Botany Exam 2 Study Guide
Botany Exam 2 Study Guide BOT 200
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mariana Roberts on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BOT 200 at Western Illinois University taught by Dr. Meiers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction fo Botany in Science at Western Illinois University.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
Chapter 5 know the following terms Parenchyma – cells that only have a thin primary wall Collenchyma –have a thin primary wall that that thickens in the corners Sclerenchyma – have primary and secondary wall Stem – region between leaves and roots of vascular plants Bud – produce flowers; not apical Epidermis – outermost surface of herbaceous stem; single layer of parenchyma cells Cuticle – waterproof cutin protecting and preventing water loss from the epidermis Stomata – guard cells and stomatal pore together guard cells – opens and allows exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen stomatal pore opening that permit CO2 to enter the plant trichomes – epidermal cells develop into hairs; protects plant from animals, H2O loss, and intense sunlight cortex – interior to epidermis; composed of photosynthesis parenchyma and sometimes collenchymas cells vascular tissue – xylem and phloem xylem – conducts water and minerals up thallus phloem – distributes sugars and minerals up and down tracheid – xylem conducting cells; never have a perforation vessel element – xylem conducting cells; has one or two perforations (hole in the primary wall that permits water to flow easily from one vessel to another trachea element – refers to either xylem vessel cells; tracheid or vessel element annular thickenings – simplest form of xylem vessel cells; secondary wall on the inside of the primary cell wall performations – form between vertically stacked vessel elements sieve cells – phloem conducting cells; elongate, spindle shaped, areas distributed over surface, gymnosperm and angiosperms sieve tube members – wider sieve areas on each endwall; align verticaly sieve element – refers to either phloem conducting cells; sieve cells and sieve tube members sieve pores – plasmodesmate enlarges in the primary walls and permit movement of phloem sap from one sieve element to another sieve areas – numerous sieve pores companion cells – a nurse cell that is connected to an enucleate sieve tube member; have lots of organisms to control sieve member and load molecules into sieve tube member albuminous cells a nurse cell connected to and controlling an enucleate sieve cell vascular bundles – xylem and phloem groups in stem, leaves, and flowers pith – central region of parenchyma similar to cortex primary xylem – xylem of vascular bundle Primary phloem phloem of vascular bundle apical meristem – stems grow longer by creating new cells at tips; cells continuously divide subapical meristem – divid and grow at a slow rate; region below apical meristem protophloem – exterior cells mature protoxylem – early xylem metaxylem – longer because have been expanding phliem – Chapter 6 know the following terms Cuticle – waxy covering, secreted by epidermal cells Epidermis – outer covering o thallus; continuous with entire thallus blade/lamina – the broad, expanded part of a leaf (not the petiole) abaxial side – dorsal surface: lower side adaxial side – ventral surface: upper side petiole – the stalk of a leaf simple leaf – a leaf in which the blade consists of just one part compound leaf –a leaf in which the blade consists of several separate parts all attached to a common petiole reticulate venation – a net like pattern of veins in a leaf parallel venation – a pattern in which all veins run parallel to each other; monocots trichomes – provide shaded leaf upper surface; prevent rapid air movement; make insect walking/chewing difficult mesophyll – ground tissued interior to leaf epidermis palisade parenchyma – along upper surface of most leaves; main photosynthesis tissue spongy mesophyll – lower portion of leaf lateral veins – the major large vascular bundles of a leaf which are attached to the midrib midrib midvein bundle sheath – sheath of cells that surround the vascular bundle bundle sheath extension(s) large veins oftern have supportive fibers above or below guttation – production of water droplets at leaf surface, as result of high root pressure when soil moisture level high tendrils – an organ that attaches a vine to a support by wrapping around it succulent leaves – decrease surface to volume ratio; water conservation sclerophylls – conifer leaves – thick cuticle, and epidermis and hypodermis cells have thick walls; provide structure, dead at maturity because they have a secondary wall bud scales – tight layer around stem tip; protect dormant buds in winter tendrils – modified leaves whose cells can sense contact with objects; coil around objects kranz anatomy – leaves have prominent bundle sheath of large chlorophyllous cells with ring of mesophyll cells abscission zone – forms at leaf base; cells involved in cutting of leaf as becomes useless during fall/winter; leaves change color as chlorophyll is broken down List and explain the functions of leaves Photosynthesis and gas exchange for cellular respiration Be able to identify and explain the functions of the following structures of leaves: cuticle, epidermis, stomata, stoma, guard cells, blade/lamina, abaxial/adaxial