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JOUR 2500 Midterm #2 Study Guide

by: Lynnsey Notetaker

JOUR 2500 Midterm #2 Study Guide JOUR 2500

Marketplace > Ohio University > Journalism & Mass Communcatn > JOUR 2500 > JOUR 2500 Midterm 2 Study Guide
Lynnsey Notetaker
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Study Guide over all of the material on the midterm
Introduction to Strategic Communication
Carson Wagner
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lynnsey Notetaker on Monday October 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to JOUR 2500 at Ohio University taught by Carson Wagner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Strategic Communication in Journalism & Mass Communcatn at Ohio University.

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Date Created: 10/17/16
JOUR 2500: Introduction to Strategic Communication Midterm #2 Study Guide (Ch. 6-8) Message Learning Approach * 4 independent variables: source (says who?), message (says what?), recipient (to whom?), and medium (through what channel?). * Effective persuasion is attention drawing, comprehensible, convincing, and memorable. Exposure Control *Avoiding an unwanted message- instead of reading something that advocates a position you don't believe in, you can simply refrain from reading it. How to avoid exposure control when advertising: * - Design salient or vivid ads that are difficult to ignore - Design pleasant and humorous ads that make people feel good Source Factors *Refers to the source (message originator) *source factors that affect persuasion: expertise, credibility, attractiveness, familiarity. Credibility- Whether the message is consistent with the source’s interests * (perceived likelihood of the message’s truth). - Depends on: likelihood and vested interest. - Two sided messages: increase source credibility by using some information that goes against the speaker’s vested interests. *Attractiveness- Physical appearance and presentation style - Source importance impacts attractiveness - when the source is noticeable or highlighted, they have high importance. ex.) source is more important to viewer if source is on a TV ad vs. a radio ad. Message Factors * Refer to the message type (says what?) Complexity, emotional vs. rational, factual vs. anecdotal, one or two sided. * Complexity * Number of reasons to buy the product (supporting arguments) * influenced by comprehensibility and how difficult the amount of arguments makes it to understand. Rational vs. Emotional * Rational Appeals- contain factual details and logical arguments Emotional Appeals- tug at heart strings and make us think with our feelings rather * than our heads. -Fear appeals scare us into action. Protection Motivation Theory * 3 key variables of fear appeals- Likelihood of danger, coping effectiveness, and self efficacy (self effectiveness/ ability to cope). Recipient Factors Personality and Persuasion Theory * 3 key principles: meditational, combinatory, situational-weighting Meditational Principle- a series of psychological processes mediate persuasion: * perception, comprehension, retention, retrieval, agreement, and decision making. * Combinatory principle- reception and yielding oppose each other in any given personality factor (see graph on page 152). * Situational weighting principle- reception and yielding are not always equally important. ex.) in a simple message, reception is easy, so yielding is more important. In a complex message, reception is more difficult, so it is more important. Medium Factors * Medium examples: Interpersonal conversation, television, radio, print, internet, etc. * People are more likely to focus on the communicator rather than the message itself when they can see the communicator. When they cannot see the communicator, they focus more on the message. * Complex messages are better when written, simple messages are better audio or visually. (see chart on page 156). Theories of Comparative Judgement Adaptation Level Theory * the same product can be considered good or bad depending on what it is compared with * Comparison context determines the point of comparison: a reference point or standard of comparison (what you are comparing to). * Adaptation level- the average of all stimuli a person takes into account while making a judgement (your neutral or average point). ex.) when a consumer thinks about a more expensive product, the adaptation level goes up —> after buying a $3,000 suit, a $200 tie seems cheap. Social Judgement Theory * Uses contrast (a shift in judgement away from the reference point) and assimilation (a shift in judgement towards a reference point). * Social Judgement Theory explains that attitudes can be used as a reference point. * Method of Ordered Alternatives- constructing a series of statements ranging from very positive to very negative. * Latitude of Acceptance- statements you find acceptable, latitude of rejection- statements you find unacceptable, latitude of non commitment- statements you feel neutral about (see graph on page 166). Attribution Theories Self Perception Theory * when beliefs and attitudes are inaccessible, people form inferences about their beliefs and attitudes based on their behavior and the context of their behavior. ex.) Compulsive purchases: you infer that you like the compulsive purchase when you get home just because you bought it. Kelley’s Covariation Principles * Causes and effects should covary —> if there is a cause, there should be an effect, and if there is no cause, there should be no effect. -Three possible causes: the product, the situation, or the consumer. Three types of information is needed to determine the cause: Distinctiveness, * consistency, and consensus. (See graph on page 176). Kelleys Casual Schemata * Discounting Principle- as the number of possible reasons or causes increase, the probability of any one cause decreases because there are more causes to choose from. - Overjustification Effect: when there are too many reasons or justifications for buying a product presented, one of the reasons ends up seeming weak. This is good in the short run, but bad in the long run. * Augmentation Principle- strong situational constraints should prevent an event, however the event happens anyway because the cause is exceptionally powerful. - Unexpected information is highly informative ex.) use augmentation to convey high quality —> “Tide, gets out even the toughest stains.” Affective Approaches to Persuasion Classical Conditioning * Forming an association between two objects or stimuli * Unconditioned stimulus is paired with a conditioned stimulus. In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus should be immediately followed by the unconditioned stimulus, and the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli should be compared repeatedly. Excitation Transfer Theory * Arousal from one stimulus can be transferred to a second stimulus ex.) Excitement from watching the Super Bowl can increase the excitement towards an ad that follows it. Mandler’s Theory of Emotion * Discrepancies- unexpected events that cause arousal - Small or medium discrepancies cause positive arousal - Large discrepancies cause negative arousal Motivational Approaches to Persuasion Dissonance and Consistency * Dissonance- difference between actual and desired states People like consistency and dislike inconsistency (consistency principle). * Balance Theory * Explains relationships in a triad. (See page 194). * If you multiply the signs of the triad and get a negative, the triad is imbalanced. If you multiply the signs of the triad and get a positive, the triad is balanced. Attitude Functions * Create or resolve dissonance to get a desired outcome (why we have attitudes) Knowledge Function- attitudes can summarize a large amount of complex or * ambiguous information to provide people with an organized, meaningful view of the world. - If consumer knowledge is lacking on a product, factual appeals (information about specific features) to resolve confusion. * Value Expression Function- attitudes can show people who we are - Attitudes can help manage or control others’ impressions of us - Image oriented advertisements give us options to resolve confusion * Ego Defensive Function- help people deal with threats to ego or self esteem. - Fear appeals attack attitudes and create dissonance


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