History 1010; Chp. 6-10 Study Guide
History 1010; Chp. 6-10 Study Guide Hist 1010
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This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Notetaker on Monday October 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 1010 at Auburn University taught by TBA in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 352 views.
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Date Created: 10/17/16
Parthians People moved south from present day Turkmenistan and settled in the region comprising the modern states of Iraq and Iran Social order was founded on nomadic pastoralism and a war capability based on technical advances in mounted horseback warfare Reliance on horses made their style of fighting highly mobile and ideal for warfare on arid plains and deserts Perfected the Parthian shot: the arrow shot from a bow with great accuracy at long distance and from horseback at a gallop Decentralized political structure limited coordination of their resources, and horse mounted style of warfare wasn’t suited for more rocky and hilly environments Buddhism b/c of silk road, traveled from India major influence was kushans – horse riding nomadic group enter of Buddhist communities = stupa Buddhist relics and sculptures depicting the Buddha’s life and teachings were inside the stupa Asoka Grandson of Chandragupta Third king of mauryan empire Launched the conquest of Kalinga Lost over 100,000 soldiers in battle Pledged to follow the peaceful doctrines of Buddhism Ruled with dhamma tolerance of others, obedience to natural order Wanted his people to consider themselves subject and call him their father and to conform to his moral code Silk roads System of routes that for thousands of years constituted the primary commercial network linking east Asia and Mediterranean world Extended over 5000 miles Took its name from the huge quantities of silk that were exchanged Altered political geography of Afro-Eurasia Many people were involved in the transportation of one item Horse riding nomads made long distance trade possible Helped the spread of Buddhism Indian ocean trade Important role in history Key factor in east-west exchanges Long distance trade in dhows and sailboats made it a dynamic zone of interaction between people and cultures Led to development of roman trade with India Muslims once dominated trade across Indian ocean Exchanges spices and silk from china in exchange for textiles Shi huangdi Centralized administration of empire Divided territory up into 36 provinces, also known as commanderies Reforms provided china with a centralized bureaucracy and a hereditary emperor Principles of legalism Great wall of china Built by shi huangdi Largest man made creation Made of stone, brick, earth, and wood To protect Chinese states and empires from raids and invasions Border control Regulation and encouragement of trade esp. along the silk road Terra cotta warriors Used by shi huangdi when he built himself a tomb Greatest fear was death, wanted protection in his afterlife Includes warriors, chariots and horses Sasanian Persia Empire Last Iranian empire before rise of Islam Ruled by Sasanian dynasty Recognized as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighboring arch- rival the Roman Byzantine Empire Founded by [Ardashir 1] after fall of Parthian empire Witnessed peak of Iranian civilizations Persia influenced roman culture during this period Mayans Caribbean region of the Yucatan and its interior Lived in inhospitable region = hot, infertile, lacking navigable river systems and vulnerable to hurricanes Achieved greatness without founding a single great central metropolis Hundreds and thousands of agrarian villages across diverse ecological zones Linked by shared Mayan language and tribute payments Major ritual centers Hubs were politically independent and culturally and economically linked through commerce Elaborate class structure, each kingdom topped by a shamanistic king who legitimated his position vis his lineage Gods were neither cruel nor benevolent focused on the dance that sustained the axis connecting the underworld and the skies Common set of beliefs, codes and values connected the villages, sharing a similar language Popul Vuh, “Book of Community” narrates one community’s creation myth, extolling its founders and the experiences, wars, and natural disasters Had many skilled mathematicians who devised a calendar and studied astronomy Mayan elites were obsessed with spilling blood as a way to honor rulers and ancestors of gods Captured victims for bloody rituals Internal warfare is what killed the Mayans villages and tribes would often fight recruiting too many soldiers to keep the rest of life going Dynasties Line of hereditary rulers of a country Succession of people from the same family who play a prominent role Philip of Macedon Father of alexander the great Assassinated Conquered neighboring states of Macedonia Had gold mines that could support his new military technology and displaced army Crushed Greek city states to the south Hellenism Axial age philosophy Shared Greek identity that spread throughout the lands in which Greeks settled and was expressed in their language, art, architecture, politics, etc. Secular disciplines Political thinking Competitive public games Art in many forms Roman slavery Performed