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COMS 1010 Study Guide

by: Samantha Jander

COMS 1010 Study Guide COMS 1010

Samantha Jander

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These notes go over chapters 7-11. Chapter 7- Understanding Interpersonal Relationships Chapter 8- Improving Interpersonal Communication Chapter 9- Mediated Communication Chapter 10-Relation...
Fundamentals of Human Communication
Daniel West
Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Jander on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMS 1010 at Ohio University taught by Daniel West in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Human Communication in Strategic Communication at Ohio University.

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Date Created: 10/18/16
COMS 1010 Notes Chapter 7- Understanding Interpersonal Relationships Chapter 8- Improving Interpersonal Communication Chapter 9- Mediated Communication Chapter 10-Relationships in a Digital Age Chapter 11- Fall in Love Online Chapter 7  Interpersonal Communication- Between two people where one of the people creates meaning for the other.  Interpersonal Needs o We feel the need to be included or to be constantly involved and conversing with someone else. o There’s also a need for affection and feelings from others. o We feel the need to be in control or the ability to influence others of the environment. Being able to work together in order to decide things. Relationships can be…  Complementary- where each person in the relationship supplies something the other doesn’t have. One person is really good at cooking, the other is great at cleaning.  Symmetrical- where both people in the relationship are very similar in certain ways. They both enjoy the same activities, such as hiking. Negative Relationships  The overall goal for relationships is to maintain a “healthy” one, however, negative things can occur. o Obsession- When one person in the relationship is infatuated with the other. Having a wall full of pictures and stocking them on social media to make sure you are aware of their every move is unhealthy behavior. o Jealousy- When one person is constantly questioning their stance in the relationship and their obsessed with the time they aren’t spending with the other person. o Misunderstanding- This happens when someone chooses to be upset rather than addressing the problem at hand. Being upset and not wanting to go see a certain movie that your significant other is excited about can lead to an argument. o Gossip- When you and the person you are with constantly are having conversations revolving around other people. Instead of talking about each other’s day and how your relationship is going, you are worried about how Brad and Angie’s relationship is failing because he cheated on her. o Conflict- When the two of you are constantly fighting and getting into arguments. o Codependency- When you guys always want to be together, can’t do anything without the other person around, and are overall not independent in the slightest. Instead of going to the store by yourself you have to wait until your boyfriend/girlfriend comes home so you can go together. Negative behaviors can lead to…  Abusive or controlling relationships. Actions that can take place are getting physical with one another, disapproval of outfits, forbidden to go to certain places without them, etc.  You can start to focus on healthy behaviors and how to fix the situation, such as going to consoling. However, both partners much agree to attend and want to work things out to make it work. Self-Disclosure  The sharing of personal information to someone in order to build or grow a relationship with them. Discuss each other’s hopes and dreams, their values, families, etc.  This information is private and usually is not easily shared with others.  Intimacy as either friends or lovers. Appropriate self-disclosure  It generally increases as the relationship (intimacy) grows.  As it develops, it makes each person in the relationship less uncertain that they like the person they’ve been conversing with.  Tends to go both ways. If you enjoy talking to the person, usually they enjoy talking to you as well. You can tell if they actually like you if they continuously ask you questions, share private information and vice versa. Friendship  This is a very important relationship that people need to keep healthy.  Friendships develop over shared activities and interests. Such as, playing sports together, being involved in similar clubs, enjoying the same hobbies, working together, etc.  They also change over time. People change a lot, after graduating high school, the odds of you continuing each and every friendship that you once had years ago are slim to none. Stages of Friendships  Role- limited action. You’re both in the same environment (school, work) but you have yet to communicate to one another.  Discovery of mutual interests. You both enjoy watching the Cleveland Browns play on Sundays.  Personal topics or meeting times. You meet up after class to go get lunch together and talk about shared interests.  Stabilized friends are when you can go a long period of time without seeing them but once you meet up after that break it is like nothing has changed.  Waning stage is when one, or both, of you are busy with school, your family, work, etc. and don’t have as much time to text them or meet up with them. New types of friendships  Online friendships- these are relationships that take place mostly, or always, online via social media, texting, etc. o Social networking friends. These are friends that you meet online because you had mutual friends and play online games with. o Time and safety friends. These are friends that you’ve met and developed with in person but due to where you both live you are forced to stay connected through texting and seeing each other’s tweets on Twitter.  