Psyc Exam 2 Study Guide
Psyc Exam 2 Study Guide PSYC 1300
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayra Reyes on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1300 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Herb W Agan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide using “Mastering the World of Psychology” by Samuel E. Wood, Ellen Green Wood, Denise Boyd, 5th edition Chapter 3 THE PROCESS OF SENSATION Sensation: process by which the brain picks up signals from our 5 senses and sends them to our brain Perception: process by which the brain organizes and interprets information received Accommodation: The flattening and bulging action of the eye lens as it focuses images of objects on the retina, adjusts sight BALANCE AND MOVEMENT Kinesthetic Sense: sense providing information about the position and movement of body parts Vestibular Sense: The sense that provides information about the body’s orientation in space. TASTE Gustation: The sense of taste Taste Buds: Structures along tongue papillae (bumps on tongue) that are composed of 60 to 100 receptor cells for taste PAIN *Gate-Control Theory: spinal cord acts like a gate, it can either block out or transmit the sense of pain to the brain, (also account for cognitive and emotional factors that influence pain) Endorphins: The body’s own natural painkillers UNUSUAL PERCEPTUAL EXPERIENCES Puzzling Perceptions Illusion: A false perception of an actual stimulus in the environment Synesthesia: “The capacity for experiencing unusual sensations along with ordinary ones” Chapter 5 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning: learning where one learns to associate one stimulus with another Stimulus: any event or object in the environment to which an individual responds PAVLOV AND THE PROCESS OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (Ivan Pavlov) Unconditioned Response: response developed without learning Ex: dog salivates to food Unconditioned Stimulus: A stimulus that causes an unconditioned response without prior learning Conditioned Stimulus: “A neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus, becomes associated with it and elicits a conditioned response” Ex: bell is rung when dog eats Conditioned Response: The learned response Ex: dog begins to salivate when bell rings Higher-Order Conditioning: neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus by being paired together CHANGING CONDITIONED RESPONSES Generalization: the tendency to make a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus Discrimination: the ability to learn to distinguish between to similar stimuli and eventually only respond to the specific stimuli BIOLOGICAL PREDISPOSITIONS Taste Aversion: intense dislike and/or avoidance of a particular food that has been associated with nausea or discomfort -we face conditioned responses on the daily, when we avoid certain foods daily or when our stomach rumbles just at the smell of food, etc. THORNDIKE, SKINNER, AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF BEHAVIOR Operant Conditioning: Skinner, the process through which consequences increase or decrease the frequency of a behavior Ex: baby realizes that crying makes its mom give him milk, baby learns to cry more Operant: A voluntary behavior with an involuntary consequence Reinforce: Anything following a response that strengthens or increases its probability Punisher: Anything following a response that weakens it or decreases its probability THE PROCESS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING Shaping: technique where the subject is trained a little at a time until the desired result has become a habit/behavior Successive Approximations: A series of gradual steps, each of which is more similar to the final desired response Discriminative Stimulus: “A stimulus that signals whether a certain response or behavior is likely to be rewarded, ignored, or punished” REINFORCEMENT Reinforcement: an event that follows a response and strengthens or increases the probability that the response will be repeated Positive Reinforcement: increase in behavior that results from an added consequence Negative Reinforcement: response ceases to repeat because of an unpleasant condition PUNISHMENT Punishment: opposite of a reinforcement, used to decrease the behavior Positive Punishment: A decrease in behavior that results from an added consequence Ex: a child stops watching scary movies before bed because it gives him nightmares Negative Punishment: A decrease in behavior that results from a removed consequence, loss of something desirable Ex: teen gets good grades to avoid having phone taken away Disadvantages of Punishment 1. Punishment doesn’t get rid of bad behavior but instead represses it, bad behavior is then present only whenever punishment is not present 2. If bad behavior is punished, good behavior must be rewarded 3. The individual punished tends to resent the punisher 4. The punisher becomes a model of aggressive behavior and result in some developing violent behaviors Making Punishment More Effective 1. Punishment should be delivered as soon as the bad behavior is seen, the longer you wait, the less effective the punishment is 2. The severity of the punishment should correlate with the severity of the behavior 3. Punishment must be consistent, can’t only give punishment whenever you feel like it ESCAPE AND AVOIDANCE LEARNING Escape Learning: a behavior learned in order to escape from an unwanted effect Ex: you take aspirin to get rid of a headache Avoidance Learning: behavior learned to avoid situations associated with aversive consequences or phobias Ex: a lactose intolerant individual would avoid dairy products to prevent bloating Learned Helplessness: One who is frequently faced with unavoidable aversive events becomes accustomed to feeling helpless Ex: kids who always get bad grades might stop doing homework or studying APPLICATIONS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING Biofeedback: people are given precise feedback about internal physiological processes so that they can learn to control over them like learning to control anxiety Behavior Modification: method of changing behavior through a systematic program