Botany Exam 1 Review
Botany Exam 1 Review BOT 200
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mariana Roberts on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BOT 200 at Western Illinois University taught by Dr. Meiers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction fo Botany in Science at Western Illinois University.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
Chapter 1 define the following terms (using the scientific definitions): botany, hypothesis, law, theory, science Botany – the scientific study of plants Hypothesis – must make predictions that can be tested Law – describes a constant phenomenon or process that can be tested, falsifiable, and predict outcomes Theory – if a hypothesis continues to match observations; explain unrelated phenomena; most important part of science Science – narrow discipline that seek to pose answerable questions about the physical universe that assumes the physical world can be explained through natural causes explain what the assumptions of science are, and why skepticism is important 1. There is a real physical universe that exists outside our body 2. This physical world can be observed, tested, and explained using our five senses 3. There are natural causes and effects in the physical world Skepticism is important because being too closes minded is bad because it does not allow new discoveries to be made/reported explain how one can tell whether a given “theory”/experiment/etc. is really science or not Must be testified, falsifiable, and have predictive power list examples of hypotheses, laws, and theories in science Ex. Hypothesis – Ex. Laws – laws of chemistry, biological laws Ex. Theories – atomic theory, theory of evolution + Chapter 2 explain how atoms, molecules, and organic compounds are interrelated An atom is the smallest part of a molecule; atoms make up molecules. Molecules are a few atoms bonded together. A compound is two or more molecules coming together to form a new substance. Organic compounds are compounds that contain carbon. At each level the previous term is added. state the particles that make up an atom and explain (in general terms) where they are located in that atom Electrons – located in the electron cloud surrounding the center of the atom () Protons – located near the center of the atom (+) Neutrons – located near the center of the atom (neutral) define what a chemical bond is and explain what part(s) of an atom allow them to occur Chemical bond – formed by the joining of 2+ atoms Occurs when the total energy of the combination has lower energy than the separated atoms (valence electron) define what an acid, base, and buffer are; explain the pH scale is and what it measures Acid – hydrogen ion level 06pH Base – hydrogen ion level 814pH Buffer – prevents change of hydrogen ion concentration pH scale measures the amount of hydrogen ions are present and reads the causing acidity explain what about a water molecule allows it to form hydrogen bonds When two water molecules come close to each other, the positive charge of one slightly attracts the negative end of the other causing a hydrogen bond explain what specific heat is, and what about water molecules causes it to be high for water specific heat – amount of heat, measured in calories, required to raise the temperature 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius high SH for water is caused by the strong hydrogen bonds state the 4 types of biomolecules are, state what the monomers and polymers are called, provide examples, and state what a cell uses each type of biomolecule for carbohydrates – MONOMER: Monosaccharides ; POLYMER: Polysaccharides ; photosynthesis fats and lipids MONOMER: N/A ; POLYMER: N/A ; Fatty Acids nucleic acids MONOMER: Nucleotides ; POLYMER: polynucleotide; DNA RNA proteins MONOMER: Amino acids ; POLYMER: Polypeptides ; structure explain what an enzyme is, what it is composed of, and why it is so important to life enzyme – protein catalysts that accelerate certain chemical reaction by providing an alternative mechanism in which all energy of activation are barriers are lower than in the original reaction Enzymes are proteins that control the speed of chemical reactions in your body. Without enzymes, these reactions would take place too slowly to keep you alive. define/explain: activation energy, active site activation energy – two molecules react to form a third A+B=AB active site – a region on an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction explain how you can tell if a given nucleic acid is DNA or RNA It depends on the type of 5carbon sugar joined to the nitrogenous base: ribose (RNA) or deoxyribose (DNA) Chapter 3 know the following terms: cell – individual unit of life plasma membrane – surrounds surface of protoplasm ; a lipid bilayer sac filled with cytoplasm lipid bilayer – lipid layer doubles over and makes bilayer in which all fatty acids are away from water and phosphate groups are in full contact cytoplasm – liquid substance