Friends with benefits happens when people enjoy each other’s company and decide to have a physical friendship without the title of an actual relationship. Social Penetration Theory  This theory explains the development of relationships through disclosure/how people share information with one another.  It describes that interpersonal exchanges lead to more developed relationships because of the sharing of private and personal information- making us feel vulnerable. Relationship Development  Initiating- first stage of coming together in the relationship development model. Focuses on the initial communication that occurs when we first meet someone. First impressions are key, noticing the other persons looks, personality, style, etc.  Experimenting- Second stage of relationship development that involves the exchange of multiple questions and answers as we attempt to gain more information about the other person and to identify areas of commonality. Asking the other person what their zodiac sign is.  Intensifying- Third stage relationship development that is characterized by more intimate expressions of commitment and by testing the impressions that others may have formed about the relationship. This includes private jokes, more intimate information, flirting, knowing personal things about them, etc.  Integrating- forth stage of coming together in relationship development in which the lives of partners begin to merge and their status as a couple is acknowledged both personally and publically. When both people share the same friends, are officially dating, they share property, people refer to them as a couple, live together, etc.  Bonding- Final stage of coming together in relationship development model. Formalized or legalized declarations or commitment mark this phase as couples publically acknowledge their dedication to one another. Exchanging of personal items, getting married and having an official ceremony. *The relationship can stop at any of these stages. All of them do until your last relationship with the person you plan on marring. Relationship Maintenance  Selection- choosing to spend time together because you want to.  Separation- gaining some independence from one another and being okay with not seeing your partner all of the time. Example: going fishing with your friends for the weekend instead on staying at home with your significant other.  Neutralization- compromising and agreeing with one another. Example: choosing to go to your partner’s parent’s house this year, and then going to yours the following year.  Reframing- thinking about a situation from your partner’s perspective and showing empathy towards them. Example: instead of getting mad at your boyfriend/girlfriend for not being on time while they obviously look upset about something, ask them why they were late and if they’re okay. Relationship Deterioration  Differentiating- deciding not to share your friends with the other person.  Circumscribing- choosing to spend more time apart than together, this can be caused by going to different schools/ having a long distance relationship.  Stagnating- when you both are being distant and are not taking part in any activities together even though you live together.  Avoiding- this is when your significant other and you are constantly fighting and disagreeing about everything. This happens when both parties stop being considerate of the other person and their feelings *from this point, these can all be fixed no matter what stage you’re at  Terminating- deciding to end the relationship and deciding not to fix your problems, giving up. Uncertainty Reduction Theory  When we first meet someone we try to reduce the uncertainty feeling we have about them. o Passive- observing them and how they interact with others. o Interactive- talking and getting to know them, asking them questions o Active- asking other people about them and examining their social media to find out more information about them. Uncertainty in a Relationship  In order to make a relationship work, both parties have to desire the connection  Talk about how you each are feeling, if you believe the relationship is going well. If not, discover what the problem(s) is/are and try and fix them.  Determine what your goals are in your relationship. Have talks every month or so and decide if you are maintaining those goals efficiently and effectively. Chapter 8 Anxiety Uncertainty Management  People who are in new situations and environments find themselves to feel uncertain, which can lead to anxiety.  This explains how we adapt to new situations, not just relationships. Why Do We Start Relationships?  Proximity- we are in a similar area with people we find enjoyable to be around, they are close to us  Attractiveness- we are physically attracted to the other person. o Task- they are fun to work with. Make things that are normally boring more enjoyable. o Social- they are fun to hang out with. You enjoy being in the same social environment. o Physical- they are fun to be intimate with.  Responsiveness- they are just as interested in you as you are them. Computer- Mediated Communication  Human-to-human interaction using network computer environments: social media, texting  Also known as CMC- emailing, messaging, bogs, etc. CMC and Community  A virtual community that has boundaries and only certain people can join: o Group messages. o Facebook- alumni groups o Twitter- searching hashtags o Pinterest- staring ideas, creates group discussions Types of CMC  Synchronous- when both people are using a device and are simultaneously responding to one another: Facebook, calling one another  Asynchronous- when both people are using a device and they are taking turns to communicate: texting, sending letters, Emailing.  