many domestic services and occasionally employed at highly skilled jobs and professions, may be highly educated Abusive and degrading, cruelty Slaves considered property under roman law with no legal personhood Roman military Largely homogeneous and highly regulated Consisted of units of citizen infantry known as legions as well as non-legionary allied troop known as auxilia latter were most commonly called upon to provide light infantry or cavalry support Roman economy Agrarian and slave based economy Main concern was feeding the vast number of citizens and legionaries Agriculture and trade dominated, supplemented by small scale industrial production Macedonia After alexander the great and Philip 2 Ruled by Antigonids Phalanx Body of troops or police officers, standing or moving in close formation Alexander the great 356-323 BCE king at 19 died at 32 taught by Aristotle experience with Philip 2 (father) facilitated spread of Hellenism major battles visited wounded garrisons leaves part of army in conquered place Bantu bantu migrants traveled out of west Africa in two waves one moved across the Congo forest with a knowledge of iron smelting allowing them to use iron tools for agriculture, the other moved southward through the rainforests in present day Congo and were limited to subsistence farming because of the tsetse fly- infested environment and learned to use iron later genetic and linguistic evidence suggest that they absorbed most of the hunter- gatherer population who were the original inhabitants adapted their farming techniques and crops to widely different environments introduction of the banana plant formed small scale societies based on family and clan connections socially and politically organized and in age groups males moved from child warrior ruling elder females moved from child married child bearer Animism attribution of a soul to plants, inanimate objects, and natural phenomena belief in a supernatural power that organizes and animates the material universe Kilwa merchants from the city on the coast of present day Tanzania, brought ivory, gold, slaves and other items from the interior and shipped them to destinations around Indian ocean Sheik honorific term in Arabic East African slave trade Mongols combination of forest and prairie people resided in circular, felt covered tents shared some of their animals lived by hunting and livestock herding changed campgrounds with seasons food, primarily animal products, provided higher levels of protein built up muscle mass and strength society resembled a perpetual standing army with bands of well-disciplined military units led by commanders chosen for their skill solidified their conquests by extending kinship networks households sealed alliances by exchange of daughters in marriage women in society = responsible for child-rearing Chinggis tribes unified by a gathering of clan heads who chose one of those present as Chinggis, or supreme ruler launched a series of conquest southward across Great Wall armies of Chinggis’s sons reached both pacific and Adriatic Sea grandson’s founded dynasties in Persia, china and southern Eurasian steppes Diocletian reforms political empires in half with two emperors military brings in non- romans to serve in military persecuted Christians sees them as a threat makes social mobility harder Constantine born near danubian frontier belonged to class of professional soldiers father was emperor constantius “in this sign conquer” showed imperial favor helped convert roe to Christianity edict of Milan no persecutions, point to give Christianity room to grow Constantinople renames city in eastern Rome Situated to receive taxes in gold and to control the sea- lanes of the Mediterranean Council of nicea agree on how to grow the church Became the official religion of the empire in 391 CE Visigoths Corruption [Alaric] 401-401 CE Helped bring food to people Conflicts with locals Arian Christians Cultural achievements Huns Slavic and Germanic terrifying and aggressive Threatened both roman and German peoples Constantinople [Attila] seized mandate of heaven invaded Italy in 452 CE scourge of heaven dies in 453 CE Attila leader of the Huns Ostrogoth’s invaded Italy actually made it to Rome established kingdom [Theodoric] integrated temple brought relative peace funded public works, the arts kingdom collapsed after his death in 555 CE Francs slow migration into Italy Gaulle [Clovis] converts unites francs religious and political authority – consul to Rome Justinian came from an obscure Balkan village became empower in 527 CE reformed roman laws lawyers created the digest, a massive condensation and organization of the preexisting body of Roman law companion was the institutes, a teacher’s manual for schools of roman law foundation of what later came to be known as “roman law”, followed in both eastern and western Europe church of hagia Sophia contacts between east and west and internal discord made his reign harder quelled riots and undertook wars to reclaim part of the western Mediterranean bubonic plague from the east, took out much of his empire Corpus juris civilis code of Justinian the code: compilation of imperial enactments to date and is an encyclopedia composed of mostly brief extracts from writing of Roman jurists the institutes: student textbook, mainly introducing code, given force