KH 4280 Psychology of Physical Activity Exam 2 Study Guide
KH 4280 Psychology of Physical Activity Exam 2 Study Guide KH
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Apollo12 on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KH at Georgia State University taught by Biber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Physical Activity in 4280 at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 10/18/16
Review for Exam 2 While this is an initial list of topics and definitions, it is not all-inclusive. You may want to read about each of the mentioned topics below to make sure you have a thorough understanding. Cognitive Functioning 1. Cognitive functioning - Ability to perceive, recognize, or understand thoughts & ideas. 2. Chronic vs. acute exercise on CF: Chronic (regular) exercise – May result in improvements in cognitive function and even reverse the loss of function seen with aging. Long term, relatively permanent. Acute exercise (single bouts of activity) – When accumulated over several months, may have profound positive effects on cognitive processing. Short term, temporary. 3. What are executive control processes? Cognitive functions that are oriented toward goal-directed behavior: working memory, interference control, task coordination, multi-tasking. 4. Hypotheses for exercise impact on CF: a. Selective improvement hypothesis: exercise improves executive control tasks b. Cardiovascular fitness hypothesis (mixed support): exercise improves cardiovascular fitness. HRQOL: 1. Biomedical definition – Absence of disease and disability. Biopsychosocial definition – Positive state of physical, mental, and social well-being. An approach to understanding behavior based on the belief that the body, mind, and social environment influence one another and, ultimately, behavior. 2. QOL: overall “goodness” or evaluation of one’s life and various domains. 3. Dimensions of QOL: Psychological – Positive feelings, sensory functions, thinking, learning, memory, concentrating, self-esteem, body image and appearance, negative feelings, spirituality, religion, personal beliefs. Physical Health – General health, pain and discomfort, energy and fatigue, mobility, activities of daily living, dependence on medicinal substances and medical aids, work capacity. Social Relationships – Personal relationships, social support, sexual activity. Environment – Freedom, physical safety, security, home environment, work satisfaction, financial resources, health and social care: accessibility and quality, opportunities for acquiring new information and skills, participation in and opportunities for recreation and leisure activities, transport, physical environment (pollution/noise/traffic/climate). 4. Subjective measures of QOL: Patient measure vs. proxy measure (someone else measures) Patients’ subjective perceptions of HRQoL are more closely associated with important health-related outcomes than objective measures. The subjective approach to measurement is the method of choice in exercise psychology and other fields. 5. HRQOL: dimensions that can be affected by health and health interventions: a. Physical: aerobic, strength, endurance, balance, flexibility, adls b. Emotional functioning: depression, anxiety, happiness, anger, hope, tranquility c. Social: filling social roles and fulfill them d. Cognitive: memory, attention, concentration, problem solving, etc e. Health status: physical, symptoms, state, (fatigue, pain, sleep) 6. ADL’s: Activities individuals want or need to do in their daily lives, like walking, climbing stairs, carrying objects, dressing/bathing. 7. Reasons exercise improve HRQOL: a. Changes in actual fitness – Exercise can induce changes in HRQoL without significant improvement in objective indices of disease state or physical fitness. Most people perceive changes in ADLs to be more meaningful than changes in objective measures of fitness or disease. b. Changes in self-efficacy – Exercise improves HRQoL by enhancing self-efficacy (confidence in situation/task-specific abilities) to control their health. Self-Perceptions and Exercise 1. Self-concept: The way in which we see or define ourselves (who am i?). a. Physical self-concept: perceive our ability and appearance. 2. Self-esteem: how I feel about who I am. Evaluative or affective consequences of self-concept. 3. Exercise leads to small but meaningful effect size (.23) on self- concept/esteem 4. Body image: how a person sees their body (multidimensional) a. Perceptual – Assess the accuracy of a person’s judgments about the size of his/her body parts or body as a whole. b. Cognitive – Assess an individual’s satisfaction, attitudes, beliefs, and thoughts about his/her shape. c. Affective – Assess feelings such as worry, shame, anxiety, comfort, embarrassment, and pride. d. Behavioral – Assess the frequency with which one engages in behaviors that might indicate body image disturbance (avoidance, altering, monitoring). 5. Body image reality vs. ideal (healthy vs disturbance) ??? 6. Factors that impact body image Interpersonal experiences – teasing, praise, and comments from others about one’s body. psychological factors – self-esteem, perfectionism, social support. Behaviors – physical activity, dieting, grooming. physical characteristics – body fatness, muscularity, height. sociocultural influences – cultural body ideals, television, magazines, media influences. physical changes – changes to the body due to pubertal development, aging, injury, or disease. 7. Know various eating disorders, criteria, how to identify each one based on scenario (anorexia, bulimia, binge) Anorexia Nervosa – emaciation, relentless pursuit of thinness, extremely disturbing eating behaviors. Criteria – unwillingness to maintain normal weight, fear of gaining weight, body image disturbance, at least 15% below ideal weight. Identify – food rituals, dramatic weight loss, denial of hunger, excessive exercise, preoccupation with weight. Bulimia Nervosa – criteria – recurrent and frequent episodes of binge eating: in discrete period of time, amount larger than most would eat, lack of control over eating, usually high caloric/unhealthy food. Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain, body image disturbance, behavior occurs on average of once a week for 3 months. Identify (warning signs) – disappearance of large amounts of food, finding wrappers, containers, laxatives/diuretics, excessive exercise, calluses on hands, stained teeth, social withdrawal. Binge Eating Disorder – criteria – Recurring episodes of eating much more food in a short period of time than most people would eat, with episodes accompanied by feelings of lack of control. Binge eating (same criteria as bulimia), eat quickly and uncontrollably, feelings of guilt/shame/disgust and eat alone to hide, behavior occurs on average once a week for 3 months, lack of compensatory behaviors. 8. Body image measures: perceptual (see) cognitive (think) affective (feel) behavioral (act) 9. Exercise has small (.29) impact on body image and eating disorders 10.Contributing factors to eating disorders – Sociocultural, weight standards & restrictions, pressure from others, performance demands, judging criteria. Exercise Dependence 1. What is it? Craving for exercise that results in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior and manifests in physiological and/or psychological symptoms. 2. What are criteria for exercise dependence? Tolerance = exercise to achieve desired affect Withdrawal = cessation of exercise produces negative symptoms Intensity Effect = exercise done in larger amounts or over longer period than was intended. Loss of Control = Persistent desire or unsuccessful effort to control exercise. Time = considerable time spent in activities essential to exercise maintenance. Conflict = social/occupational/recreational activities given up because of exercise, Continuance = exercise is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent/recurrent physical or psychological problem that was likely caused or exacerbated by exercise. Affective Cognitive Physiologic Social al Anxiety Confusion Sore ↑ need Muscles for social interacti on Depression Impaired Disturbed Concentrat sleep ion Irritability Fatigue Anger Lethargy Guilt Gastrointesti nal problems 3. Primary vs. secondary exercise dependence. Primary – exercise is an end in itself; motivation for exercise (intrinsic) Secondary – exercise is a symptom of an eating disorder; motivation is to manipulate and control body composition (extrinsic) 4. Know exercise deprivation symptoms (affective, cognitive, physiological, social) see above chart Effect Sizes of Exercise on Various Psychological Domains Overall Participant Effects Dose-Response ES with Effects PA HRQL ES = .41 No No (moderate ) Self- ES = .23 No Yes (type of Efficac (small) training: lifestyle y exercise > skills training) Body ES = .29 Yes (older/university Yes (frequency: Image (small) students/adults > more > less) youth) > means greater than (the effect is greater) The range for small, medium, and large effect sizes is in the powerpoint EXTRA NOTES FROM BOOK: Self-schemata – relatively novel explanation of the exercise and self- concept/self-esteem relationship involves the development of domain-specific (exercise) identities. Affect Regulation Hypothesis – Exercise acts to enhance positive affect and reduce negative affect. Anorexia Analogue Hypothesis – Compulsive exercise serves as a male counterpart of the eating disorder anorexia nervosa. Endorphin Hypothesis – Excessive exercise is due to an actual dependence on endorphin released during exercise. Psychophysiological Hypothesis (or Energy conservation-sympathetic arousal hypothesis) – posits that because the effect of training is a decrease in sympathetic nervous system output, an increase in fitness can potentially result in a state of lethargy, fatigue, and decreased arousal. Personality Trait Hypothesis – Exercise dependent individuals have specific personality characteristics such as perfectionism, OCD, anxiety, and neuroticism. Compensatory Behaviors – Behaviors used to prevent weight gain such as self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or excessing exercise. Muscle dysmorphia – special type of body dysmorphic disorder characterized by preoccupation with muscularity. Body Dysmorphic Disorder – A serious psychiatric condition characterized by excessive preoccupation with some aspect of physical appearance (breast size, body weight, facial features, etc) Working memory – The ability to hold relevant information in one’s mind for relatively short periods of time. Interference Control - The ability to deal with distraction Stopping – A measure of the ability to stop or abort a preprogrammed action. Attentional Network – Neural circuitry involved in various aspects of executive control processes. Latency – The time when the potential occurs relative to the presentation of the stimulus. Amplitude- Whether the latency goes up or down. Attentional Resources – the amount of brain activity needed to complete a task. Stopping Task – A task requiring the suppression of a response after a specific stimulus. Synaptic Plasticity – The ability of connections between neurons to change in strength. Angiogenesis – new capillary growth. Brain Derived Neurotropic factor (BDNF) – nerve growth factor. Task Switching – Measures cost of switching between two different tasks. P300 (P3) – A component of event-related potential that is positive-going waveform that occurs approximately 300 milliseconds after stimulus is presented. Neuroimaging – imaging techniques to get another level of information regarding how the cognitive processing of information is handled within the central nervous system. Error-related negativity – Psychophysiological index of the evaluation and self- monitoring of one’s own actions. Event-related potential – A measured brain response evoked from some type of stimulus. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Subjective measure - A measure of a patient’s perceptions, usually qualitative in nature. Objective measure - A measure that can be made by someone other than the patient; such measures are usually quantitative in nature. What are 3 categories to determine if someone is exercise dependent according to the EDS? At-risk, nondependent asymptomatic, nondependent symptomatic. Academic self concept – encompasses the primary learning domains of English, math, history, and science. Global self-esteem – overall self-esteem (worldwide) Nonacademic self-concept – divided into social, emotional, physical self- concepts. Physical self-concept – Formulated by the individual’s judgments of both general physical abilities and physical appearance. Social self-concept – Enhanced by positive interactions with peers and significant others.
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