▪ John Lamberton Harper: The author of our text book, “The Cold War”; professor of American Foreign Policy at Johns Hopkins University.
▪ Vladislav M. Zubok: The author of our textbook, “A failed Empire”; professor of International History at the London School of Economics.
▪ Odd Arne Westad: The author of our textbook, “The Global Cold War”; professor of U.S.-Asia Relations at Harvard University. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between minority and majority?
▪ James E. Cronin: The author of our textbook, “Global Rules: America, Britain and a disordered World”; Professor of History at Boston College. We also discuss several other topics like A tsunami was caused by what?
▪ Orthodox: otherwise known as a traditional viewpoint
o Responsible: Soviets
o Due to:
▪ Suspicion of the West
▪ Marxist Theory
• Importance and urgency of the implementation of communism
throughout the world.
o Responsible: Americans
o Due to:
▪ American Expansionism
▪ Stalin had no poor intentions, just merely to recover.
▪ View Marshall aid as U.S. economy expanding into Europe.
We also discuss several other topics like How to achieve independence?
o Both were equal, and share the responsibility. There was going to be a fight for power.
o Responsible: Neither is responsible
▪ Battle of Stalingrad: Known as the turning point in Europe; Winter of 42-43 o Nazi advancement stopped outside of Moscow
o Hitler divides his army – Operation Barbarossa Don't forget about the age old question of What are the new techniques in agriculture?
o Hitler wanted oil fields and Stalingrad and so they set it on fire.
o Soviet loss opens up the Eastern Front
o Stalin wanted the Western Front
▪ Teheran Conference (November 1943):
o Involved: Russia, England, USA
o Discussion about splitting up Germany after the war
o The Soviet Union would declare war on Japan after Germany’s defeat o The United Nations would be set up after the war
o Stalin was promised that the land that the Soviet Union had lost to Poland
▪ Percentages deal: If you want to learn more check out Cancer is a disease of what?
o Between Stalin and Churchill about how to divide various European Countries into spheres of influence.
o United States Representative was excluded from the discussion.
▪ Yalta Conference (February 1945)
o Held prior to the end of the war
▪ Stalin would join the war against Japan
▪ Germany divided into 4 zones
▪ Try Nazis as war criminals
▪ Countries liberated from German occupation would have free election ▪ Eastern Europe would be seen as a soviet sphere of influence. We also discuss several other topics like What are the functions of a modern presidency?
▪ Potsdam Conference (July-August 1945)
o Months in between:
▪ Allied troops reach Berlin
▪ Hitler Commits Suicide
▪ America uses its atomic bomb on Japan
▪ No Common Enemy
▪ Red Army Occupied Eastern Europe
▪ America tested Atomic bomb
▪ Truman was now president of the U.S.
• Stalin wanted compensation for the 20 million soviet troops that
were killed during the war. Truman didn’t want a repeat of the
Treaty of Versailles.
▪ handling Germany
▪ handling East Europe & Soviet policy
• Iron Curtain: Border between east and west Europe as described by Churchill
o Truman v. Roosevelt:
▪ More suspicious of Stalin’s actions and very anti-communist
▪ Trials for Nazi War Criminals
▪ Division of Germany into 4 zones
▪ Free elections in Poland
▪ USSR would take reparations from its zone and 10% industrial equipment from western zones.
▪ Milovan Djilas: communist in Tito’s post war government. He was a leading critic of the attempts of Stalin to bring Yugoslavia under control of the Soviet Union. When he began speaking out about the class or elites he believed were ruling Yugoslavia, he was expelled from the party.
▪ Westphalian system:
o Sovereignty: each state controls its own government
o Territoriality of national borders
o State autonomy or self-determination-separate inside and outside worlds. ▪ George Kennan: U.S. career Foreign Service officer. He formulated the policy of Containment which was the basis of the United States strategy for fighting the Cold war with the Soviet Union
▪ Nikolai Novikov: Ambassador of the Soviet Union to the United States during 1946-47. Known for the Novikov Telegram which predicted the United States was planning aa third world war that would be waged against the Soviet Union.
o He accuses the United States of striving for world supremacy and that the United States is using its economic position to bring other nations under its influence and seeking to omit the soviet influence with its neighbors.
o Made Stalin more suspicious of the United States.