side, petiole, trichomes, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, vein/vascular bundle, midrib/midvein, lateral and minor veins Explain and be able to recognize the following traits of leaves: simple vs. compound leaves, reticulate vs. parallel venation of leaves Simple leaves: Compound leaves: Reticulate venation of leaves: Parallel venation of leaves: Explain what bundle sheaths and bundle sheath extensions are and what they do for the leaf Bundle sheath is a sheath of cells that surrounds the vascular bundle; large veins have supportive fibers about and/or below (sheath extension) causing increase is support Explain what about guard cells allows them to control the stoma of a stomata The guard cells are full of water and open and close depending on moisture content Explain what environmental factors affect stomatal opening and closing Less water causes guard cells to close stoma (decrease transpiration and gas exchange) Plenty of water causes guard cells to open stoma (increase transpiration and gas exchange) Explain what guttation is and why it occurs Production of water in the leaves caused by root pressure; poor way of movement; plant is so full of water that water comes out of the leaves Explain how the following leaf modifications benefit the plant: succulent leaves, sclerophylls, bud scales, spines, tendrils, insect traps Succulent leaves: decrease surface to volume ratio to conserve water Sclerophylls: thick resistant leaves that live for multiple years (pine needles); saves energy Bud Scales: tight layer arounf the stem tip that protect dormant buds in winter Spines: Tendrils: modified leaves cells that can sense contact with objects, coil around objects, and support the thallus Insect traps: allows the plant to take in the nitrogen needed from the insect Explain the differences among spines, prickles, and thorns Explain what Kranz anatomy is and what type of photosynthesis these plants can undergo Leaves with krans anatomy have prominent bundle sheath of large chlorophyllous cells with a ring of mesophyll cells; occurs in plants with C4 photosynthesis Explain how a plant drops it leaves for winter/drought, and how it does so Abscission zone: forms at the leaf base; cells involved in cutting of leaves as becaomse useless during fall/winter; it stores expensive elements in roots, and drops leaves to save water and energy (the reason leaves change color and fall from tree during autumn) Explain modifications plants have to regulate transpiration The number of stomata is much greater in the lower epidermis than the upper epidermis to help decrease water loss (sunlight heats the upper leaf surface more) and to prevent fungal spores infecting leaf Chapter 7 know the following terms: adventitious roots – arise from the stem; increase root absorption and transport capacities; support stem Taproot/fibrous root – dicot; large vertical root lateral root – branching root system radicle – embryonic root that was present in the seed after germination root cap protects root apical; promotes growth of beneficial bacteria zone of cell division – cells divide a few time depending on tissue zone of cell elongation – region some cell divides and them ell expansion zone of maturation – root hairs grow outwards and increase absorption of water and minerals root hair region where cells fully differentiates and where some epidermal cells extend into soil endodermis – inner layer protection Casparian strip – controls what enters the xylem Stele – region composed of vascular tissue Pericycle . Irregular row of parenchyma cells between vascular tissue and endodermis Endomycorrhizal associations – the root cortex as far as the endodermis; they pass through the walls of the cortex as far as the endodermis ectomycorrhizal associations – fungal cells penetrate between outermost root cortex cells Nitrogenfixing bacteria – puts nitrogen back into the soil for the plants to use list and explain the functions of the roots Anchor plants, absorb water and minerals, produce hormones explain what adventitious roots are, provide examples and state the functions of these examples roots that spurt from the stem propladventitous rootssupport shoot, provide staility in shifting nonstable soils/wetlands vine adventitiousact as hold fats parasitic plants modified rootsaquire nutrients and water from the host plant haustoriahighly modified toots that anchor parasite to host and absorb water and/or nutrients explain what taproot and fibrous roots are and which groups of plants have them taproot: long vertical root; dicot fibrous: many similarly size roots; monocot explain where the endodermis is, what its function is, and why it is essential to plant survival endodermis: innermost layer of cortical cells differentiate into cylinder of cells; radical walls f endodermis imbedded with waterproof lignin and suberin to control water enters the xylem explain where and how lateral roots arise; state their function lateral roots arise from the pericycle and their function is to secure the plant in the ground with stability explain how substances can enter the root and how they get to the vascular tissue minerals cross the endodermis only if endodermal cells absorb them from apoplast or cortex cells and then secrete them into vascular tissue describe the path of a water molecule from the soil to the leaf, including the information you learned in this chapter a substance must enter endodermis cells and then move up the