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UMASS / Art / ART 115 / consmetal

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consmetal

Description

School: University of Massachusetts
Department: Art
Course: Visual Art, Artists, & Cultures
Professor: Walter denny
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Art History
Cost: 50
Name: Art History 115
Description: This is the study guide. You may not have to review the whole thing if you know the information. Stay tuned for the notes on the recent lectures.
Uploaded: 10/19/2016
53 Pages 6 Views 10 Unlocks
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Study Guide for Midterm Exam (sorry for the inconvenience, there was a lot of information to condense, stay tuned for some more notes which will be on color, painting technique, and Renaissance)


Death Mask of Tutankhamen and the Pyramids of Giza



Hey Guys, Tan-Tan here. I just want to let you know that the Mid-term shouldn’t be that bad. Professor W. Denny prepared us well. And even if you didn’t paid attention in class, this study Guide should at least help in your preparation for the exam...

Below is the structure of the exam which is divided into four parts and could also be found in the syllabus…

Part 1

 Ten identifications, two minutes each. Ten slides of works of art, all discussed in class and/or in the text, and selected from among those listed on the course review list are projected, each for 2 minutes. You will be asked three questions about each; here are some samples: We also discuss several other topics like bruce king clemson

 1. Material used? Date? Name of architect?

 2. Painted in what country? Title? Stylistic period?

 3. Medium used? Name of painter? City in which painted?

4. Name of the sculptor? Approximate date of work? Made from what material?


Lady of Auxerre and Kroisos (the Anavysos Kroisos)



We also discuss several other topics like biol1009

This part counts for 20%, the most you can get is 30pts. This could also be found in the Syllabus

Part 2

 Comparison question. Two slides are shown and you are asked to identify them, then compare and contrast them. Question counts 30% of exam.

Just like the first paper

Tip 1: Find aspects of the works of art that are common or different. Just as long as you compare them in a logical way you should be good.

Tip 2: While reviewing the pictures for the exam, think of two images that would be good for the compare and contrast essay

Part 3

 Historical essay. You are asked to write on an historical problem covered in the course, without any slides projected. Question counts 40% of exam.

Hint: an example would be the evolution of sculpture in greece. This example may not be on the exam but read all the historical aspects of art that was discussed in class


Hermes and the Infant Dionysos by Praxiteles Dying Gaul



This is an example from the syllabus:

Using carefully identified, specific works of art to support your point, discuss some of the different ways that artists have chosen to depict three dimensions in two in paintings and other two-dimensional pictorial works that were created before 1550 and have been discussed in class in the first half of the semester. Demonstrate your knowledge both of the terminology of pictorial space and of the historical development of pictorial art. You may outline your answer before beginning to write. If you want to learn more check out hsm law

Part 4

 This is probably the hardest part of the Exam, but it’s only for 10%.

Tip: look up similar artistic styles that match all the pictures in the review. You Should also look up other works done by the same artist, that way you can get a sense of that particular artist’s style. If there are no names attributed to the work, pinpointing the date and location of artwork could go a long way.

This could be found in syllabus:

 Two slides you have not seen before are projected. Using comparisons with known works, you are asked to place one of the two works shown in the proper context of time, place, style, function and authorship.If you want to learn more check out stephen small nyu

Death Mask of Tutankhamen and the Pyramids of Giza 1-38 and 1-26, 1-27 We also discuss several other topics like spa 204 study guide

-Unknown Sculptor -Limestone

-1323 BCE -Pyramid of Menkaure (2490-2472)BCE -Beaten gold/inlaid with -Pyramid of Khafre (2520-2494)BCE Semiprecious stone -Pyramid of Khufu (2551-2528)BCE  -Architect: Hemiunu or Hemon

Khafre Enthroned and Cycladic Female Figurine from Syros 1-28 and 2-2 If you want to learn more check out christina thompson utd

- 2520-2494 BCE - 2600-2300 BCE - Made from Diorite - Made from marble - Unknown sculptor - Unknown Sculptor

“Lady of Auxerre” and Kroisos (the Anavysos Kroisos) 2-15 and 2-17

- First stone sculpture since mycenaean - 530 BCE

- 650-625 BCE - Made from Marble

- Limestone - Unknown Sculptor

- From Crete, probably Eleutherna - from Anavysos, Greece 2-31 and 2-35 Kritios Boy (left) and Doryphoros (Spear-Bearer of Polykleitos) (right)