▪ Containment: An idea of George Kennan that was the basis of United States strategy for fighting the Cold War with the Soviet Union by containing the spread of communism. ▪ Truman Doctrine: A set of beliefs established in 1947.
o “I believe that it must be the policy of the USA to support people who resist being enslaved by armed minorities or by outside pressure”
o “I believe we must help free people to work out their own destiny in their own war”
o Response to Stalin’s attempt to spread communism.
▪ Marshall Plan: Aka: The European recovery plan
o USA wanted to rebuild economies and make other economies wealthy so that communism is less attractive
o Communism is attractive to poor economies
o U.S. aid program to help Western Europe rebuild after WWII.
o U.S. provides fuel, money, raw materials, vehicles and machines.
▪ Keynesianis: Economic theory that arose after WWII.
o Excess savings could lead to inadequate Total Expenditure.
o The Economy can get stuck in a recessionary gap for an extended period of time. o The solution to a recessionary gap would be an increase in Total Expenditures to shift the AD curve right
o Wages and prices are not flexible downward
o Spending money is the driving force in the economy
o The level of total –expenditures determines the level of total output. ▪ Cominform: Communist information bureau established in 1947. Represented communist parties across Europe and brought them under Soviet declaration. Rejected the marshal plan.
▪ Andrei Zhdanov: Became the communist party manager. Major perpetrator of the Great Terror and personally approved 176 execution lists.
▪ Palmiro Togliatti: head of the Italian Communist party. Committed to democracy, and national unity, closely linked to Stalin.
▪ Prague coup: In February 1948 the leader of the Czech communist party was considered ‘not the right type’ of communist and was overthrown by a Soviet-backed coup. It proved that it wasn’t just about communism, but Stalin backed communism.
▪ Berlin Crisis (June 1948-May 1949)
o Long term:
▪ Germany divided into four lines at Potsdam/Yalta -Berlin was in Soviet zone but had also been split into four -while Stalin wanted to keep
Germany and Berlin week to protect the USSR against further attack, the West invested money (Marshall Aid) to try and rebuild their sector (this meant west Berlin was more affluent than East and this made communism look bad) -Stalin also resented the fact that West had a spy hole into the east
o Short Term
▪ Western Allies forged ahead encouraging the economic recovery of their zone, especially providing a currency. Western zone received large
quantity of Marshall aid and set up free elections to establish
democracy. -Stalin feared a strong, democratic and united Germany on the Soviet borders. He feared the western currency and democratic ideas would spread to the soviet zone and undermine control of East Berlin
o Berlin Airlift
▪ President Truman was determined not to give in to Stalin over Berlin. - USA and B challenged Stalin’s blockade using an airlift to deliver food, medicine etc to people of West Berlin. -2 1/4 million Germans got the essentials -carried on day and night for 10 months Consequences: -
Increase East-West rivalry -confirmed divisions of Germany and Berlin - made USA and B look strong as they saved Berlin and overcame Stalin (made USSR look weak) -increased superpower tensions, made USSR look weak and Stalin -led to the creation of N.A.T.O
▪ North Atlantic Treaty: Signed in 1949 to contribute to collective defense.
▪ Sino-Soviet Treaty (February 1950)
o Between China and the sunrise over the colorful trees.
▪ NSC-68: U.S. Foreign Policy of 1949-50: Total commitment
o Warned how all communist activity traced back to Russia and that they were facing an indefinite period of tension and danger and should therefore strengthen the military and increase spending by $50 billion.
o Encouraged military and economic aid to any country perceived by the U.S. to be resisting Communism
▪ Kim il-Sung: Leader of North Korea. He wanted to unify the country and persuaded Stalin for his approval.
▪ Syngman Rhee: appointed by the United States to serve in the temporary government in Korea after WWII disbanded the existing one. The goal was to stop communism in the region. Rhee had been in exile in the US during the war. He is later accused of corruption and incompetence as well as fascism and flees South Korea. Military dictator Park Jung Hee replaces him.
▪ Douglas MacArthur: During WWII he was the commander of the war against the Japanese. Was appointed to lead the UN forces in the Korean War but was reprimanded for not always heeding the orders of the UN. He had a very aggressive policy towards communism, one with which Truman did not agree with.
▪ European Defense Community
o (proposed October 1950; treaty signed May 1952; rejected August 1954) o A failed plan proposed by the French prime minister.
o Attempt to balance the power of the military of the Soviet Union by the formation of a supranational European army and in the process to subsume West German forces into a European force.
o In 1954 the need was not as great and in its place the Western European Unity Treaty was signed to set up the Western European Union.
