, analyzing, and distributing of  information to leaders in an organization, business, etc. o PR Audits  Public relations audit: examines and analyzes internal and external public  relations in a specific organization.  PR Audit Types  Relevant publics: the organization creates a list of all publics it has  a relationship with or that could affect the organization. Identifies  the audience.  The organization’s standing with publics: use research methods to  figure out how public view the organization in question.  Issues of concern to the publics: use environmental monitoring  methods to create issue agendas for each relevant public. Compare  publics’ important issues to the organization’s own policies.  Power of publics: publics are rated in accordance with how much  economic and political/regulatory power they have. o Organizational Audits  Organizational image surveys: surveys that figure out a public’s attitude  towards the organization.  These surveys measure:  Familiarity with the organization and its leaders.  Degree of positive and negative attitudes towards the organization.  Characteristics that publics assign to the organization. o Communications Audits  Communication audit: assesses communication channels of an  organization. Determines if the receivers of the information, like  employees or consumers, are satisfied with the information; if the  information is comprehensible and useful; and which communications  channels that publics prefer.  Communication audit methods include communication climate surveys,  network analyses, content analyses, readership surveys, and readability  studies. o Social audits: assess publics’ perceptions of an organization’s social  responsiveness. o PR Process Models  RACES: research, action planning, communication, evaluation, and  stewardship.  ROPES: research, objectives, programming, evaluation, and stewardship.  Background research/situational analysis  formative research  planning   program implementation  evaluation  Chapter 6 o Importance of Strategic Planning  Strategic planning: process of assessing what resources you have and what you can do with those resources, working ahead of potential problems.  Planning helps PR professionals promote positive public images for their  organizations.  Types of Plans  Strategic plans: long­range plans that focus on major  organizational goals.  Tactical plans: short­term plans that focus on specific decisions  that will help accomplish the strategic goals. More focused on  everyday operations.  Brainstorming and scenario construction can help PR professionals  anticipate and combat problems before they occur.  Public opinion surveys help gauge people’s reactions to new ideas or  products. o Essentials of Strategic Planning  Goal/mission: broad ambition or desired outcome.  Objective: specific, measurable steps that will indicate if you have  achieved your goal. Can be attitudinal, behavioral, informational,  financial, statutory, etc.  Should specify what it will accomplish among whom, by how  much, in what amount of time, and measured how.  Strategy: approach or plan to achieve the predetermined goals and  objectives.  Tactics: specific tools used to complete strategies.  Management by objectives (MBO): set both long­term and short­term  objectives and create plans to achieve those objectives.  Standing plans: routine plans that address recurring problems. Includes  policies, procedures, and rules.  Chapter 7 o Types of Publics  Primary public: a group of people at which the action is directed.  Intervening public: a group of people that directly communicates with the  primary public.  Moderating public: a group of people that share a common cause and can  influence the primary public. These groups of people often have high  ethos with the surrounding community in their fields of study, ex. the New York Times or National Geographic.  Latent public: a group of people that is not aware of the need to act.  Aware public: a group of people that understands the problem but doesn’t  know how/doesn’t want to act.  Active public: a group of people that understands the problem and acts on  it. o Change Influencers  People are influenced to change through:  Awareness: people gain knowledge of the idea, often spread  through mass media.  Interest: people become attracted to the idea and try to find out  more information about it.  Evaluation: people begin to relate the idea to situations in their  own lives.  Trials: people apply the idea in situations in their own lives.  Adoption: people regularly apply the idea in their own lives once it become apparent that the idea is worth it.  Mass media, biased intermediaries, unbiased third parties, significant  others, and personal experience all influence people in these stages. o Information Theories  Two­step information theory: specific people in every community are  opinion leaders. If the opinion leaders can be convinced to adopt an idea,  then the opinion leader will influence others in the community to adopt the idea. (old)  Multi­step flow theory: there are many opinion leaders who influence  other opinion leaders and the small circles of people most connected to  each opinion leader. (current) o Stakeholder Information  Stakeholders: people that have an interest, like money or benefits, in an  organization.  Stakeholder management approach: 1) determine who the action is  targeted towards; 2) determine what the action is; 3) set a goal; and 4)  determine how each element fits into this plan. o How to Write Effectively  Inverted pyramid style of writing: the lead paragraphs are the longest with  the most important information; the body of the article is shorter with less  important details; and the concluding paragraphs are the shortest.  Newsworthy stories have some combination of these factors: timeliness,  significance, proximity, unusualness, human interest, conflict,  prominence, and/or newness.  Use rule of 3s to make a story memorable. o Media  Controlled media: where a PR professional decides what information is  placed in the message. Paid/owned media.  Uncontrolled media: where a PR professional has no control over what  information is presented and how that information is presented.  Earned/shared media.  Social media allows consumers to talk about and interact with a brand.  PR professionals must consider timing, audience, and budget when rolling  out an advertising/PR campaign.  Two types of budgets are agency and in­house.  Some opportunities for media relations are events, spot news,  announcements, crises, feature stories, and response relations.  Some other media opportunities are sponsorships (when a company offers  $xxxx to sponsor an event or organization in exchange for free media), in­ kind donations (when a company donates $xxxx worth of product in  exchange for free media), or pro bono work (when a company does $xxxx  of work in exchange for free media). o How to Make Your Message Heard in a Noisy World  A message must pass through four stages in order to be heard: attention,  understanding, retention, and action.  Attention/selective attention: people only pay attention to a few messages  per day, especially when considering how many messages are targeted at  people every day.  Understanding/selective perception: if and how people perceive ideas.  People will retain the idea and act on it if they can answer these questions:  Is it simple to try with little/no risk?  Is it attuned to my values, beliefs, needs, and attitudes?  What’s in it for me?  Is it simple to remember and do?  Can I see the consequences of my actions?  Is my action reinforced by positive messages?  Chapter 8 o Evaluation Types  In­progress evaluation/formative evaluation: review and/or modify any  actions currently being taken in the campaign based on the results of those actions.  Outcome/summative evaluation: compare objectives and results, taking  into consideration previous evaluations.  Closed­system evaluation: evaluates the messages, events, and their  effects planned for an organization’s campaign. Helps test messages for  potential problems before they are released to the general public. Just  because messages were transmitted, however, does not mean that the goals were reached.  Open­system evaluation: considers outside effects when evaluating a  campaign.  Some evaluation methods include interviews, focus groups, media  coverage, audience feedback, financial indicators, and online  tracking/analysis. o Impact Analysis  Audience coverage: determine if they target audiences were reached by  documenting what messages were sent where and documenting which  press releases were used and by whom they were used.  Audience response: use research to pretest target audience’s responses to  messages.  Campaign impact: measure attitudinal benefits of the campaign as a whole using pretests and posttests as well as direct consumer responses in  regards to the campaign.  Environmental mediation: use focus groups to interpret campaign  effectiveness in light of historical, cultural, and political events. o Sources of Measurement Error  Volume is not equal to results.  Attitude is not behavior.  Effort is not knowledge.  Estimate is not measurement.  Knowledge is not favorable attitudes.  Samples must be representative.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.