- From Athens, Greece - 450-440 BCE

- Kritios Boy - Roman copy of a bronze statue

- 480 BCE - Made from marble

- Made from Marble - Polykleitos is the sculptor -Unknown Sculptor

Hermes and the Infant Dionysos by Praxiteles Dying Gaul 2-48 and 2-54

- 340 BCE copy of marble statue - 230-220 BCE

- Original is 330-270 BCE - Roman copy of a bronze statue - Made from marble - Made from marble - The sculptor is Praxiteles - Sculptor is Epigonos

Nike of Samothrace and Augustus from Primaporta 2-55 and 3-25

- 190 BCE - 20 BCE

- Made from Marble - Made from marble - unknown Sculptor - Unknown artists

- From Samothrace, Greece - Primaporta, italy

Doric and Ionic Orders (2-20, box page 57)

The Parthenon, Athens 2-1

- 447-438 BCE

- Architects : Iktinos &

Kallikrates

- Was made from Pentelic marble

- Acropolis, Athens, Greece

Parthenon Plan and Parthenon, Interior, Statue by Phidias 2-37 and 2-1c

- Plan of parthenon - sculptor is Phidias - 447-432 BCE - made from gold and ivory - Architects: Iktinos & Kallikrates - 447 -438 BCE - Acropolis, Athens, Greece - Acropolis, Athens, Greece

Temple of Athena Nike 2-43 and Not Illustrated

- Architect: kallikrates

- 427-424 BCE

- Acropolis, Athens, Greece

- Completed in 420 BCE

Corbeled Arch (see Mycenae, 2-10, 11, 12)

2-10

- Lion Gate

 - Mycenae, greece

 - 1300-1250 BCE

 - Limestone

2-11

- Exterior of the Treasury Of

atreus

- Mycenae, Greece

- 1300-1250 BCE

2-12

- Interior of the treasury of

Atreus

- 1300-1250 BCE

- Mycenae, Greece

“Treasure of Atreus,” Mycenae 2-11 and 2-12

2-11 2-12

- Exterior of the Treasury Of Atreus - Interior of the treasury of Atreus

- Mycenae, Greece - Mycenae, Greece - 1300-1250 BCE - 1300-1250 BCE

Pont du Gard at Nimes and Arch, Vault and Dome Diagrams 3-29 and 3-15 (Box Page 92)

- Roman Engineers

- 16 BCE

- Soft yellow limestone

- Highest part made out of breeze

blocks and mortar

 - Made from mixed concrete Pantheon, Rome 3-15 d, 3-38, 3-39, 3-40, (Box Page 106)

- 118-125 CE

- Rome, Italy

- Emperor Hadrian / Hadrian’s engineers

- Concrete of varied composition

- Basalt

- Pumice

Pantheon, Rome, 3-40)

Interior of Pantheon Yakshi from Sanchi and Cave Painting from Ajanta 17-5 (and Box page 465) 17-8

- Unknown sculptor - UNknown painters - Mid 1st century BCE-Early 1st Century BCE - Ajanta, India - Sanchi India - 2nd half of fifth century - Depict fertility and vegetation - Bodhisattva Padmapani - Sandstone - Wall Painting

Shiva Nataraja 17-16

- Tamil Nadu, India

- 1100

- Bronze

- Unknown artist

Old St. Peter’s and Typical Basilica Church (Rome, Santa Sabina) 4-3, 4 and compare 4-3

-Rome Italy

- begun in 319

-Restored plan of Old Saint Peter

-Rome, Italy

-319

-closely follows the plans of Roman Basilica

Apse of Saint Apollinaris in Classe, Ravenna, with Mosaic Decoration (left) Not illustrated and Good Shepherd from Galla Placidia tomb, Ravenna (right) 4-7

-mosaic

-mosaic -425

-533-549 -

Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes, from Saint Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna 4-8

- Mosaic

- Ravenna, Italy

- 504

- Unknown artist

Emperor Jus<nian, Bishop Maximianus and Attendants San Vitale, Ravenna 4-17

-mosaic

-547

-on north wall of the apse

San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy

Hypostyle Interior, Great Mosque of Córdoba Dome in front of the Mihrab, Córdoba 5-7 and 5-8