Token Economy: appropriate and pro-social behaviors earn you tokens that can be traded in for a rewardEx: raising your hand allows you to speak in class Chapter 6 STRUCTURE OF HUMAN MEMORY Information-Processing Theory: “framework for studying memory that uses the computer as a model of human cognitive processes” Hardware: brain structures involved in memory Software: learned memory strategies Encoding: process of transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory Storage: process of keeping or maintaining information in memory Consolidation: physiological change in the brain that happens so encoded information can be stored Retrieval: process of bringing to mind information that has been stored in memory Memory: process of encoding, storage, and retrieval of information Rehearsal: act of purposely repeating information to maintain it in short-term memory Short Term or Working Memory Working Memory: memory system “we use when we try to understand information, remember it, or use it to solve a problem or communicate with someone” Maintenance Rehearsal: Repeating information until it is no longer needed; may eventually be stored in long-term memory Long Term Memory Long-Term Memory (LTM): virtually unlimited capacity, stores permanent or relatively permanent memories *Two types of Long Term memory: Declarative and Nondeclarative MEASURING RETRIEVAL Recall: producing required information by searching memory INFLUENCES ON RETRIEVAL Serial Position Effect Serial Position Effect: for information learned in a sequence, recall is better for the things you learn first and last but what’s in the middle is hardest to remember Primacy Effect: recalling the first items in a sequence more easily than the middle items Recency Effect: recalling the last items in a sequence more readily than those in the middle SOURCE, FLASHBULB, AND AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORIES Flashbulb Memories: memories of shocking events that include information about the source from which the information was acquired whether you heard about the event on the news, from a friend, etc. Positive Bias: pleasant memories are much easier to remember than unpleasant ones which can become more emotionally positive over time WHY WE FORGET Encoding Failure: information never put into long-term memory is forgotten Consolidation Failure: disruption in the consolidation process, (like car accident or skull injury) Motivated Forgetting: attempt to make oneself forget a painful or traumatic memory Prospective Forgetting: not remembering to carry out some intended action REPRESSED MEMORY CONTROVERSY Repression: process where traumatic memories are buried in the unconscious Infantile Amnesia: inability to recall events from the first few years of life Chapter 7 Cognition: mental processes involved in acquiring, storing, and information and including perception, concept formation, decision making, and language DECISION MAKING Framing: The way information is presented so as to emphasize either a potential gain or a potential loss as the outcome Intuition: decisions based on one’s “gut feelings” or “instincts.” *tends to lack logic and can be dangerous when confronting situations with more risks Obstacles to Problem Solving Confirmation Bias: Selective attention to information that confirms preexisting beliefs about the best way to solve a problem, “it worked last time” ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Artificial Intelligence: programming of computer systems to simulate human thinking -Sternberg believes in 3 types of intelligence: Componential Intelligence: the mental abilities most closely related to success on IQ and achievement tests Experiential Intelligence: reflected in creative thinking and problem solving Contextual Intelligence: common sense, street smarts THE NATURE OF INTELLIGENCE Intelligence: one’s ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt to the environment, reason, and to “overcome obstacles through mental effort” G Factor: Charles Spearman, term for a general intellectual ability that serves as a basis for all mental processes MEASURING COGNITIVE ABILITIES Achievement Test: test of the knowledge one has gained during their school career Norm-referenced: scores are compared to those of other students tested Criterion Referenced: scores are compared to a set standard or expectation Intelligence Test: A test of individual differences in general intellectual ability, norm- referenced Culture-Fair Intelligence Test: test used to prevent cultural bias, doesn’t penalize those whose culture differs from the dominant culture INTELLIGENCE TESTING: PAST AND PRESENT Intelligence Quotient (IQ): “An index of intelligence, originally derived by dividing mental age by chronological age and then multiplying by 100, but now derived by comparing an individual’s score with the scores of others of the same age” GENDER DIFFERENCES IN COGNITIVE ABILITIES -Girls greater success in school compared to boys is due to the ay by which girls approach school, girls tend to be more self-disciplined, willing to put in effort EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Emotional Intelligence: The ability to apply knowledge about emotions to everyday life Two Components: Personal: awareness and management of one’s own emotions Interpersonal: (Empathy) ability to be sensitive to other’s emotions and behaviors -women use both sides of the brain to handle emotional situations while men only use the left side CREATIVITY Creativity: ability to produce original valuable ideas and/or solutions to problems 4 Stages of Creative Problem Solving Process: 1. Preparation —searching for information that may help solve the problem 2. Incubation —letting the problem “sit” while the relevant information is digested, often below the level of awareness 3. Illumination —being suddenly struck by the right solution 4. Translation —transforming the insight into useful action Divergent Thinking: ability to produce multiple ideas to a problem for which there is no agreed-on solution Characteristics of Creative Thinkers: -expertise in areas they address -open to new experiences and ideas -independent and less influenced by others -hard working despite