New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Experimental Psychology Exam Two Study Guide

by: Erin Kaufman

Experimental Psychology Exam Two Study Guide PSY

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > 3314 > PSY > Experimental Psychology Exam Two Study Guide
Erin Kaufman

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This is a study guide that covers the questions found in the ends of chapters 2, 5, and 8. Remember, this is not all inclusive!
Experimental Psychology
Dr. Bradshaw
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Experimental Psychology

Popular in 3314

This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Kaufman on Monday October 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Bradshaw in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Experimental Psychology in 3314 at Mississippi State University.


Reviews for Experimental Psychology Exam Two Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/17/16
Test Two Study Guide Chapter Two:  Where to Start What is a hypothesis?  What are the distinctions between a hypothesis and a  prediction?  Hypothesis and a theory?  Hypothesis:  tentative idea or question that is waiting for evidence to  support or refute it.  Data must be gathered and evaluated in terms of  whether the evidence is consistent or inconsistent with the hypothesis  Prediction:  a guess at the outcome of a hypothesis.  Predicting a specific  direction of the hypothesis.  If the prediction is confirmed by the results of  the study, it supports the hypothesis.  Theory: statements based on evidence, generated by testable  experiments.  REMEMBER:  A hypothesis is never proven.  It is only supported. What are the two functions of a theory?  First:  organize and explain a variety of specific facts or descriptions of  behavior.  They provide a framework  Second:  Theories generate new knowledge.  They focus our thinking so  we notice new aspects of behavior.  They generate new hypotheses about behavior  Theories are not just ideas that may or may not be true. What information does the researcher communicate in each of the sections of a  research article?  Abstract:  a summary of the research report and typically runs no more  than 120 words in length.  Introduction Section:  the researcher outlines the problem that has been  investigated.  Past research and theories relevant are discussed.  Method Section:  divided into: o Participants:  Were they male or female?  What was the average  age?  How many participants? o Materials:  What items were used in the experiment?  The  researchers give a full explanation of the materials used in the  experiment and why. o Procedure:  Every detail of how the experiment was conducted  goes here.  Results:  The researcher presents the finings in a narrative language, a  statistical language, and in tables, if tables are applicable   Discussion:  reviews research from other perspectives.  Do the results  support the hypothesis?  The author gives all possible explanations for the result. The differences between a knowledge­based and an observation­based research:  Knowledge­based research focuses more on established, past research or  theories.  Not nearly so much based on observation of the outside world.  Used  in older sciences, such as biology or physics.  Observation­based:  One can observe something in the environment and start  research based on observations.  No prior knowledge is needed and is used in  frontier sciences, or sciences just beginning.  This is still used in psychology.  Psychology uses both knowledge­based and observation­based research  approaches. Chapter Five:  Measurement Concepts What is meant by the reliability of a measure?  Distinguish between true score and  measurement error.  Reliability:  The consistency or stability of a measure of behavior.  Can also be  used in the real world.  A friend or teacher that arrives to something scheduled is  considered reliable.  A friend or teacher that is never on time and never responds to messages is considered unreliable.  True score:  the real score on a variable  Measurement error: the degree to which a measurement deviates from the  true value score. Describe the methods of determining the reliability of a measure.  Reliability coefficient:  Is the measure producing steady results?  You can  discover this using correlation coefficients.  The most commonly used one is the  Pearson product­moment correlation coefficient.  Test­retest reliability:  measuring the same individuals at two different points in  time.  If the measure produces the same results both times, then the measure is  reliable. o Alternate forms reliability:  a form of test­retest.  Two different forms of the  same test to the same individuals at different times.  Internal consistency reliability:  assessment of reliability using responses at only  one point in time.  Uses multiple items, or responses.  A real world example  would be a test in a class. o Split­half reliability:  the correlation of the total score on one half of the test with the total score on the other half.  The two halves are created  randomly.  Interrater reliability:  the extent to which two separate raters agree with their  observations. If they are in agreement then the measure is good.  Reliability tells us about the measurement of error, but it does not tell us about  whether or not the measure is good.  Does it measure what it’s supposed to? Discuss the concept of construct validity.  Distinguish among the indicators of construct  validity.  Construct validity:  concerns whether our methods of studying variables are  accurate.  It refers to the adequacy of the operational definitions of variables.  It  is a question of whether the measure that is used actually measures the  construct it is intended to measure. ­Concurrent validity:  The construct validity of a measure is assessed by  examining whether groups of people differ on the measure in expected ways ­Predictive validity:  The construct validity of a measure is assessed by  examining the ability of the measure to predict a future behavior ­Face validity:  On the surface, is it measuring what it needs to measure?  