-Cordoba Spain -Cordoba, Spain

-8th -10th centuries -961-965

-voussoirs alternate colors -Islamic design

Great Mosque of Qayrawan (Kairouan) 5-5 and Box, Page 147

- Kairouan, Tunisia

- 836-875

- Resembles the layout of

Muhammad's house in Medina

- Architect: Unknown

Ivory Pyxis of al-Mughira, from Medina al-Zahra 5-14

-Ivory

- 968

- Unknown artist

- from medina, al-zahra, in cordoba spain

Conques, Church of Ste-Foi and Reliquary of Ste-Foi Not Illustrated and 6-16 (Box Page 170)

-Romanesque style

-11-12 century

- 10th-early 11th century

- Gold, silver gilt, jewels and cameos

- Contains Ste.foy skull

Church of St. Sernin, Toulouse 6-17 and 6-18

-Toulouse, France

-1070-1120

-constructed mostly from brick

-Leader/Architect:Canon Raymond Gayrard

Interior of St. Sernin at Toulouse 6-19

Romanesque Portal and Trumeau at Moissac 6-21 (Box Page 173) and 6-22

- Trumeau at Moissac

- 1115-1130

- marble

Tympanum by Gislebertus at Autun 6-23 and Box Page 175

- Last judgement

- Gislebertus is the

artist

- Marble

- 1120-1135

Gothic Ribbed Vault (7-4 and Box page 190)

Cutaway of a Gothic Cathedral (7-8 and Box page 193)

West Front of Chartres Cathedral (Not Illustrated) West Portals of Chartres Cathedral (7-5, 7-6)

-1145-1155

- limestone & rock

- Limestone & Rock

- 1194-1220

- Unknown architect

Jamb Figures from West Front, Royal Portal, , Chartres Cathedral (7-6) Plan of Chartres Cathedral (7-10)

Aerial View of Chartres Cathedral (Not Illustrated)

Interior, Nave of Chartres Cathedral (7-9) North Transept Rose Window, Chartres (7-11 and Box page 195)

-1220 -1194

Chartres Cathedral South Transept Portal, St. Theodore 7-12

- 1230

- Sandstone

Nave of Amiens Cathedral (7-13) West Front of Reims Cathedral (7-1)

-Architects : Robert de Luzarches -Architects: Jean d'orbais  Thomas de Cormount - Jean Le Loup  Renaud de Cormont -Gaucher de Reims

-1220 -Bernard de soissons -France -France

-sandstone - 1211-1290 -stone/masonry work (safer answer) - Limestone

Salisbury Cathedral Aerial View (7-21) and Plan (Not Illustrated))

- 1220-1258

- West facade:1265

- Spire : 1320-1330

- Stone

- Architects: Richard Poore

 Elias of Dereham

Nave of Salisbury Cathedral (7-22)

- 1220-1258

Fan Vault, Chapel of henry VII, Westminster Abbey, London 7-23

- Architects: Robert and

William Vertue

- 1503-1519

- Limestone

German Gothic Hall-Church (Not Illustrated)

Statues of Ekkehard and Uta, Naumburg Cathedral 7-26

-Painted limestone

- 1249-1255

- Donor States (unknown artist)

Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence, Italy Exterior (7-38) and Interior (Not Illustrated)

- Architect: Arnolfo di cambio and others

- Campanile: designed by Giotto di bondhure

- 1296-1334

- Masonry & stone

Madonna Enthroned by Cimabue (7-29) Madonna Enthroned (detail) by Duccio (7-33)

- Artist: Cimabue

- Tempera and gold leaf on wood

- 1280-1290

- Madonna enthroned with angels and

- prophets

-Virgin and child enthroned with saints

- Tempera on gold leaf on wood

- Artist is Duccio di Buoninsegna

- Siena, Italy

- 1308-1311

Madonna Enthroned by Giotto (7-30)

- Giotto di Bondone

- Tempera and gold leaf on wood

- 1310

- Florence, Italy

Renaissance Linear Perspec<ve (compare 8-16 and Box, page 232) *Look in the book. (This may be a history question)

Mantegna, St. James led to his Execu<on, Eremitani, Padua (Not Illustrated) and Dead Christ (8-40)

- Saint James led to Martyrdom - Foreshortened Christ - Andrea Mantegna - 1500

- 1454-1457 - Tempera on Canvas

- Padua, Italy -

- Ovetari Chapel, Church of the Eremitani

Castagno, Last Supper (8-24)

- Artist: Andrea del Castagno

- Frescoe

- 1447

Filippo Lippi, Madonna and Child with Angels (8-25) Raphael Sanzio, Madonna of the Meadows (9-5)

