Ed Psych Quiz 3 (Ch. 9-11)
Ed Psych Quiz 3 (Ch. 9-11) PSYC 3200
Popular in Educational Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Kaplan on Monday October 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3200 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Kimberly Sherman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/17/16
theoretical perspective in which learning and behavior behaviorism are described and explained in terms of stimulus- response relationships specific object or event that influences stimulus (S) an individual's learning or behavior response (R) specific behavior that an individual exhibits term commonly used by behaviorists for learning; conditioning typically involves specific ENVIRONMENTAL EVENTS leading to the acquisition of specific responses when two events occur at (more or less) the same time *when this happens, more learning is likely to occur contiguity ex: every time you raise your hand (1st event), your teacher calls on you (2nd event) --> this causes you to raise your hand more frequently form of learning in which a new, INVOLUNTARY classical conditioning RESPONSE is acquired as a result of two stimuli being presented close together stimulus that elicits a particular unconditioned stimulus (US) response without prior learning response that is elicited by a particular (unconditioned) unconditioned responses (UCR) stimulus without prior learning stimulus that does not elicit any neutral stimulus particular response stimulus that begins to elicit a particular conditioned stimulus (CS) response through classical conditioning response that begins to be elicited by a particular conditioned response (CR) (conditioned) stimulus through classical conditioning phenomenon in which a person learns a response to a particular generalization stimulus and then makes the same response to a similar stimulus; in classical conditioning, involves making a conditioned response to a stimulus similar to a conditioned stimulus gradual disappearance of an acquired response; in extinction classical conditioning, results from repeated presentation of a conditioned stimulus in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus learning process in which a response either increases or instrumental conditioning decreases as a result of being followed by either reinforcement or punishment, respectively consequence (stimulus) of a response that increases reinforcer the frequency of the response it follows the act of following a response with reinforcement a reinforcer consequence (stimulus) that decreases punishment frequency of the response it follows learning process in which a response increases as a operant conditioning result of being followed by reinforcement; is one from of instrumental conditioning situation in which one event happens only after another contingency event has already occurred; one event is CONTINGENT on the other's occurrence consequence that satisfies a primary reinforcer BIOLOGICALLY built-in need secondary reinforcer consequence that becomes reinforcing OVER TIME through its association with ANOTHER reinforcer consequence that brings about the increase of a positive reinforcement behavior through the presentation (rather than the removal) of a stimulus actual object, something that can be concrete reinforcer touched social reinforcre gesture or sign that one person gives to another opportunity to engage in a favorite activity reinforcer pastime phenomenon in which learners do less-preferred activities in order to engage in more-preferred activities Premack principle ex: children with ADHD will sit quietly in a lesson (something they don't enjoy doing) if they know it will enable to them to participate in recess after class reinforcer that comes from the outside environment, extrinsic reinforcer rather than from within the learner reinforcer that is provided by the learner or intrinsic reinforcer inherent in the task being performed consequence that brings about the increase of a negative reinforcement behavior through the removal (rather than the presentation) of a stimulus ability to forego small, immediate reinforcers in order to delay of gratification obtain larger ones later on punishment involving presentation of a new stimulus, presentation punishment presumably one a learner finds unpleasant removal punishment punishment involving removal of an existing stimulus, presumably one a learner doesn't want to lose loss either of a previously earned reinforcer or of an opportunity to obtain reinforcement (form of removal punishment) response cost - effective form of punishment unpleasant consequence that follows naturally or logical consequence logically from a student's misbehavior consequence of a poorly performed response in which a positive-practice overcorrection learner must repeat the response correctly and appropriately, perhaps in an exaggerated manner consequence that seriously threatens self-esteem and general psychological well-being psychological punishment ex: fear tactics, embarrassing remarks, and public humiliation form and frequency of a desired response that a teacher terminal behavior hopes to foster through reinforcement technique in which desired behaviors are reinforced by token economy small, insignificant items (tokens) that learners can use to "purchase" a variety of other, more desirable reinforcers formal agreement between a teacher and a student that contingency contract identifies behaviors the student will exhibit and the reinforcers that will follow situation in which everyone in a group must make a group contingency particular response before reinforcement occurs frequency of a response before it is baseline intentionally and systematically reinforced reinforcement of a response every continuous reinforcement time it occurs extinction (in instrumental gradual disappearance of an acquired response as a conditioning) result of repeated lack of reinforcement reinforcement of a response only occasionally, with intermittent reinforcement some occurrences of the response not being reinforced shaping process of reinforcing