PUR3000 Exam 2 Study Guide
PUR3000 Exam 2 Study Guide PUR3000
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by jpb1997 on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PUR3000 at University of Florida taught by Kong in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Principles of Public Relations in Public Relations at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
PUR3000: Exam 2 Study Guide 1. Chapter 5: Research • Primary research: generated through research design • Qualitative research: o Content analysis (amount of media coverage) o Interviews § Intercept: Convenience poll § In-depth: More comprehensive answers (how and what Q’s) o Focus groups o Ethnography (culture) • Quantitative research: o Survey (mail, telephone, web, email, etc.), Experiment • Scientific Sampling: o Random/probability sample: Everyone in target audience has an equal chance of being selected o Non probability sample/nonrandom: Not random • Questionnaire design: o Avoid biased wording o Use simple, familiar words o Be aware of potential answers and answer categories o Use close-ended questions for a survey, open-ended questions for an interview • Telephone surveys: o Personal interviews, more expensive o Congregate wealth of info o Immediate response o Difficult to get all phone numbers • Mail surveys: o Control over who receives survey o Personalized address label o Low response rates o Provide an incentive to respond o Use first-class mail o Mail a reminder postcard • Publicizing research: o Name of research company o Sponsorship o When survey is completed o Description of objectives and methodology o Generates publicity 2. Chapter 6: Program Planning • Campaign elements: o Situational analysis § Understand the challenge, organization, industry and environment to set clear objectives § 3 types of projects: • One-time specific project • Remedial program to overcome negative problem • Reinforce an ongoing effort to preserve reputation o Objectives: § Specific, measureable, incorporate timeline § Stated as impact + outcome, not input (ends rather than means) § Types of objectives: • Informational • Attitudinal • Behavioral § Goals: • Conceptual/directional statement • Address a problem • Don’t promise to do something o Audiences: § Internal vs. external audiences § Audience = focus on communication § Public = people interested in the organization § Stakeholders = stockholders of the org. o Strategy: § How and why campaign elements will achieve objectives § Provide guidelines and themes for overall program § Provide rationale for actions and program components § Key messages reiterated throughout campaign o Tactics: § Specific activities that put strategies into operation and help achieve overall goal and objectives § Use tools of communication o Calendar/timetable: § When the campaign should be conducted § Proper sequence of activities o Budget: § Staff time (70%) § Out-of-pocket expenses § Allocate about 10% for unexpected costs § Be specific and correct o Evaluation: § Measured against objectives § Need baseline numbers for comparison • SWOT analysis o Strength (internal resources) o Weaknesses (internal deficiencies) o opportunity (external situations) o Threats (external factors) 3. Chapter 7: Communication • Two-step flow theory: Mass media → Opinion leaders → Followers • Interaction and media dependency theory: o Tell people and they forget; show them and they remember; involve them and they’ll understand • Media dependency theory: The less direct contact we have with an issue, the more we depend on the media for information • Uncertainty reduction theory: people have a need to reduce uncertainty about others by gaining information about them • Use and gratification theory: Recipient selects info that may be useful to them, either to be entertained, informed, reinforce their opinion and decision making, and decision making about products or services • Cognitive dissonance: People desire consistency in their lives, so if campaigns demonstrate 2 conflicting beliefs, they’ll feel cognitive dissonance • Diffusion of innovation theory: o Innovator: Eager to try new ideas (2.5%) o Early adopter: Opinion leaders (13.5%) o Early majority: Have a pragmatic approach to adopting ideas (34%) o Late majority: Eventually bow to peer pressure (34%) o Laggards: Very traditional; last group to adopt new idea (16%) • 5 stage adoption process: Awareness → Interest → Evaluation → Trial → Adoption • Adoption: o Relative advantage (is it better than other product options) o Compatibility (how product fits into people’s lives) o Complexity (is the product easy enough to understand) o Trialability (can the public use the product in trial to see if they like it) o Observability (consumers can see the positive effects of the new product) • Source credibility: Sincerity, attractiveness, expertise, trustworthiness 4. Chapter 8: Evaluation • Measurement of production: o Very basic form of evaluation o Count number of news releases, feature stories, photos, etc. o Only emphasizes quantity, not quality • Measurement of message exposure: o Most widely practiced form of evaluation o Clips o Media impression: How many people have been exposed to your message o Advertising value equivalency (concentrate on output, not outcome) o 1-800 numbers to request info • Measurement of audience awareness: o Determines if the audience became aware of the message and understands it o Day-after recall (do they remember the message the day after they see/hear it) • Measurement of audience attitude: o Changes to perceptions and attitudes o Can be measured using pre- and post-measurement of attitudes o Benchmark/baseline survey o Audience survey • Measurement of audience action: o Ultimate objective o Raising awareness is important, but getting people motivated to adopt an idea, vote, use a service or buy a product is most important • Effectiveness yardstick: o Basic: Measuring targeted audiences, impressions and media placements o Intermediate: Measuring retention, comprehension, awareness and reception o Advanced: Measuring behavior change, attitude change and opinion change • Case study evaluation plan: o Be specific and include evaluation methodologies o State survey method o Briefly explain questions 5. Chapter 9: Public opinion and persuasion • Concept of public opinion matured in the 20 century with polling about WWI • Opinion leaders: o Highly interested in the subject o Early adopters o Heavy consumers of mass media • Agenda setting theory: Ability of news media to influence salience of topics on the public agenda (what to think, not about what to think) • Media-dependency theory: Media effects are more powerful when we can’t verify them through experience • Framing theory: How the story is framed through journalistic or PR practitioners • Cultivation theory: Repetition cultivates a mediated reality (reality TV shows) o the more time people spend in watching the television world, the more likely they are to believe social reality portrayed on television. • Persuasion: o Formalized by the ancient Greeks o Aristotle: § Ethos (source credibility) § Logos (logical argument) § Pathos (emotion) o Use of persuasion: § Change or neutralize hostile opinion § Crystalize latent opinions and positive attitudes § Conserve favorable opinions § Must know your demographics o Persuasion ethics: § Don’t use false evidence § Don’t intentionally use unsupported reasoning § Don’t falsely represent yourself § Don’t use irrelevant appeals as diversions § Don’t make false links to favorable values, motives or goals § Don’t cover up consequences § Don’t use baseless emotional appeals § Don’t oversimplify complex situations § Don’t feign certainty § Don’t advocate what you don’t believe yourself o Factors in persuasion: § Timing and context of message § Appeal to self-interest § Audience analysis § Marlow’s hierarchy of needs: food, security, belonging, love, self- actualization § Source credibility (SEAT) • Propaganda: Deliberate and systematic attempt to share perceptions, manipulate cognitions and direct behavior to achieve a responsive that furthers the desired intent of propagandist o More manipulative than discussion • Communication styles: o Aggressiveness: § Intimidation, control, fighting, manipulation § No regard for other person’s feelings § Anger-driven o Passiveness: § Anxiety-driven § Taken advantage of § Avoids confrontation § Intimidated o Assertiveness: § More effective and appropriate § Focus on specific issues and problems § Recognizes values and beliefs § Doesn’t violate others’ rights 6. Chapter 11: Diversity • Hispanic: Largest ethnic group in the U.S. o Each national group has its own set of values, traditions, beliefs, food, festivals, consumer patterns and language • African Americans: Largest racial minority o Not a homogenous group (slaves vs. people of Hispanic or Caribbean origin) • Asian Americans: Higher education, higher household income, generation differences o Chinese (22%), Asian Indian (19%), Filipino (18%), Vietnamese (11%) o Emphasis on family values and traditions • Millennials: o Tech-savvy, want brands to entertain them • Baby boomers: o Care about healthcare, insurance, retirement planning, personal investing o More involved in social causes • Women make up 80% of household decisions o Many moms have become opinion leaders (mommy bloggers) • LGBT community o Diverse demographic o Not “one size fits all” • Religious groups o Catholics are the largest group • Disability community o Language and medium used are important o Specialized website: Graphic-heavy and text-light o Closed-caption
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