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Study guide

by: Shoshana Tamir

Study guide Psyc 10300-02

Shoshana Tamir

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About this Document

A overview of what we did in the 2 chapters from the teacher and the book
General Psychology
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shoshana Tamir on Monday October 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 10300-02 at Ithaca College taught by Warren in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 10/17/16
Ch. 5 Memory 3 stage model of memory Iconic memory- the visual sensory register that holds an exact copy of the incoming visual input but only for a brief period of time, less than 1 sec Sperling Findings Sperling’s full Report – Participants remembered 4.5 letters on average and usually the letters at the top of the matrix Short Term memory- stage in which sensory info enters consciousness, lasts less than 30 sec, 7 numbers and 5 letters Memory Span Task- the task of trying to memorize numbers in order. Starts at 2 it gets longer Long Term memory- limitless Ways to put things into long term memory Amnesia- loss of memory Anterograde- is when you can’t make new memories but you can remember old times Retrograde- is when you lose your memory past and present State-Dependency Memory- based on one’s physiological state at the time of encoding and retrieval Mood-Dependent Memory – based on mood at the time of encoding and retrieval Mood-Congruency – You remember events that are congruent with your current mood Association helps memory Interference Theory Proactive Interference- Prior knowledge effects new info Retroactive interference- new learning effects retrieval of old info Misinformation Effect- Change your answer based on how the question was given ex. Crime cases Ch6 Thinking Problem solving Well-defined problem- A problem with a clear state, goal state, and the process for reaching the goal Ill-defined problem- A problem lacking a clear start state, goal state, and the process for reaching the goal Fixation- Tries to fix a problem one way and no other else Insight- a new way of interoperating a problems possible solution Solution Strategies Algorithms- a step-by -step procedure that guarantees a correct answer to a problem Anchoring and adjustment Heuristic – an initial estimate is using as an anchor and then this anchor is adjusted up or down Work backwards Heuristic – Start at the goal and work backwards Representativeness Heuristic – Judging the probability of membership in a category by well an object resembles that category Conjunction Fallacy- incorrect judging the overlap of 2 uncertain events to be more probable than either of the 2 events alone Gambler’s Fallacy- Incorrect believing that the chance process in self-correcting in that an event has not occurred for a while is more likely to occur Availability Heuristic – since it’s in the media and has happened other places it will happen where you are Illusory Correlation- the erroneous belief that 2 variables are related when they actually are not Belief Perseverance- Push away possible truths because we don’t want it to be Medical Hypothesis- Probability judgement are important in medical situations Baltes Dual- Component Theory Mechanics of Intelligence – Includes problem solving and reasoning, spatial orientation, and perceptual speed Pragmatic intelligence – Includes verbal knowledge, wisdom, every day cognitive performance, and adaptation Scientific Approach Psychometric approach – how well do you perform on a test Cognitive- structural approach -the way in which individuals solve problems rather than the scores on tests Primary mental ability Numerical facility – basic numerical operations, and index of the facility of performing these operations within working memory, and ability Word Fluency – tests a kind of psychological test in which participants have to say as many words possible Inductive Reasoning – is a process in which multiple truths are combined to obtain a specific conclusion Spatial Orientation- natural ability to maintain out body in our environment


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