-Raphael

-Madonna and child with angels - oil on wood -Tempera on wood - 1505-1506 -Fra Filippo Lippi

- 1460-1465

Lorenzetti, Good Government Frescoes, Siena (comp. 7-36)

-Effects of good government in the city and the country

- Artist: Ambrogio Lorenzetti

-Frescoe

- 1338-1339

- Siena, Italy

Donatello, Gattamelata (8-19) and Verrocchio, Bartolomeo Colleoni (Not Illustrated)

-Equestrian statue of Erasmo da Narni

-Artist: Donatello

-1445-1453

-Bronze

-Piazza del Santo, Padua, Italy

-Equestrian Monument of Bartolommeo

Colleoni

-Andrea del Verrocchio

- 1483- 1488

-Bronze

Donatello, David (8-16)

-Artist: Donatello

- 1440-1460

- Bronze

- Palazzo Medici, Florence, Italy

Brunelleschi, Pazzi Chapel, Florence (8-31 and 8-32)

-Architect: Filippo Brunelleschi Same for interior -1433

-Santa Croce, Florence Italy

Albert, Church of St. Andrea, mantua (8-36 and 8-37)

- Architect: Leon Battista Same for Interior

- Designed in 1470

- Begun 1472

- Mantua, Italy

Baptistery Door Competition Panels by Brunelleschi and Ghiberti (8-13 and 8-14)

- Architect: Filippo Brunelleschi - Lorenzo Ghiberti - Florence, Italy - Florence, Italy - 1401-1402 - 1401-1402 - Gilded Bronze - Gilded Bronze

Botticelli, Birth of Venus (8-27)

- Birth of Venus

- Artist: Sandro Botticelli

- Tempera on Canvas

- 1484-1486

- Florence

Leonardo da Vinci, Notebook Drawing (Not Illustrated) and Mona Lisa (9-4)

- Leonardo da vinci

Ask Professor About Da Vinci’s Notes -1503-1505

 - Oil on wood

Raphael, School of Athens, Va<can (9-6)

- School of Athens

- Raphael

- 1509-1511

- Rome, Italy

- Frescoe

Think of comparing and contrasting the styles of the artwork on the compare and contrast essay

How do you look at style? 

 

● Time (i.e.earlier/later) ● Place (e.g. India/Egyptian)

What is style of time? 

 

● Early

○ A chair made with older materials e.g. wood

○ Simple design

● Later

○ Chair made with newer materials e.g. leather and steel ○ Complex design

What is style of place? 

 

● Two made in the exact same time

○ Chair made in Mass. USA

■ Wood

■ Cylindrical legs

■ Woven seat

○ Chair made in Palace of Versailles. France

■ Silk

■ Hard wood/ painted w/ gold

■ Ledge

➢ On looking chair (for poker)

● These two chairs can tell an enormous amount of information ○ The Elite in Mass.(1700)

■ Puritanical society

■ Personal comfort not tolerated

○ The Elite in France

■ Artist worked for comfort

■ Chair for card play

■ Price no object(woven silk)

● Chair said a lot about society, society tells a lot about chair  What is the style of the individual artist? (more refined) 

 

● If the design of an artist is recognizable then a name could be placed on these chairs

○ Since these chairs were common place or the fashion trend

Have these words in mind while comparing the two artworks.

What some vocab words of Style? 

● The Artist attempt to make work seem 3-D on a 2-D surface ○ Shallow Pictorial Space (e.g. horizontal organization perpendicular to viewer, with figures alongside each other in a row, facing directly in front of viewer)

■ Tends to have even lighting

○ Deep Pictorial Space - sometimes incorporated with vertical lines - (e.g. lines and planes leading diagonal to the back of the painting/artwork )

■ Tends to have theatrical lighting

○ Affecting Component of artwork ( the ability of the artwork to inspire an emotional reaction in viewer e.g. visceral images )

■ Film

■ Opera

○ Linear Approach→the capture of almost all the impact in artwork by paying attention to details using in pencil or black and white ○ Painterly Approach→conceptualized in terms of color instead of lines (

basically similar effect as linear except with color)

○ Relationship of artwork to frame 

■ How generous the space is

➢ Crowed

➢ Free o/ Open

● Stylization→the way an artist depict things with shortcuts

● Tactility→ the ability of an artist to emphasize the different

textures in the artwork (i.e.the touchy feely aspect - Could the view touch or feel the cloth just by looking at it?)