of law the digest: within code; encyclopedia unknown how effective it was Nomads no permanent home travel from place to place to find fresh pasture for their livestock Hinduism Vedic and Dravidian devotion to deity fertility rituals 4 century CE Vishnu, brahma, and Shiva Vishnu = “the preserver” Aryan Northern India Benevolent **personal, individual devotion to a deity Shiva mount kailasa Bhagavad-Gita Mahabharata Temples and tenets Puja (service) Pilgrimage (gagnes river) adaptable Bhagavad gita authoritative literature of Hindu spirituality that preserves the tale of Krishna and Arjuna prescribed religious and ethical teachings and behaviors called dharma Theater-state political state directed towards the performance of drama and ritual rather than more conventional ends such as welfare power is exercised through spectacle Hannibal Punic military commander from carthage considered one of the greatest military commanders outbreak of the second Punic war he marched an army which included war elephants Julius Caesar father of Octavian (Augustus) roman politician, general and notable author of Latin prose rise of roman empire extended Rome’s territory to the English Channel and the Rhine first roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and the first invasion of Britain unmatched military power Augustus adopted son of Julius Caesar Octavian ultimately reunited the fractured empire and emerged as undisputed master of the roman world Octavian ultimately assumed a new title of Augustus Very powerful emperor, yet saw himself as just Nero Roman emperor (54-68 AD) Last in Julio-Claudian dynasty Adopted by his great uncle Claudius to become heir and successor Focused attention on diplomacy, trade and enhancing the cultural life of the empire Theaters built and promoted athletic games Seen as compulsive and corrupted Great fire of Rome in 64 AD romans believed he started it in order to clear land for his planned palatial complex Driven from throne in 68 AD denounced as public enemy and to be executed committed suicide Rule associated with tyranny and extravagance Mecca and medina MECCA Birthplace of Muhammad Located in the hijaz -> the western region of Arabia bordering the red sea Unimposing village of simple mud huts Inhabitants included both merchants and the caretakers of a revered sanctuary called the Kaaba dwelling place of deities MEDINA Located in the hijaz Burial place of Muhammad Second holiest city in Islam behind mecca Muhammad Muhammed ibn Abdullah Khadija 610 CE- religious revelation Quran unma = “just community” 622 CE – move to medina 630 CE – mecca submits to Christianity Quran Allah = supreme god Muhammad is his prophet submission to Allah submit to faith social justice traditional values end to corruption and immortality Five pillars of Islam 1. Allah (Muhammad is profit) 2. prayer (5 times daily facing mecca) 3. giving to community 4. Ramadan (fast from sunup to sundown) 5. Pilgrimage to mecca (at least once in lifetime) - jihad Jihad belief, struggle (personal) between world of Islam and world of warfare Sharia sharia law = body of Islamic law means “way” or “path” legal framework within the public and some private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Islam Caliphs rulers of Islam/Muslim state caliphate political institution of the early Islamic state, line of political rulers back to Muhammad Sunnis chose Abu bakr, as the first successor to lead the Muslim state accept that the political succession from the prophet to the four “rightly guided caliphs” and then to the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties was the correct one Shiites favored Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law ali and his successors are called imams lead the Shiites but are also descendants of Muhammad felt that the proper successors should have been Ali, who had married the Prophet’s daughter Fatima, and then his descendants descendants = called imams have religious and prophetic power as well as political authority Stoicism individual and his or her place in the world found new expression in many new philosophical schools involvement everything was grounded in nature regarded cities and kingdoms as human-made thing important but transient Epicureanism individual and his or her place in the world found new expression in many new philosophical schools detachment the garden school ideal community regardless of social status or gender Cynicism individual and his or her place in the world found new expression in many new philosophical schools self-sufficiency sought freedom from society’s laws and customs rejecting social norms Archimedes ancient Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor and astronomer regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity anticipated modern calculus Carolingians dynasty family of Frankish aristocrats and the dynasty that they established to rule western Europe derived from the name of Charles Charlemagne Charlemagne Carolingian ruler Leader of Franks Military leader Sale of POW’s, or Slavs Expanded his Western European kingdom through constant warfare and plunder Used sale of slaves to finance his expansion Spreading Christianity and allied with the pope 800 CE – Holy roman Empire when he died the kingdom was left divided and vulnerable Vikings “vik” = to be on the warpath shipbuilders