of protoplasm organelle – the “little organs” of a cell: nuclei, plastids, mitochondria, and ribosomes cell theory – every organism consist of one or more cells selectively permeable – regulates what goes in and out of cells fluid mosaic model – proteins freely move in the membrane intrinsic proteins – proteins at least partially immersed in lipid bilayer extrinsic protein – located outside or on top of the membrane vesicle – a small space enclosed by a single membrane; membrane can be moved via vesicles where it can fuse facilitated transport – via proteins channel; tunnel like; requires no energy exocytosis – release of small amounts of substances from cell endocytosis – taking in of small amount of substances from cell active transport – molecular pumps bind to molecule on one side of the membrane, change shape, and release molecule on the other side of the pump; requires energy molecular pumps – proteins (see active transport) diffusion – the random movement of particles from regions of higher concentration to lower concentration regions transport proteins – assist specific molecules across the membrane enzyme – “chemical helpers” that speed up the chemical process, made of proteins osmosis – diffusion of water across the membrane hypotonic – lower solute concentration ‘outside of cell’ than inside (cell swells) hypertonic – high solute concentration outside of cell than inside (cell shrinks) isotonic – equal solute concentration outside of cell to inside cell domain – small discrete regions nucleoid – in prokaryotes; portion of the protoplasm where DNA circles are concentrated ribosomes – make protein cell wall – carries out all cell functions flagellum – organelle of movement pilus – hairlike appendage found on bacteria surface prokaryotic cell – organism that have no true nucleus or membrane bound organelles (eukarya) eukaryotic cells – organisms that have a true nucleus or membrane bound organelles (plants, animals, fungi, protists) hemicellulose – a set of wall polysaccharides that crosslink cellulose molecules in cell walls middle lamella – glue between adjacent cell walls primary cell wall – outside plasma wall secondary cell wall – cells requiring more strength add lignin and other cellulose layers between primary cell wall and plasma chloroplasts carry out photosynthesis stroma – fluid between inner and outer membrane chlorophyll – pigment involved in capturing light energy that drives photosynthesis thylakoids – unfolding membranes of chloroplast grana – stacks of vesicles formed by thylakoids amyoplast – starch storing plastids leucoplast – colorless plastids chemoplast – pigment storing plastid (flowers and fruit color) central vacuole – digestive organelle tonoplast – having a single membrane chitin – a polymer in fungal cell walls, composed in part of amino sugars plasmodesmata – passages in cell walls symplast – all protoplasm within single plant is interconnected intercellular space – many cells not touch each other tightly apoplast – intercellular space and cell walls together Know the functions of the following organelles: protoplasm – all the substance of a cell nucleus – storage of DNA mitochondria – the eukaryotic organelle involved in aerobic respiration dictysome – receive vesicles from ER along their forming face Smooth ER – involved in lipid synthesis Rough ER – involved in protein synthesis Cytosol – the liquid substance of protoplasm including organelles: nuclei, plastids, ribsomes Microtubules – a skeletal element in eukaryotic cells, composed of alpha and beta tubulin; mitotic spindle, phragmoplast, and flagella Microfilaments – a structural element composed of actin and believed to be involved in the movement of organelles other than flagella, cilia, or chromosomes be able to identify all the organelles in a diagram similar to Figure 3. explain why a cell can be too large to survive Cells must be small enough to efficiency exchange materials with the environment; inner parts dies of water/not enough resources state the 4 tenets of the Cell Theory 1. every organism consists of 1+ cells 2. cell carries out all cell functions 3. every living cell comes from another living cell 4. cells possess hereditary material (DNA) explain (in general) why humans use microscopes Humans uses microscopes to examine objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye, cells explain why a cell membrane is more complicated than just a phospholipid bilayer, and how this complexity helps it do its “job” Membranes can grow; formed by molecule by molecule in certain regions o the cell Dynamic, constantly changing The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. Itconsists of the phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins. Cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cell signaling and serve as the attachment surface for several extracellular structures, including the cell wall explain how the various ways a cell can transport things around in/into/ out of the cell; be able