study guide for exam 2 intro to animal science
study guide for exam 2 intro to animal science ANIMSCI 2200.01 - 0010
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca J Elting on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANIMSCI 2200.01 - 0010 at Ohio State University taught by Pasha Lyvers Peffer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introductory Animal Sciences in INTRO TO ANIMAL SCIENCE at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
Intro to animal science study guide for 2 exam Nutrition & the early years first nutritional study evidence in the Book of Daniel (25002400 years ago) Hippocrates made the first references to the medicinal properties of food and that proper amounts of nourishment was key to be healthy origins of nutrition as a science began during the chemical revolution in the late 1700’s Antoine Lavosier defined life as a chemical process 1886 Francois Magendie discovered diversity was key to proper nutrition by conducting experiments with dogs, and only feeding some one nutrient category which passed away and others all the nutrient categories which lived. Weende identified food components in the 1860’s, also providing approximant analysis of feed Nutrition: The sum of the processes in an animal by which feed (or food) substances are consumed, metabolized, assimilated, and waste products eliminated ULTIMATELY, Supports growth, tissue maintenance and repair, and extension of products Food is an item that supplied nutrients in its natural state feed is food that is supplied to an animal system (often processed) Nutrients: Any chemical element or compound in the diet that supports maintenance of life processes and extension of growth, reproduction, and lactation. also something that is required to support cellular needs and thereby support work, maintenance and repair of tissues. Nutrient classifications: Water, Protein (crude Protein), Carbohydrates, Lipids, Vitamins, Minerals (ash) vitamins were not originally a nutrient category, because they were not discovered until 1880’s by Christian Eijkman. protein is based off the amount of nitrogen in the feed essential or indispensable nutrients are required I the animals diet, because the body doesn’t make enough of it on its own nonessential or dispensable nutrients are not required in the diet water is the most over looked nutrient category, it makes up 5075% of the adult body and up to 90% of a newborns body, as well as 6065% of the mass of a cell. as little as the loss of 10% of water can be deadly Water functions 1. Required for reactions of the body 2. Maintains constant body temperature universal solvent transport medium and a diluent and required for the transport of semisolid digests in the gastrointestinal tract. transports blood, tissues, cells and exogenous secretions (urine and sweat) used to keep the body cool by evaporation (sweating and panting) Water loss from the body is constant, and animals must constantly consume water in someway to remain hydrated, it could be via the food they consume or drinking fluids directly. urination is the primary method of water loss Nutrient functions: Structural components, Sources of energy, Regulatory functions Energy is a function of the carbon skeleton: Protein – 5.65 kcal/g; Carbohydrates – 4.15 kcal/g; Lipids – 9.45 kcal/g Carbohydrates: primary source of energy, but not a required dietary essential. Categorized as simple or complex Simple carbs are referred to as sugars and are classified as monosaccharides or disaccharides Monosaccharides include glucose, galactose and fructose. glucose is the primary source of energy for most cells Disaccharides include maltose, sucrose and lactose Complex carbs include the polysaccharides: starch and fiber. Starch include polysaccharides like amylose which is a straight line of glucose and amylopectin which is branched. Fiber include polysaccharides like cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin. Metabolism: the process by which the body uses the nutrients to support the needs of living systems Catabolism: the process of the body breaking down nutrients Anabolism: the process of building new compounds Calorimetry: Measure of energy 1) calorie = amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5 to 15.5 °C • 1000 cal = 1 kcal (Cal) = 4.184 kjoules • Food labels • Measure of potential energy! Concept 1) Combustion of a sample results in energy manifested as heat 2) A rise in water temperature reflects transfer of energy from the food to heat 3) A onedegree change in temperature of one gram of water equals one calorie Lipids: Lipids as fatty acids are the most concentrated source of energy, source of essential fatty acids, integral components of cell membranes and carriers of the fat soluble vitamins. 95% of dietary lipids come from animal products, cereal grains and oils supplied in the form of triglycerides Triglyceride have three fatty acids attached to a glycerol back bone Adipose tissue is a form of energy reserve, and the storage of lipids is basically limitless unlike glucose. Most fatty acid chains from animals are strait, with even number of single carbon bonds. this fat is saturated, so is solid at room temperature. Unsaturated fat is liquid at room temperature, and have one or more double bonds. It can occur as cis or trans. Most trans fats are manmade through hydrogenation and have been proven to have negative effects on the body. Natural occurring trans fats have not shown the same effect. The difference between cis and trans fats are the placement of the hydrogen: in cis, the hydrogen is adjacent to the double bond are oriented in the same direction, and in trans the hydrogens are adjacent to the double bond are oriented in the opposite direction *be sure to look at figure 4.1.11 to see the visual difference between saturated, unsaturated and trans fatty acids* The most important unsaturated fatty acids for animals are linolenic acid, linoleic acid Cats and other carnivores also require arachidonic acid Ruminants have no defined dietary essential fatty acid requirements. Phospholipids are another kind of fatty acid, but contain two fatty acid tails and a phosphate group. Proteins: product of gene transcription and are the molecules of enzymecatalyzed reactions, muscles contraction, metabolic regulation, and immune function, All cells synthesize proteins Provide energy in time of need (only 4 Kcal/g when catabolized) Are made of amino acids Amino acids have a central carbon to s hydrogen, a carboxylic acid group, amine group and a side chain (see figure 4.1.13) Peptide bonds hold them together, and multi peptides are called poly peptides Primary structure of a protein is the linear sequence of the amino acids Secondary structure is the result of local folding due to interactions between closely located amino acids Tertiary structures involve more distant interactions with polypeptide chains Quaternary stricter results from the interactions between