foreigners slaves trade routes created an avenue of commerce that linked Scandinavia and the Baltic directly to Constantinople and Baghdad “highway of the slaves” so much trade was human cargo Empress wu Recruited before age 13 to Li Shimin’s court Expanded military and recruited her administrators from the civil examination candidates to oppose her enemies at court Ordered scholars to write biographies of famous women Tried to establish a new “Zhou dynasty” Seeking to imitate the widely admired era of Confucius Elevated Buddhism Eunuchs Entrepots Port or city where merchandise may be imported, stored or traded usually to be exported again Commercialism Emphasis on the maximizing of profit Making of profit at the expense of quality Song china 960- 1279 CE manufacturing flourished iron production in the eleventh century equaled that of European irth production in the early 8 century entrepreneurs were soon inventing an array of incendiary devices that flowed from their techniques for controlling explosions and high heat oversaw the world’s first manufacturing revolution producing finished goods on a large scale for consumption far and wide first letters of exchange, paper money, = flying cash, this linked northern traders with their colleagues in the south they eventually issued more notes to pay their bills led to inflation emperors built on tang political institutions by expanding a central bureaucracy of scholar- officials chosen even more extensively through competitive civil service examinations final tests administered for those who passed the highest-level palace examination song army could not match their enemies on the steppe when the nomads united against them Delhi sultanate Various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India (1210-1526) Founded after Muhammad of ghor defeated prithvi raj Captured Delhi in 1192 Crusades Armies of Christians from western Europe responded to pope urban 2’s plea to go to war against Muslim forces in the holy land Feudalism dominant social system in medieval Europe nobility held lands from the crown in exchange for military service vassals were turn tenants of the nobles, peasants were obliged to live on their lord’s land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce in exchange for military protection Cahokia/mound builder cities took shape at the hubs of trading networks across North America Cahokia = largest Rich soil, woodlands for fuel and game, and access to trade via Mississippi Fields of maize and crops fanned outwards towards horizon Hoe replaced digging stick Commercial center for regional and long distance trade Urban consumers Woven fabrics and ceramics exchanged for mica More than importer and exporter it was exchange hub for an entire regional network trading in salt, tools, pottery, woven stuffs, jewelry and ceremonial goods Landscape was enormous earthen mounds these artificial hills that people honored spiritual forces Represented growing networks of trade and migration and the ability of North Americans to organize vibrant commercial societies Cosmopolitans citizens to the whole world or universe no longer citizens of a particular city Barbarians illiterate, kin based agricultural societies had changed little since the first millennium BCE their wars were unremitting every emperor faced the expectation of dealing harshly with these barbarians often used as soldiers Monasticism originated in Europe root of “monastic” and “monk” is the Greek for “alone” a man or woman who choose to live alone, without support of marriage or family Mauryan Empire o south Asia’s first empire o served as model for later Indian empire builders o Chandragupta Called himself “king of kings, great king” Used military resources to expand westward o Reached height during reign of third king: Asoka Grandson to Chandragupta o At height had 3,000,000 sq. miles o Was made up of pastoralists, forest dwellers, merchants, artisans, and religious leaders o Qin China o 221-207 BCE o leader = [shi huangdi] means first emperor o principles of legalism valued written codes, administrative regulations and inflexible punishments more highly than rituals and ethics o registration of people basis of taxation and conscription both for military service and public work projects o standard weights, measures, and currency later writing small seal script clerical script o constructed roads radiating out of the capital to all parts of the city o agrarian empire o dynasty collapsed quickly due to heavy taxation and constant warfare, quickly exhausting resources Han China o 206 BCE – 220 CE o first part of the dynasty brought economic prosperity and expansion of the empire especially true because of Emperor Wu martial emperor state’s many military campaigns Wu followed Daoist principle of ‘wuwei’ noninterference Still used strict penal code to eliminate officials who got in his way Imperial university college for classical scholars that supplied han need for well-trained bureaucrats o Han scholars were naturalists and inventors Cities laid out on an orderly grid Clearly visible division between social classes how the rich live and what they wear compared to others o elites shared a common written language based on the Confucian classics, qualified them for public office o living beyond the realm of Han was considered uncivilized o civilian