● Motion→

○ Static composition

➢ Plain

➢ Single focus (unified)

○ Dynamic composition

➢ Recession

➢ Multi. focus

● Sexual Response→style of human body changes

○ Has to do with the way we have been manipulated visually by ■ Artist

■ Media

■ Etc.

○ Different ways of looking at nature ( conditioned in this way [by the artist, Media, Etc.] )

■ Is it beautiful?

■ Ugly?

■ Use to seeing it?

■ Seen it for the first time?

Have these concepts in mind while analyzing the sculpture

 Sculpture 

 Why should one man choose to create a work of sculpture rather than a painting?  What is the fundamental difference in the way the sculptor gives form to his  ideas/feelings? And the way of the painter? 

 

● Sculptors haves an impulse to express work in 3-D

● Painters work on 2-D surface, yet consider space and depth while expressing themselves

Painter

● Medium forces them to use illusion or suggestion.

Medium: The physical material with which an artist works (marble, clay, ink, oil paint, steel, concrete etc.)according to J.S. Smithe in  

Sculptor

● Has no restriction

● Medium is already in 3-D

Why should a piece of sculpture make us very conscious of spatial dimension, when  many other objects which are 3-D do not?

● A piece of sculpture creates aura 

Aura: an atmosphere in which it exists and in which every form seems particularly important.

● Aura is dependent on solid & space

● Solid object created space

● Created space acts upon the object

What are the two general treatments of space? 

● Closed space

○ Work tends to be confined

○ Exhibits inward form

○ Demands little of surrounding space

○ Individual parts were planes creating movement from one part to another

○ Causes us to respond →to see the art as whole

○ Type of medium will allow for certain applications

Plane: a flat surface...convenient for reducing complex 3-D bodies for analyzing them

● Open space

○ Much larger

○ Expanding

○ Demands little of surrounding space

○ Relies on movement which relates to different parts of sculpture ○ As sculptor modulates movement within statue, he can also modulate point of view

■ Sculptor can control extent and character of surrounding space

What are two possible way of achieving a sculpture? 

● Subtract material (carving stone e.g. marble)

● Add material (e.g. made in clay or wax before cast in bronze) What are the four principal branches of technique? 

1. Carving

2. Modeling

3. Casting

4. Construction

Have these ideas in mind when looking at architecture

The first part here could be a good question for the history part of the exam, such as the evolution of architecture

Intro to Architecture and its Vocab

What are the fundamental questions in architecture?

● Stability ( Strong, durable)

● Usefulness (designed for a purpose)

● Beauty (attractive)

 Wide Spectrum

Housing Monuments

Natural Architecture

● Cave

○ Designed by nature

○ Pro

■ Beautiful/decorated

■ Provides Warmth and Protection

■ Cool in the summer months

■ Been there for a long time

○ Con

■ No light

■ Susceptible to destruction by earthquakes based on location Architecture of nomadic people

● Tent (Usually of nomadic people)

○ Pros

■ portable/light

■ Consist of poles

■ Wool

● Keeps most of rain/wind

● Pretty Textiles

■ Safer in earthquake

○ Cons

■ Susceptible to fire

■ “ ” carnivorous animals

Two kinds of Tents

Fabric Yurt

● Yurt

○ Pros

■ Made of sticks

■ String

■ Felt

■ Keeps out rain, wind, and snow

■ Insulation

○ Cons

■ Fire

■ Carnivorous animals

Wooden Architecture

● Wooden Architecture

○ Pros

■ Found where there is an abundance of wood

■ Cheap

■ Stable/sturdy

■ Easy to cut

■ Renewable to a certain extent

■ Light weight

■ Easy to cut

■ Tensile Strength

○ Cons

■ Not permanent

● Not fire-proof

■ Susceptible to moisture

● Wood rots

■ Attractive to insects

● Wood ants

● Termites

● The longest lasting wooden structure is the buddhist temple of Horyuji (19-5 in Gardner’s art through the ages fourth edition)

● Ely Cathedral

○ Has wooden trusses

○ Intricately designed

● Half-timber structure

○ The combination of wood and other materials (e.g. gravel, cement, concrete, etc.)