successively closer and closer approximations to a desired terminal behavior stimulus that influences the probability antecedent stimulus that a particular response will follow response that influences the probability antecedent response that a certain other response will follow use of a verbal or nonverbal signal to indicate that a cueing certain behavior is desired or that a certain behavior should stop complex environmental condition that is setting event likely to evoke certain voluntary behaviors generalization (in instrumental phenomenon in which a person makes a voluntary response to a stimulus that is similar to one previously conditioning) associated with a response-reinforcement contingency phenomenon in which a student learns that a response is reinforced in the presence of one stimulus but not another (similar) stimulus discrimination ex: boys learn that slapping someones butt is fine with an athletic victory but not to girls in the hallway behavioral momentum increased tendency for a learner to make a particular response immediately after making similar responses two or more behaviors that cannot incompatible behaviors be performed simultaneously explanation of why a certain behavior is unacceptable, induction often with a focus on the pain or distress that someone has caused (or INDUCED) on another applied behavior analysis (ABA) systematic application of behaviorist principles in educational and therapeutic settings examination of inappropriate behavior and its antecedents and consequences to determine one or functional analysis more purposes (functions) that the behavior might serve for the learner variation of traditional applied behavior analysis that involves identifying the purposes of undesirable positive behavior support behaviors and encouraging alternative behaviors that more appropriately accomplish those purposes schoolwide positive behavior systematic use of behaviorist principles to encourage and reinforce productive behaviors in all students; typically involves support multiple layers of support in order to accommodate the varying needs and behavior patterns of different students theoretical perspective that focuses on how people learn social cognitive theory by observing others and how they eventually assume control over their own behavior 1. consequences influence behavior only if learners are aware of the response-consequence contingency what is the social cognitive view of 2. learners form expectations about the likely consequences of reinforcement and punishment? future actions and then behave in ways they think will maximize desired results prediction regarding the consequence that outcome expectations a particular behavior is likely to yield hoped-for, but not guaranteed future incentive consequence of behavior phenomenon in which a response increases in vicarious reinforcement frequency when another person is observed being reinforced for that response phenomenon in which a response decreases in vicarious punishment frequency when another person is observed being punished for that response neuron in the brain that fires either when a person is mirror neuron performing a particular behavior or when the person sees someone else perform the behavior real or fictional individual who demonstrates a behavior model that learners might emulate; alternatively, a set of instructions for successfully executing the behavior 1. demonstrating a behavior for another person OR modeling 2. observing and imitating another person's behavior demonstrating how to think about as well cognitive modeling as how to do a task 1. attention What are the essential conditions for 3. motor reproduction 4. motivation successful modeling? ARMM self-efficacy belief that one is capable of executing certain behaviors or achieving certain goals belief that one can perform a task successfully even resilient self-efficacy after experiencing setbacks model who initially struggles with a task coping model but successfully overcomes obstacles collective self-efficacy people's beliefs about their ability to be successful when they work together on a task self-chosen and self-directed behavior that leads to the self-regulated behavior fulfillment of personally constructed standards and goals process of setting goals for oneself and engaging in self-regulation behaviors and cognitive process that lead to goal attainment emotion regulation process of keeping in check or intentionally altering feelings that might lead to counterproductive behavior instructions that one gives oneself while self-instructions performing a complex behavior process of observing and recording one's self-monitoring own behavior process of judging one's own performance self-evaluation or behavior self-reinforcement or self-punishment that self-imposed contigency follows a behavior self-regulated learning regulation of one's own cognitive processes and studying behaviors in order to learn successfully learning (Adult helps child)adult and child share responsibility for directing various aspects of the child's co-regulated learning Or 2. collaborative process in which one or more learners jointly support and monitor one another's learning progress (learner helps learner) use of self-directed strategies to address self-regulated problem solving complex problems approach to conflict resolution in which a student peer mediation (serving as a mediator) asks peers in conflict to express their differing viewpoints and then work together to devise a reasonable resolution ability to inhibit (stop) dominant responses in favor of other, less dominant ones that might be more productive; effortful control an aspect of temperament that is influenced by biology and brain maturation inner state that energizes, directs, and motivation sustains behavior amount of time that students are both time on task physically and cognitively engaged in a learning activity phenomenon in which aspects of the immediate situated motivation environment enhance motivation to learn particular things or behave in particular ways Motivation resulting from factors external to the