magistrate and the bureaucrat were typical o dynastic empires fashioned themselves according to models of past empires o primarily agrarian based economy o free peasants worked the land o effective at expanding borders o retreat of xiongnu and other nomadic peoples led to a period of peace pax sinica Chinese peace long distance trade flourished, cities inflated, standards of living rose and the population surged o natural disasters led to crop failure which led to landowners being unable to pay taxes Wang Mang took over during this period of crisis Red eyebrows peasants painted their foreheads red and rebelled to overthrow Wang mang Soon he became the model of the evil usurper Yellow turbans religious group Roman Empire o being roman meant being a citizen of Rome, speaking Latin and eating and dressing like Latin speaking people concept then expanded to include not only citizens of the city but also anyone who had formal membership in the larger territorial state that the romans were building o citizen, soldier, and military government were heart of roman empire o began as a collectively ruled city-state and pursued its road to domination by creating something new o agrarian based economy o enslaved population worked the land o Punic wars 3 ward first war: prolonged naval battle over the island of Sicily second war : drew on their reserve force of nearly 750,000 men to ultimately repulse only for huge casualties and dramatic losses final war: romans used their advantage in manpower, ships, and other resources to bring the five centuries long hegemony of carthage in the western Mediterranean to an end o people would serve in the military not just to win glory but because of the enormous rewards they would ultimately get for themselves o [Julius Caesar] and adopted son Octavian – very important Octavian ultimately reunited the fractured empire and emerged as undisputed master of the roman world o Marked the beginning of pax romana o Octavian ultimately assumed a new title of Augustus o Romans saw some emperors as becoming gods on their death Yet roman rulers were always careful to present themselves as civil rulers whose power ultimately depended on the consent of roman citizens o pax romana roman peace depended on power of one man with enough authority to enforce an orderly competition among roman aristocrats o towns typically had two major components – a theater and an amphitheater public entertainment facilities stressed the importance of citizens in civic life Kingdom of Ghana o sat on a gold mine o abundance of resources allowed Ghana’s rulers to engage in years of prosperous trading o established as a nation by the tribe Soninke o war chief’s word was law served as commander in chief of highly organized army, controller of all trade activity and head administrator of justice Kingdom of Mali o c. 1230 to c. 1600 o west Africa o renowned for wealth of its rulers o largest in west Africa and profoundly influenced the culture of the region through the spread of its language, laws and customs o [Mansa Musa] Mali’s most renowned king Doubled the land area of Mali o Larger kingdom than any in Europe at the time Cities became important trading centers or wealth, culture, and learning Timbuktu became one of the major cultural centers in the entire world Vast libraries and universities Christianity o took shape in richly pluralistic world o foundations lay in a direct confrontation with roman imperial authority trial of Jesus o Jesus was found guilty of sedition and executed by means of crucifixion – standard roman penalty, as a result of typical roman provincial trial overseen by a roman governor Age of Division o 220-589 CE o three kingdoms o southern wu o han o culture poetry, calligraphy Nanjing, capital South of Yangzi river o Northern wei dynasty 386-534 CE Leoyang, capital o Xianbei tribesman Adopts aspects of Chinese culture Gupta Empire o south Asia (India) – 320-550 CE o in complete control o skilled military kushans o smaller administration o “theater state” culture is what attracts people ideas – concept zero and Arabic numbers o [gupta] after mauryan empire o Buddhism o Stupas – mound covering relic of ground o Bodhisattvas nd o Statues 2 c. CE o Mahayana = “great vehicle” Reverence China, japan, central Asia o Theravada or hinayana “teaching of elders” original southeast Asia Islam o Islamic empire Why expand? Control trade routes Unite people Spread faith (missions) How do you unite? Dhimmis (protected subjects) Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians Jizya (tax on the non-Muslims) Substitute for military service Abbasid Dynasty o Umayyad family (661-1258 CE) Branch of one of the Mecca clans Damascus Expand empire o Baghdad = capital o Persian influence o Sultanates o Tigris and Euphrates o Center for learning Translation Algebra Astrolabe – used to figure out where mecca is Paper more to remember Seleucid Kingdom o After alexander the great o Syria to present day Afghanistan Ptolemaic Kingdom o Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt o Ruled by Ptolemaic dynasty After death of Alexander the Great Ended with death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest o Founded by [Ptolemy I Soter] 305 BC Declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt and created a
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