failures Chapter 10 Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS): “Holmes and Rahe’s measure of stress, which ranks 43 life events from most to least stressful and assigns a point value to each” *A score of over 300 within a 2 year period can cause illness or distress Catastrophic Events Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): prolonged and severe stress reaction to a catastrophic event or severe, chronic stress *usually known for nightmares, panic attacks, flashbacks, etc…can lead to substance abuse Survivor Guilt/Moral Injury: Guilt from having survived when others died or suffered or guilt at having taken someone’s life in combat Hassles Scale: focuses on every day stressors and recognizes that certain things may not be considered stressors to some individuals versus others, allowing them to rate its level of stress on a scale of 3 STRESS IN THE WORKPLACE Physical Challenge: how physically demanding a job is, or physically risky (like firefighting) Mental Challenge: how mentally challenging a job is *workplaces can be challenging for women because they face sexual harassment and discrimination as well as having to balance a workplace with a family THEORIES OF STRESS RESPONSE General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): Hans Selye, a pattern of reactions that organisms show in response to stress, made up of three stages: Alarm Stage: first stage, hormones called glucocorticoids (that increase heart rate and blood sugar) supply a burst of energy that aids in dealing with the stressful situation Resistance Stage: second stage, when there are intense physiological efforts to either resist or adapt to the stress Exhaustion Stage: third stage, occurs if the organism fails in its efforts to resist the stressor and disintegration and death follow. Lazarus’s Cognitive Theory of Stress: (Richard Lazarus), explains stressors don’t cause stress but instead our interpretation of our emotions Social Support: support system coming from parents, friends, or social groups Perceived Support: the degree to which an individual believes that support is available to them Received Support: the actual help a person receives Perceived Control: one’s perceived sense of control over their life affects their stress level Exam Questions Chapter 3 Questions: 1. What is the relationship between sensation and perception? Sensation provides the data for perception, but perceptual processes influence sensation 2. What is the sense that refers to the position and movement of body parts? Kinesthetic Sense 3. What is a gustatory delight? Gustatory= sense of taste, delight= you enjoy it 4. Why do women have more pain tolerance than men do? The higher the estrogen levels the more endorphins the body can use and produce 5. What is the effect of having your phone turned on while you drive? When the cell phone makes a sound, focus is broken and attention is on phone even if the auditory signal is ignored 6. What is an illusion? Chapter 5 Questions: 1. How does classical conditioning work? 2. What is the concept of generalization? 3. How does classical conditioning affect our eating habits? We have learned to avoid or respond to certain foods in certain ways, like grumbling each time you smell cookies or avoiding spicy foods 4. What is the process of rewarding successive approximation to get a desired behavior? 5. According to Seligman, why would anyone to stay in an abusive relationship? Learned helplessness, people who have experienced pain or abuse get used to feeling helpless and soon began to believe they deserve it 6. How does behavior modification work in the practical world? Individuals’ behaviors, typically of those who might have different behavioral situation like autism, learn to modify the behaviors that might affect them negatively in a work setting Chapter 6 Questions: 1. What is the hardware and software in the human memory system? 2. What is the process of transforming information into a memory? 3. When does consolidation occur? 4. What is the act of repeating information for short term memory? 5. What is the major problem in memory and cramming for exams? 6. What is the active process of avoiding unpleasant memories? Chapter 7 Questions: 1. What is the mental process involved in acquiring stories and retrieving information? cognition 2. What does the concept confirmation bias assume? 3. According to Sternberg, which type of intelligence is least likely to predict academic success? Formal academic knowledge, knowledge acquired in school 4. What are the two components of emotional intelligence? 5. What are the learning traits possessed by creative individuals? 6. Why do girls do better in school? Chapter 10 Questions: 1. According to Hassles Scale, what is the greatest cause of stress that students experience? Troubling thoughts about the future 2. What is the social readjustment rating scale? What does it reveal? 3. What is PTSD and its criteria? 4. Why is workplace stress so damaging to women’s health? 5. Who did the greatest research on stress? Hans Selye 6. What is generalized adaptive syndrome and how does it work? Short Response Questions: *answers to these questions are in your class notes not the textbook 1. What are egocentric personalities? Give examples (star, tyrant, turtle, & clinging vine) What are experiences removed by egocentric personalities? 2. According to Sternberg, what are the three types of intelligence? 3. What are boundaries and what is their purpose? Describe 2 boundaries and the effects on freedom of relationships External and internal 4. Define walls and give 3 examples 5. What is Classical Conditioning? + example you HAVE to include “pairing” in your answer or you get no point What is Operant Conditioning? + example you HAVE to include “shaping” in your answer or you get no points -increase or decrease likelihood of an event with reinforcement or punishment 6. Briefly define a complex and give 3 characteristics of how they affect our personality. Give 2 examples on how they might form in (underline?) resolution An emotionally charged idea or image around a common human trait that is incompatible with a habitual attitude
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