Be aware of response time- don’t get frustrated if someone doesn’t reply with 2 minutes of you messaging them IM Chat and Relationships  Not an ideal place to start new relationships, it’s too easy for people to lie about who they are and many other things of that nature.  It’s also not a good place to end relationships, you owe it to the other person that you are with to respectful break off the relationship. However, if you went on one date with them and didn’t enjoy yourself you don’t owe it to them to respond. Cell Phones and Texts  This is an easy way to stay in touch with people that you have a strong relationship with.  However, it can lead to artificially continuing relationships that are probably ready to be broken off.  This also creates codependence on the person immediately, meaning instead of just texting them whenever you can because you both are busy you expect them to respond right away and keep the conversation going.  It disrupts your own thought process on what is going on in that moment in your life, such as distracting you from doing your homework. Telepresence  The illusion of non-mediation.  Using the media without realizing acknowledging its use.  The user has certain expectations of the context, channel, and social presence. o Social Presence- the experience of feeling connected to another person or feeling like an interaction is “real” while using technology. Chapter 9 Uses and Gratification Theory  Argues that media are strategically selected in order to meet our personal needs. How we use our media- not just the internet. Books, TV, news, etc. It gives us insight why we seek out this media  Cognitive media- information-news. Where do you go to get news? Before, newspapers (twice a day), now, television and social media. We use google maps instead of maps. We used to ask people for reviews, now we use apps and websites. (free reasouces)  Affective-emotions- sit-coms, favorite TV. People would come home from work and watch TV to escape from reality, pure enjoyment, following shows season after season.  Personal integrative- self-esteem- books. People look to inprove themselves, read books on specific tasks such as “[blank] for dummies”  Social integrative- interaction- The median does not have to be technology. Meeting at the bowling alley at the same time and day each watch. Or, playing World of Warcraft with the same group of people.  Entertainment- Fun- Viewing parties, watching the same show together each week (meeting up at one person’s house to watch The Office every Monday). Go see movies together. Networking and Social Movement  Networking- Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat. They exist for us to maintain a social network through technology. Allows us to keep in touch in one place that’s no limited by geography.  Social Movements. “Click on this meme if you think puppies shouldn’t be hurt”. Keep accounts updated to keep everyone who wishes to participate in that organization in the loop.  Can create the “perception” of action. Clicking “like” is a choice but almost has zero affect. Such as, the ice bucket challenge, it brought a lot of awareness to the charities but it took away from actually denoting to the organization. We should go back to the traditional way of making a movement, not online. Social Media Impact  Social media creates a feeling of closeness. Obviously, it is better to be in person with the people you care about. But when social media allows you to track the other person’s life you feel like you are there.  Also may isolate us due to the lack of human interaction.  We spend an average 16 minutes every hour on social media. We need to start focusing more on face to face communication. No matter what audience you’re speaking to, developing your human interaction communication will be impressive. This is because humans are social. This can example why we use social media so much because instead of sitting there waiting in a doctor’s appointment doing nothing, we can talk to our friends over the phone Chapter 10 New technology  Every new technology has the same claims made against it o The telephone- people can just ignore each other at the dinner table  People tend to only think about how have been done. o Zoom meeting- whenever a group talks over Skype, the picture zooms in on the person who is speaking. In reality, both are possible. It doesn’t mean that we are going to embarrass things right when they happen. Social Networking sites o They are huge o They allow for “public displays of connection”. Judge one another based on the number of followers you have and how many people you follow o Wide variety of audiences. It’s a way to keep connections alive and to create new ones. Meet someone who can later help you. o Maintain Newtworks. People would pay others to send hand addressed Christmas cards to all of their clients, that business is now no longer in existence because we have emails that do that directly. o New channel of interpersonal communication. Not just learning why or how but to make things better. o Public nature of personal communication. Posting about how great your significant other is, communicating with someone on the time feed for everyone to see o Context Collapse. When a comment or discussion is meant for a specific audience and another audience interprets it differently. Telepresence o The feeling of non-mediation, goes beyond internet communication o Content- the message. Texting “Hi” does not have a lot of content in the message o Channel- how it is expressed. Through the channel of television, people feel connected to characters on a TV show. o User- who interacts with it. Watching a really sad movie and making a connection with the situation and you start to cry because the content touched you. o It’s not just technology. It can be books, art, etc. the median can draw you in. Why so much about Media? o We are social o We are also tool using. Technology is just another tool we can use to get things done. We reflect on past experiences. o What technology does is give us access to information instantly, something that we used to not be accustomed to. Chapter 11 Online Relationship  They are relatively new- even though millennials have grown up using technology.  