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Geology 100, Study Guide Exam 2

by: Sarah Martin

Geology 100, Study Guide Exam 2 Geology 100

Marketplace > Kansas State University > Geology > Geology 100 > Geology 100 Study Guide Exam 2
Sarah Martin

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This contains the study questions for chapters 5-7, along with in-class notes to help you prepare for the test. Also note that our teacher will be posting her study questions on canvas soon.
Geology 100
Sabreen Ata Gad
Study Guide
Geology, 100, Kansas State
50 ?




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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Martin on Monday October 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geology 100 at Kansas State University taught by Sabreen Ata Gad in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Geology 100 in Geology at Kansas State University.


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Date Created: 10/17/16
9/28 Chapter 5: Igneous environments: in Yellowstone; volcanic area with less plant cover; Valles Caldera and light colored ash; dark volcanic layers with dark lava flows (Cerros del Rio); huge crystals (2 meters); all formed by igneous activity in different stages; main parts: Valles Caldera, smaller volcanos, huge crystals Textures: phaneritic: crystals that are visible to the unaided eye aphanitic: don’t have visible crystals - rapid cooling The following are measuring crystal size or from most rough to most smooth: Pegmatite: bumpy Course grained: mms or cms Medium grained: mms Fine grained ^these reflect cooling process - The more quickly cooled, the finer grained Volcanic glass: very quickly cooled Porphyritic: (phenocrysts) course grain inside lots of fine grains - 2 grain sizes Vesicular: porous; light weight because full of holes that were air pockets Welded: looks like squished rocks (not porous); particles of pumice and volcanic ash are flattened by overlying ash Volcanic Breccia: formed by explosive eruptions of ash and rock fragments from lava flow Cooling rate and texture: Slow cooling: (days) light colored, squished; cooling at great depth Moderate cooling: medium grain size; cooling at medium depth Fast cooling: shallow depth; temperatures vary; fine grains Slow then fast cooling: solidification started at depth then was brought to the surface The following are organized by highest part of a volcano to the lowest part: Column of volcanic ash: ash cools before accumulating on surface Pyroclastic flow: hot gas, ash, rock fragments Eruption of lava Rapid cooling at shallow depth Slow cooling then fast cooling Slower cooling at depth Pegmatites: water-rich parts of magma Be able to classify igneous rocks: size of grain, shape, COLOR Identify intrusive igneous: granite - felsic (lighter); diorite - intermediate (medium color); gabbro - mafic (darker); peridotites - ultramafic (darkest) Cont. identify extrusive igneous rocks: rhyolite, andesite, basalt, ultramafic lava 10/3 Role of source area: melting mantle forms mafic (light) magma; melting continental crust forms felsic (dark) or intermediate magma Mixing magma: assimilation (incorporation of host rocks) Magma moving: dikes are through fractures; removing the overlying rocks piece by piece; broken dark fragments melt of intact Determining factors of how far magma rises: magma pressure, density, gas pressure, stress Felsic magma: more silicate minerals causes it to be harder to move or more slowly; taller volcano; continental crust Mafic magma: mantle; more pressure; magnetic conduit; moves faster; crater Oceanic crust: produces mafic magma; contains basalt; denser than felsic Controls the ease of magma flow: temperature; composition; percentage of crystal Higher percentage of crystals, harder for magma to move High viscosity: lava piles up: low temperature -> lower temp and abundant silicates Magma cooling: lose heat to air, water, or underlying rocks; conduction into wall rocks; loses gases Slow cooling: looks like marble (bigger chunks) Medium cooling: smaller marble Fast cooling: looks like sand or very fine grained Fast the slow cooling: very big differences in sizes throughout the rock Order of mineral crystallization (high temp to low temp): olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite, muscovite, plagioclase, K-Feldspar, quartz Magma at divergent plate boundaries -> decompression melting Igneous rocks in oceanic crust: ocean, pillow basalt (big round rock shaped), sheeted