■ This combination makes structure fire-proof and strong (with tensile strength from wood)

Masonry Architecture

● Put together out of small pieces

○ Bricks

■ Carved stone

■ Artificial stone

■ Usually, not always, made in same shape

○ Can sometimes be glued together by cement/mortar

● Rupestrian architecture

○ A cliff that is carved into to form buildings

○ Man-made carve

○ Mesa Verde (Colorado) (20-21 in Gardner’s art through the ages fourth edition)

■ Built buildings out of small stones underneath cliff

■ Buildings consist of masonry

● Pyramids (Artificial Caves)

○ Very stable

○ Useless

● Walls

○ Can be very complicated

■ Curtains Walls (Built around a space)

● Keep people in/out

● Can be used for sacred space for religious rituals

■ Adobe Walls (Al-Tawba)

● Made out of all kinds of Masonry

● Consist of burned limestone with gravel

● Thick walls at bottom

● Small windows

● Not resistant to water

■ Rubble Walls

● Concept of fitting stones together

● Not visually appealing

● Not stable

■ Cyclopean Walls

● The idea of taking large stones, carve them in shape

● Each stone weighs many tons

● If a wall slants it’s referred to as battered 

Batter: thicker at base, thinner at top

● Resistant to earthquakes

● Hard to climb

● Hard to infiltrate

● Reached its peak of design in Japan

● Ashlar Walls

● Composed of rectangular blocks of stone

● Stones a laid in courses

● Composed of cubic rectangular

 Two kinds of Ashlar Walls

Dry Wet Ashlar Ashlar Walls Walls

DAW

● No mortar

WAW

● Cheap

● With mortar

What are three types of

brick layer bonds?

● Common

● English

● Flemish

Dry masonry and the use of cramps/clamps

● Pros

○ Makes wall earthquake resistant

● Cons

○ Metal can get rusty

Architectural Veneer

● Ugly Material is covered with beautiful material (textile design)

Post and Lintel Architecture (e.g. Salisbury Plain, Willshire, England 1-9 in Gardner’s art through the ages fourth edition)

● The widerer the doorway the wider and thicker the lintel must be. ● Resistance to compression is great

● Resistance to torquition sucks

● Lintel doesn’t do well with stone on top of it

○ Designed to hold certain amount of weight

Post vs. Column

● Carved wooden post is considered a column

● (1-21, 1-33, 1-34 of Gardner’s art through the ages fourth edition) ● Colonnade

○ Bunch of columns

○ Cylindrical Post

Greek Temple

● Applies Post and Lintel Concept

● Ground plan: map of building (blueprint)

Applying the Post and Lintel Concepts in the Greek Temple

Greek Temple

● House for a god, not for worship

● General formula for number of columns in the exterior of building ○ Short side, short side + short side + 1 = longs side (e.g. 6, 6+6+1=13) ● Colonnade surrounds inner room

● Shallow roof (pediment) for rain

● People brought gifts to gods/statues

● Was meant to hold statues

● Central part is cella (i.e.building within a building) ● Inviting

● Platform (bigger the building, the bigger the steps) ● Columns

○ Carved stripes

○ Light creates shadow which makes building seem taller ● Style here refers to the column

● Stylobate: base

● Shaft: slender aspect of column

Arcuated Structured System

● Corbels ( in the wall itself)

● Arches

● Vaults (cover the space)

Corbels

● Ashlar wall

● Needs a door

● Extremely thick wall

Arch (series of stone wedges)

● Springing

● Voussoirs

● Keystone @ top

● Buttress

Architecture Vacob:

Piers:

● Vertical

● Made of stone

● Rectanglar

Spandel:

● Space between arches

Soffit:

● Depth of arch

Groin Vault:

● Two tunnel vaults joining at right angle ● Buttress at corners

Hemispherical Vault:

● A.k.a. Dome

● Made of concrete

● Thick walls

● All Pressure concentrated at top circle

The squinch

● Arch on each side

● Octagon base at the top

○ # of sides depends on multiples of 8

Iconography : Study of icons ; interpretation of symbols

Apse of Saint Apollinaris

Halo: Signifies his saint status

Scarf: signifies his holiness

Sheep: signifies apostles of christ

Angel: Matthew

Eagle: Mark

Ox:Luke

Lion:John

People didn’t know how to read so they used the pictures

Christ:

● King of heaven

● Wearing greek/roman clothes

Miracle of Loaves and fishes

● Jesus is at the center

● Wearing purple robe

● Halo

Ile de France

● Gothics invented there

● First Gothic was in Monastery

● Romanesque was well known

○ Some buildings incorporate a lot, others a little

Regional Gothic style

● Where the region makes a series of collaborative choices pertaining to the structure of the buildings