It’s still a relationship. They are governed by the Communications Theory we have studied.  It allows us a new context in which to think about Communication. New things have developed because of this- dating websites.  Online relationships are real and present. We must know how to deal with them. Understand that it’s different than a face-to-face relationship, there’s no touch. Touch in Relationships  Haptics o Monkeys prefer an actual mother to touch and cuddle with but had no food, rather than a robot mother who provided them food.  Expectancy Violation- being touched by strangers at the food court o Relationships o Reality  Impersonal Interaction Creating Connections  Homophily- the extent to which two people, or two things, are similar to each other.  The basis of social networking- allows us to stay in touch no matter the distance.  Checking our your “friends”. We try to associate with people that we like.  Maybe explains “Facebook Politics”. Posting about politics online, and saying if whoever follows you doesn’t like what you say, tell them to unfollow you. Also creates connections between people who agree with one another. Social Networks  We shape our networks. You pick and choose who you wish to follow and who you don’t.  Our networks shape us. Reading your friends’ posts is a choice, your choosing to digest information that you are not forced to read.  Our friends affect us. Instead of not knowing anything about people that live far away  Our friends’ friends’ friends affect us. People that we know personally have a certain amount of people that they are friends with that we don’t know. This is a chain reaction.  The network has a life of its own. It constantly continues to share information; you can miss out on a lot if you choose to take a few weeks off. Connection vs Influence  We like to keep track of people we know. Staying up to date on people that you graduated with 30 years ago  Bridging social capital o Bringing people together- leading an online discussion with 80 people, inviting different friends to your house for a party.  Bonding social capital o Creating relationships- being a boss and having to put workers together and deciding who would work best with who, setting people up on dates. Media Richness Theory  Some channels are better than other channels for communication- depend on what you want to do. Selling something and making sure that it looks just right  Equivocality- more than one potential meaning. Saying “I love you” to someone that you have feelings for, or saying it to a restaurant worker that gives you a free cheese burger.  Rich channels- provide more information, facetiming.  Lean channel- more efficient because of less distractions, texting someone that you are on your way to pick them up.  Online meeting software. Online video chat to talk about important ideas, announcements. MRT Channels Characteristic  Bandwith- facetiming vs texting. High immediacy vs low  Immediacy of feedback  Message personalization- formal/unformal emails  Natural language- the word choice, emojis. Common in snapchat and Instagram  However, there is a disconnect between what people say, and what people do o Saying “I love you” over text. Social information processing theory  Humans use information to reduce and manage uncertainty in relationships. In this new channel we have a new way to lower our uncertainty about someone.  Time- not sue what it means when people take too long to respond.  Emoticons- they can have code meaning for the people you are texting; they can also be confusing.  Pictures- a whole new way to send information. Looking at someone’s pictures on snapchat to see what that are interested in. Hyper- Personal Relationships  Relationships can become closer through communicating over online, CMC  Your relationship can start online or offline, it’s all about maintaining it.  Sending effect. You have the luxury to take your time to respond online.  Receiver effects. You idealize the sender, looking into the message and assume that a person likes you by responding.  Channel effects. We have the chance to pause, edit, eliminate background “noise”. They don’t have the opportunity to see your non- verbals. AKA body language.  Feedback effects. Self-fulling prophecy, this can occur out of fear or strength. By having a relationship out of fear, you use the person you are with as an excuse to not be open to meeting other people. What does this all mean?  CMC is another channel we use in communication and is a brand new study.  It borrows from existing theories.  New theories are being formed right now, the world is constantly changing. People are explaining how more things work.  It’s another skill to be developed, it’s not knowing how or why, it’s about how to improve it.  It does not replace face-to-face communication. The most valuable skill to have is to be able to talk to people in person.


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