dikes of basalt (fractured basalt), gabbro (same chemical composition as basalt), mantle Melting in ocean-ocean convergent boundary (subduction zone): add water to hot mantle 10/5 Magmatism at hot spots: rising mantle plume, oceanic island volcano Crustal melting and caldera in continent; huge basalt flows on continents ^neither of these move horizontally, the plate does move however creating lots of islands Large magma chambers: large, solidified magma chambers exposed to surface by: Irregular plutons: some vertical; ex: toyabe range, Nevada Sheet-like plutons: ex: cuernos del Paine, Chile; bottom and top are very dark, the middle is light gray Batholith: contiguous plutons: ex: sierra Nevada, CA Laccolith: bulge shaped magma body; ex: Henry Mountains, Utah Formation of a volcanic neck: inside volcano; eroded into volcanic neck Beneath volcano; overlying materials eroded away; magma chamber collapses because of water vapor released Ex: Shiprock, New Mexico Columnar joints: cooling of magma in sections Sierra Nevada batholith, CA: metamorphic rocks, gigantic rocks, fault along east side … Study question PICS 10/7 Chapter 5: Magma generated by subduction of plate next to north American plate Mt st Helens has had the most eruptions in the northwest area of US; latest eruption was 1980; ash rose 25 km; Types of eruptions: typical lava coming out of hill or mountain; when volcano is dormant for a long time, we see heavy smog or dirt or ash cover; coming out of crack in the ground or fissure or depression (not a hill) Hill capped by volcanic rocks formed by: fissure feeds a lava flow -> erosion of flow -> ; not a volcano Types of volcanos: Scoria (cinder) cone: several hundred meters high, usually basaltic Shield volcano: size ranges from a kilometer across to huge mountains, mostly basalt Composite volcano: interlayering of lava flow, pyroclastic deposits, symmetric mountains Volcanic dome: felsic and intermediate magma, rock fragments Types of eruptions: lava flow from lava vent; lava fountain from basaltic magma; eruption column from tephra (ash eruption) How gases affect magma: under less pressure, gas forms bubbles; dissolved … How viscosity affects eruptions: ash cloud is more viscous than flowing lava Rock types and how they're formed: Vesicular basalt: darker; more porous Nonvesicular basalt: finer grains; lighter in color Scoria: large pores; medium color Lava tubes: previously erupted lava cooled in such a way that it formed a roof but the vent is not done spitting out lava AA lava: rugged appearance because they break into fragments that are then moved Pahoehoe lava: small opening left so it cools in a way that looks like you're pouring thick cake batter Scoria cones and basalt flow: early formation of a scoria cone; switch to lava flows Shield volcanos in hot spots: fluid magma from fissures and scoria cones; Mauna Loa is the world's largest volcano (29,520) feet above the sea floor Kilauea has fissures fed by dikes; can have craters and small calderas Flood basalts: large igneous eruptions on earth Origin of flood basalts: plume rises through mantle; plume partially melts (plume rises to base of lithosphere); plume spreads with additional melting (melting of lithosphere) Hazards: lava fountain; volcanic ash; fire; lava flow 10/10 Composite volcano: eruption column; pyroclastic flows; landslides and mud flow; lava flow Composite volcano rock types: various types of ash, lava, mudflows; andesite; tephra from eruption column; tuff from pyroclastic flows; mudflow deposits (lahars) Examples: mount Fuji, Mount Etna, Mount Kilimanjaro Volcanic domes: rubbly appearance; ex: valley of 10,000 smokes, AK; partially eroded domes; formed by magma chamber causing it to grow out and up as magma appears to cool or grows from the inside as magma in injected into the interior of dome and grow as magma leaks out the sides; destroyed by steep flanks collapse or explosions from gas buildup inside Rocks associated with volcanic domes: felsic composition, obsidian; volcanic breccia from breakup of flowing lava and collapse; tuff and volcanic breccia associated with dome collapse Ex: mount unzen, Japan - pyroclastic flow from dome collapse; destruction after eruption Valles Caldera: central depression surrounded by steep walls; low areas that collect sediment and ash; small mountains inside caldera are domes Formation of a caldera: magma coming to surface; magma seeps through the crust; magma bursts through the surface; area sinks or collapses the roof of the magma