Experimental Psychology Exam Two Study Guide
Experimental Psychology Exam Two Study Guide PSY
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Kaufman on Monday October 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Bradshaw in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Experimental Psychology in 3314 at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 10/17/16
Test Two Study Guide Chapter Two: Where to Start What is a hypothesis? What are the distinctions between a hypothesis and a prediction? Hypothesis and a theory? Hypothesis: tentative idea or question that is waiting for evidence to support or refute it. Data must be gathered and evaluated in terms of whether the evidence is consistent or inconsistent with the hypothesis Prediction: a guess at the outcome of a hypothesis. Predicting a specific direction of the hypothesis. If the prediction is confirmed by the results of the study, it supports the hypothesis. Theory: statements based on evidence, generated by testable experiments. REMEMBER: A hypothesis is never proven. It is only supported. What are the two functions of a theory? First: organize and explain a variety of specific facts or descriptions of behavior. They provide a framework Second: Theories generate new knowledge. They focus our thinking so we notice new aspects of behavior. They generate new hypotheses about behavior Theories are not just ideas that may or may not be true. What information does the researcher communicate in each of the sections of a research article? Abstract: a summary of the research report and typically runs no more than 120 words in length. Introduction Section: the researcher outlines the problem that has been investigated. Past research and theories relevant are discussed. Method Section: divided into: o Participants: Were they male or female? What was the average age? How many participants? o Materials: What items were used in the experiment? The researchers give a full explanation of the materials used in the experiment and why. o Procedure: Every detail of how the experiment was conducted goes here. Results: The researcher presents the finings in a narrative language, a statistical language, and in tables, if tables are applicable Discussion: reviews research from other perspectives. Do the results support the hypothesis? The author gives all possible explanations for the result. The differences between a knowledgebased and an observationbased research: Knowledgebased research focuses more on established, past research or theories. Not nearly so much based on observation of the outside world. Used in older sciences, such as biology or physics. Observationbased: One can observe something in the environment and start research based on observations. No prior knowledge is needed and is used in frontier sciences, or sciences just beginning. This is still used in psychology. Psychology uses both knowledgebased and observationbased research approaches. Chapter Five: Measurement Concepts What is meant by the reliability of a measure? Distinguish between true score and measurement error. Reliability: The consistency or stability of a measure of behavior. Can also be used in the real world. A friend or teacher that arrives to something scheduled is considered reliable. A friend or teacher that is never on time and never responds to messages is considered unreliable. True score: the real score on a variable Measurement error: the degree to which a measurement deviates from the true value score. Describe the methods of determining the reliability of a measure. Reliability coefficient: Is the measure producing steady results? You can discover this using correlation coefficients. The most commonly used one is the Pearson productmoment correlation coefficient. Testretest reliability: measuring the same individuals at two different points in time. If the measure produces the same results both times, then the measure is reliable. o Alternate forms reliability: a form of testretest. Two different forms of the same test to the same individuals at different times. Internal consistency reliability: assessment of reliability using responses at only one point in time. Uses multiple items, or responses. A real world example would be a test in a class. o Splithalf reliability: the correlation of the total score on one half of the test with the total score on the other half. The two halves are created randomly. Interrater reliability: the extent to which two separate raters agree with their observations. If they are in agreement then the measure is good. Reliability tells us about the measurement of error, but it does not tell us about whether or not the measure is good. Does it measure what it’s supposed to? Discuss the concept of construct validity. Distinguish among the indicators of construct validity. Construct validity: concerns whether our methods of studying variables are accurate. It refers to the adequacy of the operational definitions of variables. It is a question of whether the measure that is used actually measures the construct it is intended to measure. Concurrent validity: The construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining whether groups of people differ on the measure in expected ways Predictive validity: The construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining the ability of the measure to predict a future behavior Face validity: On the surface, is it measuring what it needs to measure? The content of the measure appears to reflect the construct being measured. Content validity: The content of the measure is linked to the universe of content that defines that construct. (For example, when creating a measure for depression, the researchers find the domains, or categories, that depression falls