plant via xylem what cells in a plant contain suberin (note, look in Chapter 9, as well), what is the function of suberin, and how does it help these cells perform their function embedded in the cell wall, causes endermal cell to regulate what goes through it explain what happens to the parts of the root outside the formation of a solid endodermis in the root explain how a root can absorb water if its root hairs are continually dying within days of being produced new root hairs are being produced daily to replace those that have died daily; the endodermis is continuously produced and seals off stele from cortex explain what the following relationships are, what organisms are involved, and what each biotic partner derives from the relationship: mycorhizae, endomycorrhizal associations, ectomycorrhizal associations, root nodules; provide examples of each mycorrhizae: roots have a a muturaly beneficial symbiotic relationship with bacteria and fungi endomycorrhizal associations: the root cortex as far as the endodermis; they pass through the walls of the cortex as far as the endodermis ectomycorrhizal associations: fungal walls penetrate between outermost root cortex cells; fungus gets the sugars and plant gets phosphorus root nodules: area in which bacteria invade and proliferate; causes the plant to receive nitrogen and the bacteria receives sugars and other minerals explain how plants acquire the trace minerals they need if they don’t eat like animals do list the needs of root cells and describe how a plant meets those needs Chapter 8 know the following terms lateral meristems – describes the position of the vascular cambium and cork cambium vascular cambium – the meristem that produces secondary vascular tissue cork cambium – a layer of cells the produces the cork cells of bark secondary tissues – constitute plants secondary body interfacicular cambium – some parenchyma cells between vascular bundles resume mitosis and form the interfacicular cambium fasicular cambium – contains cells between xylem and phloem of a vascular bundle fusiform initials – long, tapered cells that produce 2 elongated cells when undergo longitudinal cell division with wall parallel to circumference of cambium ray initials – divide and develop similarly but from xylem or phloem parenchyma that function in storage or abuminois cells anticlinal – perpendicular to the cambiums surface; vascular cambium cells must occasionally divide and increase the number of cambial cells 2° xylem – wood cells 2° phloem – responsible for conduction up and down stem Axial system – derived from fusiform initials radial system – derived from ray initials hardwoods – large amounts of fibers softwoods – few or no fibers rays – parenchyma arranged as uniseriate, biseriate or multiseriate early/spring wood – high proportion of wide vessels or tracheid late/summer wood – fewer vessels or narrower, thick walled tracheid annual/growth ring – early wood and late wood together make up years growth heart/sapwood – center of a log tylosis – forms from adjacent parenchyma cells phellem outer cells differentiates phelloderm mature layers of parenchyma inside cork cambium periderm – layers of cork cells and phelloderm outer/inner bark – all secondary phloem between vascular cambium and inner most cork cambium lenticels – Cork impermeable; (+) conserves to cater, (+) increase pest resistance, () blocks O2 absorption explain what secondary growth is and why plants undergo it woody species develop additional stem and root tissues to allow for increase in girth list the major groups of plants that undergo secondary growth eudicots, basal angiosperms, and all gymnosperms explain how the fasicular and interfasicular cambia form the complete vascular cambium these two cambia form a ring (vascular cambium) explain what cell types the fusiform and ray initials of the vascular cambium develop into one continues to be a fusiform initial while the other differentiates into cell of secondary xylem or secondary phloem explain what anticlinal cell division is and how it helps the vascular cambium carry out “its job” without the anticlinal divisions, cambial cells would be stretched explain what causes heart/sapwood drier wood is darker (heartwood) moisture , lighter outer region (sapwood) explain what tyloses are and what causes them to occur when water column vessel or tracheid beaks, tylosis forms from adjacent parenchyma cells explain where you’d find secondary phloem in a tree trunk explain how the cork cambium produces cork and phelloderm and where you’d find these tissues in the stem as circumference stretching increases and older sieve elements die, some storage parenchyma cells undergo cel division and new cambium within the secondary phloem (cork cambium) is formed; after each division inner cell remains cork cambium and outer cell differentiates into cork cell explain what the outer/inner bark are and where you’d locate them in a mature tree outer bark: all tissues outside the innermost cork cambium inner bark: all secondary phloem between vascular cambium and innermost cork cambium explain what lenticels are and what their function is regions of aerenchymatous cork; explain where subsequent layers of cork cambium will form in a mature tree depends on where cork cambium arises state where the initial cork cambium develops in the root parenchyma cells between primary xylem and phloem become mitoticially active Chapter 9 know the