chamber How to determine danger posed by this volcano: shape, rock types, age Oceanic calderas: subduction related or over hot spots 10/12 Chapter 6 cont. Shield volcanos: HI and the Galapagos Composite volcanos Calderas: subduction related or over hot spot Composite, basalt flow, scoria cones How we monitor volcanos: seismic device to measure increased seismic activity; increased gas activity; changes in topography; changes in temperature Mount Rainier: most recent eruption 1820; composite volcano; lava is composed of viscous material STUDY QUESTIONS 6 Chapter 7: Importance of studying rocks: important clues to the history of the continents and the earth's climate history (warming or cooling); important clues to the history of life (fossils); contain much of the earth's important and valuable natural resource deposits (oil, natural gas) Processes involved in formation of sedimentary rocks: weathering, transportation, deposition, lithification (conversion of loose sediment to solid rock by compaction and cementation) 3 types of sedimentary rocks: clastic (accumulation of clasts); chemical (minerals precipitate from water bodies or many of these form when standing water evaporates, leaving dissolved minerals behind); organic (organic processes) Types of sediments in locations: Lagoon: sand, mud Reef: shallow, clear warm Beach, Delta, Offshore delta, Barrier Island, Coastal dunes, Deep seafloor Tidal flat: sand, mud, evaporite 10/14 CHAP 7 STUDY QUESTIONS You must have preexisting material; it can suffer from physical weathering in these ways: fracturing; frost and mineral wedging; Chemical weathering: dissolution; hydrolysis; oxidation; biological reactions 3 types of sedimentary rocks: clastic, chemical, organic Clastic sediments: size: PIC Sorting: poorly sorted: very fine to larger rocks; moderately sorted: fine and medium sizes (2 sizes); well sorted: all the same size (sand) Shape: angular: mountain slopes; partially rounded; rounded: stream pebbles Controls on size, shape, and sorting: farther from source means rounder and smaller Ex: steepness of slope -> strength of current -> agent of transports Common clastic sedimentary rocks: conglomerate (qz, sand), breccia (angled rocks), sandstone (sand size), shale (mud size) Difference between conglomerate and breccia: conglomerate is more rounded Different types of sandstones: sandstones, quartz sandstone, arkose (25% feldspar grains), graywacke (Qz, Feld, mica) How clastic sediment becomes rock: compaction of sand grains; compaction of clay particles; cementation (cement: calcite, silica, clay minerals, iron oxides) 10/17 Chemical sedimentary rocks: Setting: sodium, calcium, and chloride -> rock salt Setting: river/ lakes/ etc. -> travertine (limestone) Rocks formed by organisms: Setting: coral reef -> limestone with fossils Settings: shallow, grassy wetlands, dense vegetation in swamps -> coal Other nonclastic sedimentary rocks: gypsum, chalk: caco3, dolostone: calcium replaced by Mg, chert: from silica-rich plankton Types of bedding: parallel bedding (parallel to the earth), cross bedding (angled), graded bedding (fine grains, then layers of bigger rocks) Characteristics of breccia: breccia with rocky matrix, bre, landslides, glaciers Characteristics of conglomerate: environments of formation: river, alluvial plain, beach Characteristics of sandstone: environments of formation: sand dunes, rivers, floodplains, beaches; form from layers in different colors that represent different chemical makeups; sandstone formed along shorelines and offshore environments: beach, delta, continental shelf and slope Carbonate rocks and their environments: limestone; limestone with fossils; dolostone Carbonate rocks in landscape: limestone, soluble limestone, limestone pillars Carbonate environments: near shore and marine: reefs, storms and waves, continental shelves, dolomitization->dolostone Transgression: events of the sea (flooding) and land; describe the rising of sea level; ex: beach sand -> mud over sand -> reef and limestone over mud From top to bottom: limestone -> mudstone -> sandstone -> older units Regression: sea retreated from area on land; ex: beach sand over mud -> mud over limestone -> dune sand From top to bottom: sandstone -> mudstone -> limestone Indicators of environment: color; size, shape, sorting; thickness of bedding; type of bedding; mud cracks; fossils Size, shape, sorting tells us about the kind of transportation STUDY QUESTIONS:


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