under.) Concurrent validity: Different measures running at the same time. Convergent validity: Used on the iPiP. Used an established test and a free test to see if they get the same results. Correlation good. Discriminant validity: Determining if a measure is the same as another. It’s bad if the measures are the same. Why isn’t face validity sufficient to establish the validity of a measure? Face validity is not very sophisticated. It is based entirely on appearances of the operational definitions and procedures. The person makes a judgment at face value, thus making a subjective judgment, and there is no empirical evidence to support the conclusions. What is a reactive measure? A measure is said to be reactive if awareness of being measured changes an individual’s behavior. A reactive measure tells what the person is like when he or she is aware of being observed, but it does not tell how the person would behave under natural circumstances. Knowing that you are being recorded on tape may change how you respond to situations. This is important to reduce when conducting an experiment. Distinguish between nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales. Nominal: categorical. All you can do with this is count frequencies.. Ordinal: Things are in order, but it’s a weird kind of order. The intervals between these things are not equal Most common example, ranking runners in a race. Ratio: Equal intervals, but it has a true zero. Zero degrees Kelvin. There is no heat. Because we have a true zero, we can compare or compute ratios. Interval: Equal intervals, but it has no zero or an artificial zero. Zero degrees on the fahrenheit scale is not actually a true zero. 20 degrees F is not twice as hot as 10 degrees F. IQ is another scale. Intervals are the same, but there is no true zero. Ratio and interval scales allow us to have means and standard deviations. Chapter Eight: Experimental design What is the confounding of variables? A confounding variable is a variable that varies along with the independent variable. Confounding occurs when the effects of the independent variable and an uncontrolled variable are intertwined so you cannot determine which of the variables is responsible for the observed effect. What is meant by the internal validity of an experiment? When the results of an experiment can confidently be attributed to the effect of the independent variable, the experiment is said to have internal validity. To achieve good internal validity, the researcher must design and conduct the experiment so that only the independent variable can be the cause of the results. How do the two true experimental designs eliminate the problem of selection differences? Selection differences: differences in the type of subjects who make up each group in an experimental design; this happens when participants elect which group they are to be assigned to. The researchers need for the groups to be equivalent. This can happen with random assignment to different groups to eliminate any kind of differences between the groups. Does not give regard to personal characteristics or the individual. Larger sample sizes also help to reduce selection differences. What is a repeated measures design? What are the advantages of using a repeated measures design? What are the disadvantages? A repeated measures design is a design where the participants are repeatedly measured on the dependent variable after being in multiple conditions of the same experiment. Advantages: o Fewer participants are needed, and they participate in all of the conditions o Sensitive to finding statistically significant differences between groups. o The individual differences can be seen and explained. One can clearly see the effect of the independent variable on the scores. Disadvantages: o The different conditions must be presented in a particular sequence. o An order effect (the order of presenting treatments) could affect the dependent variable. o Performance could improve on the second task (practice effect) o Performance could deteriorate (fatigue effect) if the participant gets tired, bored, or distracted. o The effect of the first treatment may carry over to influence the second treatment (carryover effect) What are some of the ways of dealing with the problems of a repeated measures design? Counterbalancing: all possible orders of presentation are included in the experiment. The conditions are presented in different orders. Latin squares: a limited set of orders constructed to ensure that each condition appears at each ordinal position and each condition precedes and follows each condition one time. The number of orders in a Latin square is equal to the number of conditions. Time interval between treatments: essentially a rest period between conditions. It may counteract the fatigue effect. Some intervals may be short (a few minutes) or long (a few days) When would a researcher decide to use the matched pairs design? What would be the advantages? A researcher would choose to use a matched pairs design to ensure that the two separate groups are equivalent on the matching variable before the independent variable is introduced. Used when only a few participants are available. There is a greater ability to detect a statistically significant effect of the independent variable because it is possible to account for individual differences in responses to the independent variable. Distinguish between random sampling and random assignment Random assignment: This is assigning participants already in a study to a particular condition. The experiment has already started. The groups are considered equivalent Random sampling: sampling technique used to select participants. This is used before an experiment.
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