to recognize examples Materials inside can be: Moved around cell Used/broken down in vesicle Excreted outside cell Brought inside from extracellular area explain how a cell would react if placed in the following solutions: isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic iso – stay the same hypo – swell hyper – shrink explain how prokaryotic cells are different from eukaryotic cells prokaryotic organism that have no true nucleus or membrane bound organelles eukaryotic – organisms that have a true nucleus or membrane bound orgenelles correctly draw the Tree of Life (showing the relationships among Archaea, Eubacteria, and Eukarya E A B explain the functions for the following organelles: cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplast, plasmodesmata Cell Wall – protects the inside of the cell Central vacuole – recycles monomers by taking in old, impaired organelles, using digestive enzymes Chloroplast – owing to the presence of photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll Plasmodesmata – communication between cell walls explain what a primary cell wall is composed of Parallel cellulose molecules crystalized into microfibrils explain where the following structures in a chloroplast are located: stroma, grana, outer membrane, chlorophyll stroma – between the inner and outer membrane grana – projected into the stroma outer membrane – permeable to small organic molecules chlorophyll – within the thylakoid explain what the functions of the different types of plastids are for: chloroplast, amyloplast, leucoplast, chromoplast chloroplast work to convert light energy of the Sun into sugars that can be used by cells. amyoplast – starch storing plastids leucoplast – colorless plastids chemoplast – pigment storing plastid (flowers and fruit color) chromoplast – responsible for color pigments in fruits and flowers explain what substances you might find in the central vacuole large amounts of silica, tannins, or phenols crystals ( of calcium oxalate) explain how fungal cells are similar to plant cells; how they are different Similar to plants with two exceptions: (1) contain no plastids (2) cell walls contain chitin –not cellulose explain why cells might need to interact with each other To share resources and information list examples of how cells interact with each other plasmodesmata unicellular organisms release chemicals that affect other cells cellular interactions by which cells not only sense that they are part of a larger organism but also indentify which part they are and how they should function explain where in a plant cell you would find plasmodesmata Located on the cell wall to inform nearby cells of what it is doing explain what the symplast and apoplast of a plant are Symplast and apoplast make up the entire plant; the apoplast acts as a series of channels and spaces that permit the rapid diffusion of gases (lungs) & symplast is all the protoplasm within a single plant Chapter 4 explain how and why plants might reproduce sexually versus asexually Asexual reproduction produces new individuals without the fusion of gametes, genetically identical to the parent plants and each other, except when mutations occur. In seed plants, the offspring can be packaged in a protective seed, which is used as an agent of dispersal. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants involves the production of male and female gametes, the transfer of the male gametes to the female ovules in a process called pollination. After pollination occurs, fertilization happens and the ovules grow into seeds within a fruit. describe and be able to recognize the stages of mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis prophase – chromosomes condense so they are easy to carry, nuclear membrane dissolves, spindle forms metaphase – chromosomes become visible and gradually move to metaphase plate by the spindle anaphase – chromosomes divide and pull apart centromere splits and sister chromatids separate telophase – chromosomes expand nucleus/nuclear envelope reform and spindle is dissolved, chromosomes are at opposite end of cell cytokinesis – cytomplasm is split in two explain how mitochondria and chloroplasts divide during the life of a cell Accomplished either by infurrowing or being pulled apart; each daughter cell must receive at least one mitochondrion and one plastid during cytokinesis (if not the cell cannot produce that organelle); also contain DNA that is separated by membrane growth explain what the purpose of mitosis and meiosis are for an organism, and how this changes (or doesn’t) the chromosome complement of a cell mitosis – duplication division – cell regeneration, growth, and asexual reproduction, meiosis the production of gametes for sexual reproduction. explain what the status of the chromosomes is (un/duplicated?), whether cells are haploid or diploid, and how many cells start/end Meiosis I and Meiosis II SEE LOSE LEAF OF PAPER DONE IN CLASS
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