extrinsic motivation individual and unrelated to the task being performed (ex: good grades, money, food, etc.) Motivation resulting from personal characteristics intrinsic motivation or inherent in the task being performed (ex: self improvement, genuine interest in topic, etc.) intense form of intrinsic motivation, flow involving complete absorption in and concentration on a challenging activity need for arousal ongoing need for either physical or cognitive stimulation basic need to believe that one can deal effectively with one's overall environment need for competence - to gain sense of competence, children spend lots of time exploring and trying to gain mastery over various aspects of their world general belief about the extent to which self-worth one is a good, capable individual behavior that undermines one's own success as a way of protecting self-worth during potentially difficult tasks self-hadicapping -decrease their chances of success by reducing effort, setting too high of goals, taking on too much, procrastinating, cheating, and using alcohol or drugs basic need to believe that one has some autonomy and control regarding the course of one's life need for self-determination - need to find things that we want/have to do in life basic need to feel socially connected to need for relatedness others and to secure others' love and respect Maslow's hierarchy of needs: what is order, which are deficiency, and which are growth needs? -b-top two are growth needs needs perception that an activity is intriguing and interest enticing; typically accompanied by both cognitive engagement and positive affect interest evoked temporarily by something situational interest in the environment long-term relatively stable interest in a personal interest particular topic or activity belief about the likelihood of success in an activity, given present ability levels and external circumstances that expectancy may either help or hinder performance belief regarding the extent to which an value activity has direct or indirect benefits internalized motivation adoption of other people's priorities and values as one's own mastery goal desire to acquire new knowledge or master new skills performance goal desire to demonstrate high ability and make a good impression desire to look good and receive favorable performance-approach goal judgments from others desire not to look bad or receive performance-avoidance goal unfavorable judgments from others concrete goal that can be accomplished proximal goal within a short time period, and it may be a stepping stone toward a long-term goal desire either to avoid classroom tasks or to work-avoidance goal complete them with minimal effort, often because of low self-efficacy for the tasks desire to get reasonable school grades through doing-just-enough goal the easiest possible routes- routes that may or may not involve actually learning classroom material self-constructed causal explanation for a personally attribution experienced or observed event, such as one's own or another person's success or failure belief that intelligence can improve with incremental view of intelligence effort and practice belief that intelligence is a distinct ability entity view of intelligence that is relatively permanent and unchangeable genera, fairly pervasive belief that one is mastery orientation capable of accomplishing challenging tasks general, fairly pervasive belief that one is learned helplessness incapable of accomplishing tasks and has little or no control of the envorironment situation in which expectations for an self-fulfilling prophecy outcome either directly or indirectly lead to the expected result feelings, emotions, and moods that learner brings to bear on a task affect - both psychological and physical feeling ex: happiness feels good psychologically and physically affective state based on self-evaluations regarding the self-conscious emotion extent to which one's actions meet society's standards for appropriate and desirable behavior; examples are pride, guilt, and shame boredom unpleasant affective state that results from lack of stimulation and arousal learning or cognitive processing that is hot cognition emotionally charged feeling of mental discomfort caused by new cognitive dissonance information that conflicts with current knowledge or beliefs feeling of uneasiness and apprehension anxiety concerning a situation with an uncertain outcome temporary feeling of anxiety elicited by a state anxiety threatening situation general pattern of responding with anxiety even in nonthreatening situations trait anxiety - ex: students may be so anxious about mathematics that they can't concentrate on even the simplest math assignment, which hampers performance level of anxiety (usually relatively low) that enhances performance facilitating anxiety - spurs learners into action anxiety of sufficient intensity that it debilitating anxiety interferes with performance situation in which a learner believes there threat is little or no chance of success situation in which a learner believes that challenge success is possible with sufficient effort awareness of a negative stereotype about one's own group and accompanying uneasiness that low stereotype threat performance will confirm the stereotype; leads (often unintentionally) to lower-quality performance as observable changes in behavior as a how do behaviorists define learning? result of experience with stimuli in immediate environment 1. focus on observable behavior or responses very close to each other in time)ts is important for learning (when two events occur what are the 5 focuses of behaviorists? 