following terms Seed – produced by sexual reproduction often have means of long distance dispersal Sporophyte – produce spores via meiosis Gametophyte – produce gametes via mitosis Microgametophyte – produces microgametes pollen grain – male gametes microspore – a small spore that grows into a microgametophyte that produces sperm cells megagametophyte – produces megaspores embryo sac – female gametes megaspore eggs flower – a stem with leaf like structures carpel – organ of the flower that contains ovules and is involved in the production of megaspores, seeds, and fruits stigma – in the carpel of the flower, the receptive tissue to which pollen adheres style – in the carpel, the tissue that elevates the stigma above the ovary ovary – in a flower, the base of the carpel; the region that contains ovules and will develop into a fruit stamen – the organs of a flower involved in producing microspores filament – the stalk of the stamen, it elevates the anther anther – the portion of the stamen that contains sporogenous tissue which produces microspores sepal – in flowers, the outermost of the fundamental appendages, most often providing the flower with protection of the flower during its development petal – the appendages, usually colored, on a flower, most often involved in attracting pollinators vegetative cell – pollen tube; microspore nucleus divides into large generative cell – divide to for two sperm cells pollen tube – penetrates into stigma to ovule polar nuclei – the two nuclei of the central cell of the megagametophyte om a flowering plant anitpodal cells – one of several cells in the angiosperm megagametophyte, located opposite the egg cell and the synergids synergid – in the egg apparatus of an angiosperm megametophyte, there is an egg and one or two adjacent cells the pollen tube enters on other synergids plasmogamy – the fusion of the cytoplasm of two gametes during sexual reproduction karyogamy – fusion of the nuclei of two gametes after protoplasmic fusion endosperm – the tissue which is formed during double fertilization only in angiosperms and which nourishes the developing embryo and seedling double fertilization – both sperm nuclei undergo fusion cotyledon baby leaves radicle – embryonic root epicotyl – embryonic stem hypocotyl – the root/shoot junction seed coat – the protective layer on a seed fruit – ovules develops into seeds and ovary matures exocarp – outer layer (skin/peel) mesocap – middle layer (flesh) endocarp – innermost layer (tough or thin) pericarp – entire fruit wall crosspollination fertilization by pollen different individuals compatibility barriers – chemical reactions between pollen and carpels that can prevent pollen growth dioecious – a species may have individuals produce only staminate flowers and individuals only produce carpellate flowers monoecious – species of having staminate flowers located on same plant as carpellate flowers coevolution – flowers and animals adapt to each other to maintain symbiosis inflorescence – small flowers with fewer ovules grouped together Explain under what conditions would asexual reproduction be favored When the need for distant dispersal is unneeded explain the alternation of generations lifecycle; state what the two major forms are, what types of special cells give rise to those forms and what cell division processes are used sporophyte: always diploid; have sex organs with cells capable of undergoing meiosis gametophyte: cannot undergo syngamy but undergo mitosis into an entire new haploid plant state/define what the male and female gametophytes are male: microgametophyte female: megagametophyte explain how meiosis gives rise to the pollen grain and the embryo sac sporophyte (2n) – (meiosis) – Spores – Gametophye (1n) – (mitosis) – gametes – sporophyte explain how the pollen grain will “behave” from when it lands on the stigma until it undergoes double fertilization it will land on the stigma and burrow its way into the style and germinate in the overy to become a gamephyte explain how an embryo sac develops, and what cells comprise it nuclei migrate to opposite ends and walls form around the nuclei after the megaspore nucleus divides explain what structures arise from the double fertilization process central cells enlarge into huge cells (endosperm) state the 3 major portions of a plant embryo and what they will grow to become radicle (embryonic root) epicotyl (embryonic stem) hypocotyl (root/shoot junction) explain what a fruit is, what the 3 major portions of it are As ovules develop into seeds, ovary matures into fruit Exocarp (skin/peel) Mesocarp (flesh) Endocarp (innermost) state what conditions would promote crosspollination versus selfpollination self pollination – fertilization by pollen from same flower or another on same plant cross pollination – fertilization by pollen different individuals describe what windpollinated flowers will look like No petals, reduced/absent sepals, large numbers of pollen grains, large feathery stigmas explain what an inflorescence is and why plants might have them instead of single flowers reproductive success may be increased by an increase in number of ovules this is helpful because the more the plant will have more chances of reproducing explain what the function of a seed is and describe some strategies for seed dispersal there are seeds germinate to grow in new areas; dispersal – animals, wind, water
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