The  content of the measure appears to reflect the construct being measured. ­Content validity:  The content of the measure is linked to the universe of content  that defines that construct.  (For example, when creating a measure for  depression, the researchers find the domains, or categories, that depression falls under.) ­Concurrent validity:  Different measures running at the same time. ­Convergent validity:   Used on the iPiP.  Used an established test and a free test to see if they get the same results.  Correlation good. ­Discriminant validity:  Determining if a measure is the same as another.  It’s bad  if the measures are the same. Why isn’t face validity sufficient to establish the validity of a measure? Face validity is not very sophisticated.  It is based entirely on appearances of the  operational definitions and procedures.  The person makes a judgment at face  value, thus making a subjective judgment, and there is no empirical evidence to  support the conclusions. What is a reactive measure? A measure is said to be reactive if awareness of being measured changes an  individual’s behavior.  A reactive measure tells what the person is like when he or she is aware of being observed, but it does not tell how the person would behave under natural circumstances.  Knowing that you are being recorded on tape may  change how you respond to situations.  This is important to reduce when  conducting an experiment. Distinguish between nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales. ­Nominal:  categorical.  All you can do with this is count frequencies..   ­Ordinal:  Things are in order, but it’s a weird kind of order.  The intervals  between these things are not equal  Most common example, ranking runners in a race. ­Ratio:  Equal intervals, but it has a true zero.  Zero degrees Kelvin.  There is no  heat.  Because we have a true zero, we can compare or compute ratios. ­Interval:  Equal intervals, but it has no zero or an artificial zero.  Zero degrees on the fahrenheit scale is not actually a true zero.  20 degrees F is not twice as hot  as 10 degrees F.  IQ is another scale.  Intervals are the same, but there is no  true zero. Ratio and interval scales allow us to have means and standard deviations. Chapter Eight:  Experimental design What is the confounding of variables? A confounding variable is a variable that varies along with the independent  variable.  Confounding occurs when the effects of the independent variable and  an uncontrolled variable are intertwined so you cannot determine which of the  variables is responsible for the observed effect. What is meant by the internal validity of an experiment? When the results of an experiment can confidently be attributed to the effect of  the independent variable, the experiment is said to have internal validity.  To  achieve good internal validity, the researcher must design and conduct the  experiment so that only the independent variable can be the cause of the results. How do the two true experimental designs eliminate the problem of selection  differences? Selection differences:  differences in the type of subjects who make up each  group in an experimental design; this happens when participants elect which  group they are to be assigned to. The researchers need for the groups to be equivalent.  This can happen with  random assignment to different groups to eliminate any kind of differences  between the groups.  Does not give regard to personal characteristics or the  individual.  Larger sample sizes also help to reduce selection differences. What is a repeated measures design?  What are the advantages of using a repeated  measures design?  What are the disadvantages?  A repeated measures design is a design where the participants are repeatedly  measured on the dependent variable after being in multiple conditions of the  same experiment.  Advantages: o Fewer participants are needed, and they participate in all of the conditions o Sensitive to finding statistically significant differences between groups. o The individual differences can be seen and explained.  One can clearly  see the effect of the independent variable on the scores.  Disadvantages: o The different conditions must be presented in a particular sequence. o An order effect (the order of presenting treatments) could affect the  dependent variable. o Performance could improve on the second task (practice effect) o Performance could deteriorate (fatigue effect) if the participant gets tired,  bored, or distracted. o The effect of the first treatment may carry over to influence the second  treatment (carryover effect) What are some of the ways of dealing with the problems of a repeated measures  design?  Counterbalancing:  all possible orders of presentation are included in the  experiment.  The conditions are presented in different orders.  Latin squares:  a limited set of orders constructed to ensure that each condition  appears at each ordinal position and each condition precedes and follows each  condition one time.  The number of orders in a Latin square is equal to the  number of conditions.  Time interval between treatments:  essentially a rest period between conditions.   It may counteract the fatigue effect.  Some intervals may be short (a few minutes) or long (a few days) When would a researcher decide to use the matched pairs design?  What would be the  advantages?  A researcher would choose to use a matched pairs design to ensure that the two  separate groups are equivalent on the matching variable before the independent  variable is introduced.  Used when only a few participants are available.  There is a greater ability to detect a statistically significant effect of the  independent variable because it is possible to account for individual differences  in responses to the independent variable. Distinguish between random sampling and random assignment  Random assignment:  This is assigning participants already in a study to a  particular condition.  The experiment has already started.  The groups are  considered equivalent  Random sampling:  sampling technique used to select participants.  This is used  before an experiment.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.