different peptides chains nonprotein “amino” acids Obligatory carnivores have an additional requirement for taurine Insects may have an additional requirement for carnitine Vitamins: group of organic substances that are required in relatively small amounts and are essential for life 1900’s is the start of the vitamin revolution. Stephen Babcock is credited to discovering vitamin A, by doing studies with cows Fat Soluble Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Vitamin A can have a high toxicity, which is why we can’t eat polar bear livers Beta carotene can be used to fulfill vitamin A requirement in some animals Vitamin D can be converted from sun’s radiation but should not be relied on as the main supply of vitamin D Water Soluble Ascorbic acid (vitamin c), Niacin, Biotin, Choline, Cobalamin, Folic acid, Pantothenic acid, Pyridoxine, Riboflavin, thiamin Most animals make Vitamin C on their own. Guinea pigs, chickens, bats, and humans do not make their own vitamin C Minerals: an inorganic solid crystalline chemical element that are required for all animals. Macromolecules are required in greater amounts and include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride and sulfur Micro minerals or trace minerals are needed, but in lesser amounts. They include numerous minerals, but some examples are chromium, cobalt, copper, zinc, iron, etc. Modern Cell Theory proposed by Schwann and Schleiden 1. All living things are composed of cells 2. The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living things 3. All cells come from preexisting cells Robert Hooke discovered cells Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Universal material of heredity Three chemical components: 1) Phosphate. 2) deoxyribose (sugar backbone), 3) nitrogenous bases Complementary base pairing Chargaff’s rules: A: T and G:C Genes Genes Sequences of nucleotides that serve as precursors to proteins Direct all processes of the cell – Blue Print of Life Inheritance: Transfer of genetic material Inheritance is the result of the mixing of blood, contributed by each parent of the individual Mendel’s observations 1. Many inherited characteristics (traits) are under the control of two distinct factors (genes) – one coming from the male parent and the other from the female parent 2. A trait may not show up in an individual, but be passed to the next generation Organization of a gene Homologous Chromosomes Chromosomes coded with “matching” information from the male and female Locus Location of the gene Alleles Given copy of a gene Homozygous Gene copies are the same Heterozygous Gene copies differ Two Laws of Inheritance Principles of Segregation only one randomly chosen allele is found within a gamete Independent Assortment Separation of chromosomes (thus genes) is independent Absurd to real expression of traits: Dominant allele (gene) “overpowers” and prevents expression of the gene at the corresponding loci on the homologous chromosome Recessive allele corresponding gene that is “masked” by the dominant allele at the corresponding loci Nonclassical dominance Codominance or Nodominance Neither: allele masks the other and both are expressed Incomplete dominance or Partial dominance: An allele is expressed in a dose dependent manner Sex related inheritance Sex linked Expression of a gene that is located on the X chromosome Sex limited Trait is limited to gender Sex influenced Trait is influenced by gender, an allele that is dominant in one sex is recessive in the other sex. Some variation cannot be predicted • Crossingover – Occurs during initial meiosis • Mutation – Insertion, deletion, substitution of nucleotide – New protein: Better performance/Worse performance Animal breedingApplied genetics Objective produce animals that excel for desired traits while eliminating/minimizing occurrence of undesirable traits. Involves culling of less desirable animals and selection of superior replacements. Phenotype Observable measures of traits qualitative traits Subjective measure descriptive or categorical and classified into groups: red or black angus; horned or polled sheep Controlled by a few genes Progress of selection not difficult Quantitative traits Objectively (numerically) measured Milk production, loin eye area, weight, speed Polygenic Controlled by many genes, often on different chromosomes, each contributing a small effect Tools for genetic change Selection Obtaining a desirable phenotype through choosing animals for mating Mating Pairing of males and females Phenotypic Selection PHENOTYPE = GENOTYPE + ENVIRONMENT Climate Health Feeding Stress Facilities… Female parent Male parent Quantitative traits Greater environmental influence, variable heritability Qualitative traits Less environmental influence, greater heritability Predicting genetic progress Selection Differential Phenotypic advantage of chosen parents. Superiority of selected animals compared to the herd average for a particular trait. Heritability of the trait Proportion of phenotypic variation that can be passed from parent to offspring Generation interval Average time required to replace one generation with the next. The shorter the generation interval the greater rate of change. Genetic change per year Heritability x Selection Differential Generation Interval Genomic based selection Traditional animal breeding requires assigning a breeding value based on desired production traits with expectation the traits are inherited within offspring. MAS Marker assisted selection allows identification of regions of DNA associated with a trait SNPS single nucleotide polymorphisms can be identified in animals that are identified by key selection traits. The presence of SNPs allows prediction of breeding value. Unlike MAS, SNPs scan the entire genome not just predetermined regions. Tools for genetic change Selection Obtaining a desirable phenotype through choosing animals for mating Mating Pairing of males and females Mating depends on desired results Increased homozygosity Increase predictability of progeny as future breeding animals by decreasing variation of contrasting alleles (Aa) Increased heterozygosity Increase performance of progeny for production by increasing variation of contrasting alleles (Aa). Can result in hybrid vigor (heterosis) Outbreeding Mating of unrelated animals within lines & breeds or between breeds. Increases variation, increases heterozygosity, increases productivity through hybrid vigor. Greatest effects in lowly heritable traits and within the first generation of crossbreeding. Inbreeding Intensive breeding of close relatives practiced to maintain breed standards and achieve predictability of offspring. Decreases variation, increases homozygosity of desired and recessive gene Molecular genetics Transgenic organisms The purposeful manipulation of an organism’s DNA for the production of organisms with genomes that cannot be creat ed through traditional breeding
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