3. emphasize role of reinforcement and punishment 4. recognize influence of classical conditioning on behavior 5. acknowledge similarity in learning across species how might a behaviorist recommend we help students associate school with - use positive reinforcement, fun activities, and rewards for behavior pleasure? how might a behaviorist recommend we - observe students right after you teach draw conclusions about what students them, see if they are demonstrating have learned? understanding of skill how might a behaviorist response to a - provide punishment for this task, or take student who keeps eating snacks during away the snack only providing it as a non-preferred tasks? reward for completing their work how might a behaviorist recommend we - observe to see why they are struggling, teach students who have difficulty and break down task into simpler steps executing complex tasks? give yourself or student reward after engaging in a non-preferred task Premack Principle - people are more motivated to complete non-preferred tasks if doing so allow them access to a preferred activity breaking complex tasks into parts shaping procedure - start by 1st small task being something child can already do what are the two main types of 1. instrumental conditioning conditioning? 2. classical conditioning when a response increases or decreases instrumental conditioning as a result of reinforcement or punishment a type of instrumental conditioning, only pertaining to the operant conditioning reinforcement aspect (when a response increases or decreases as a result of reinforcement) involuntary response occurs as a result of classical conditioning 2 stimuli being presented close together in time unconditioned stimulus UCS - stimulus leads to a response without prior learning unconditioned response UCR - response elicited by UCS (unconditioned stimulus) without prior learning conditioned stimulus CS - stimulus elicits response via classical conditioning conditioned response CR - response elicited by CS (conditioned stimulus) via classical conditioning What type of conditioning is it when a child classical conditioning because child associates gets bullied on a bus, and thereafter has a getting onto a bus with being bullied (two stimuli that were presented together in time) fear of buses? behaviorist vs. social cognitive ven ... diagram: people learn through observation, others' social cognitive theory behavior, and consequences of others' behavior - Bandura's experiment What was the Bobo doll experiment? Who - children watched adults interactions with a doll (when they saw the adult be come aggressive with the doll, they mimicked their behavior) conducted it? What were it's results? - realized that watching violence does in fact make you act in more violent ways ` yes, and if violence is rewarded the violent behavior is does watching violence lead to violent more likely to occur behavior? ex: bobo doll experiment (modeling) How are behaviorists and social cognitive - recognize importance of consequences theorists the same? Behaviorists: - classical conditioning:external reward how are behaviorists and social cognitive - person experiences consequences themselves - learning is defined as change in behavior theorists different? - no focus on mental processes - learning stems from environmental factors beyond one's control Social Cognitive: - focus on underlying process - internal motivation - need to recognize links and relationships How are behaviorists and social cognitive - learnings as an internal change - control environmentand regul... own behavior theorists different? social cognitive theory: what does Bandura state are reciprocal influences? 1. live models 2. verbal interaction 3. symbolic models (ex: movies and books) social cognitive theory on modeling all three types of modeling impact behavior (of someone observing the action) - if conditions of learning aren't right, you cannot learn from modeling 1. attention What factors affect capacity to learn from 2. retention and imitate a model? 3. motel reproduction 4. motivation What 2 factors influence our motivation to 1. anticipated consequences imitate a model? 2. internal standards for behavior neurons that fire when we observe and then act out the mirror neurons same action as others 1. help us learn through imitation What are two benefits of mirror neurons? 2. help us develop empathy shaping breaking down concepts into smaller tasks what is special about the mirror neurons of children with autism have impaired mirror children with autism? neurons If a child gets bullied on the bus, leading to UCS: bullying UCR: fear of bullying the child having a fear of buses, what is the CS: bus UCS, UCR, CS, and CR? CR: fear of bus reinforcement always ___________ INCREASES responding increases future occurrence of desired behavior by adding (+) something - operant conditioning has occurred positive reinforcement ex: Johnny receives $5 for every A he earns on his report card increasing future occurrence of desired behavior by removing (-) something negative reinforcement ex: studying for an exam to AVOID getting a bad grade (removing the aversive stimulus, which in this case is the bad grade) punishment always __________ DECREASES responding presentation of aversive stimulus or punishment removal of a pleasant stimulus that decreases future occurrences of behavior 1. may backfire and reinforce problem 2. may damage adult student relationship What are some downsides to intended 3. may decreases behavior in one setting but not another 5. may damage students sense of self efficacy punishment? 6. punishment can lose its effect if there is no hope in earning (whatever they want) it back or if they are used to it any response that FOLLOWS behavior consequence * doesn't mean good or bad stimulus or event that precedes (comes antecedent before) target behavior summarizes relationship between the: 1. Antecedent hypothesis statement 2. Behavior 3. Consequence -a behavioral strategy that seeks to determine the purpose or function that a particular behavior serves Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) (identifies Antecedent, Behavior, and Consequence in order to find this information) Intervention Options (how do you alter the 1. change antecedent to prevent the problem 2. teach desired behavior ABC's or the sequence of antecedent --> 3. altar the consequence to reinforce desired behavior and behavior --> consequence) decrease reinforcement for problem behaviors
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