▪ Lisbon Conference (February 1952)
o Agreement reached on the substantial military and political reorganization of NATO. SACEUR given command
o New political structure: civilian Secretary General who was in charge of the Council of Ministers
▪ Bretton Woods conference (July 1944)
o Created the International Monetary fund to stabilize currency and the World Bank to invest in projects globally to stimulate economic growth.
o Goal Promote Free trade
▪ Lacked a central government to issue currency and regulate its use, so fixed exchange rates and a central currency of gold were created.
▪ World Bank: Makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation
▪ IMF: United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies
▪ Three Pillars
• Fixed Exchange rate system (IMF)
• Recovery and Development (World Bank)
▪ International Monetary Fund: United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies
▪ General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
o A United Nations Agency created by a multinational treaty to promote trade by the reduction of tariffs and import quotas
▪ Korea Boom: Korean Conflict that makes it necessary for the Cold War to officially become a global conflict.
▪ Mutual Security Program (MSP): 1951: Launched a major American Foreign Aid Program
o Signed by Truman after the Soviets tested their second Nuclear Bomb o Modeled on the Marshall Plan but emphasized an increase in military assistance to democratic nations.
▪ Josef Broz Tito:
o Yugoslavian revolutionary and statesman.
o During WWII he was a leader of the Partisans and often regarded as the most effective resistance movement in occupied Europe.
o Criticized as authoritarian and a “benevolent dictator” because of his economic and diplomatic policies
o Viewed as an international symbol
o Was the chief leader of the Non-aligned movement.
▪ Wladyslaw Gomulka:
o Polish Communist activist and politician who served as the de facto leader of post-war Poland.
o Was initially very popular for his reforms and wanted a ‘Polish way to Socialism’ ▪ Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA): Otherwise known as COMECON is agreed upon by the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Romania. Set up in 1947 as a response to the Truman Doctrine.
▪ Warsaw Pact: Early mutual defense agreement between the Soviet Union and countries of the Eastern bloc.
▪ New Look: Name given to national security policy of the United States during the administration of Eisenhower. Reflects his concern for balancing cold war military commitments with the financial resources of the nation.
o Main elements:
▪ Maintaining the vitality of the U.S. economy while still building sufficient strength to prosecute the Cold War
▪ Relying on Nuclear weapons to deter Communist aggression or fight a war ▪ Using the CIA to carry out secret or covert actions against governments or leaders ‘directly or indirectly responsive to Soviet control’
▪ Strengthening military allies and winning the friendship of nonaligned governments.
▪ Rollback: Policy of Reagan; strategy of forcing change in the major policies of a state, usually by replacing its ruling regime.
▪ MC-48 (December 1954): A report by NATO council Alliance’s Military Committee on the “Most Effective Pattern of NATO Military Strength for the Next Few Years” ▪ peaceful coexistence: Term used by Khrushchev in 1963 to describe a situation in which the United States and Soviet Union would compromise and continue to compete economically and politically without launching a thermonuclear war.
▪ Nikita Khrushchev: (official) Successor of Joseph Stalin, gave “secret speech” Discussing Stalin’s crimes and started a process called de-Stalinization. o Primary player in the Cuban Missile Crisis and oversaw the building of the Berlin Wall.
▪ Beria: Soviet Politician of Georgian ethnicity who helped Stalin in carrying out the purges of the military.
▪ Malenkov: Original successor of Stalin, but quickly replaced by Khrushchev. ▪ “Secret Speech” (February 1956): Given by Khrushchev, the speech denounced Stalin and his actions. This throws the Soviet leaders into turmoil, stalling the government for six weeks.
▪ Imre Nage: Hungarian Communist Politician who symbolizes the 1956 Hungarian uprising.
▪ Suez Crisis (July – October 1956): Israel attacks Egypt and Britain and France plot to take back the canal by stepping in to ‘restore’ it after the Israeli invasion. The UN condemns the attack which is a blow to Britain and France. Nasser becomes an Arab hero. US was on the side of the Egyptians.
▪ European Economic Community (EEC), March 1957 treaty: Formed by the Treaty of Rome which planned to integrate French and German heavy industry into European economic cooperation. Later became known as the E.U.