● Has to do with the wishes of local patrons ( people value familiarity)

Gothic spreads all over Europe

● Ex. South of Spain

○ Balkans

○ All of Europe

There was even a come-back of the style in the 1900’s on U.S soil

Archetypes (one of a kind)

● Certain archetypes embodies all major characteristics of a style, yet serves as a signature for a region or culture

○ English Cathedrals

■ Salisbury Cathedral

● Flying buttress

● Church shaped like a cross

● Two transepts(choir is between them)

● Tracery

● One spire

● Ribbed vaults

● Stain glass

● Has a cloister (reserved for chapter)

● A lot of land

● Contains arcade on all sides

● “ ” tracery

● Octogonal shaped chapter house on east side

● Nice and Spacious

● Form of quad in medieval university

● Germ of university architecture

● Designed in on a close

● Park-like environment

● Governed by Bishop and Chapter

● Wider in west front than high

● East End is squared off (no radiating chapels)

● There’s no ambulatory

● English main focus is on horizontal length not vertical

height

● Holds fewer people(structure not as wide)

Plans of Salisbury and Chartres compared

Marbury, St. Elizabeth’s Church (not really a cathedral)

○ Big tower on west front

○ Chevet vaults on apse and both transepts

○ No lintel roof

○ No flying buttress

○ No triforium

○ Aisle same height as Nave

○ Thin piers/heavy

○ Clearstory on the aisles

○ Arches go to top of Nave

○ Flat roof

German Hall Churches in Dinkelsbuhl and Nordlingen

○ Did away with transept

○ Romanesque tower on west front

○ Roof covers all of Nave and aisles

○ Aisle same height as nave

○ Complicated and beautiful vaults

● Very famous Cathedral in Germany (not on exam)

■ Cologne Cathedral

● Highest Nave in 155ft all of Europe

● German Gothic Sculpture Nambury & Bamberg

○ Had paint on sculptures

○ More classical with greek inspiration

○ Secular > Sacred

○ Usually gothic canopies are involved

Gothic Architecture in Italy (the least gothic)

● Wasn’t comfortable with Gothic Style

● Disliked big windows

○ Not big on stained glass

● More into Frescoes

● Liked working in...in many colors

● Disliked spires

○ Earthquake prone area

● Ex. Orvieto Cathedral

○ Colored marble

○ Small rose windows

○ Mosaics

○ Pinnacles at top

○ Small windows

○ Contains nave

○ transepts

○ Aisles contains Absidioles

○ No vaults

■ Trusses instead

○ Ashlar course of black/white stone

○ One vault at apse

● Ex. Florence Cathedral (Duomo) 13th century

○ Bell tower (7-8ft away from Cathedral)

○ Octogonal building ( for baptism for baptistery) (In front of Cathedral)

○ Nave

○ Dedicated to St. John

○ Low rise roof

○ Huge Octagon with dome at crossing

■ Covered with color marble

■ Red-brick tiles

■ Metal chain around it for support

○ Interior

■ Round windows

■ Large bays

■ Light weight stone

■ No triforium

■ Buttress built into the walls

Style never stands still

History

● Spread of Islam originated in the peninsula of Saudi Arabia ● Everywhere was dominated by Islam in those first few decades, ● For the exception of Spain, Islam still had some influences today ○ Muhammed died in 631

○ Around year 700-750, Islam has control over North Africa, Western Europe, Poitiers in France,as far as the Indus river

● Islam in middle ages was part of western tradition

○ Until 1492,one of the last Islamic Rulers, Islam was post by( i.e. post-islamic )

○ Mediterranean was a safe and easy way to navigate from North to South and east to west in that area

Islam: Submission (i.e. to agree to do what God wants you to do) ● Part of Monotheistic trio

● Monotheistic ( considered close to each other) (Abrahamic faiths) ○ Judaism

○ Christianity

○ Islam

○ Considered neighboring cultures ( live close to each other and cross-fertilize)

● Adheres a sacred text: Quran (recitation of God’s word)

○ Quran means recitation (i.e. not ink on paper like bible/torah, not something seen but something heard)

○ There is no primary text that the Qu’ran is derived from ○ Person who writes in Qu’ran are calligraphers (calligraphy in greek means beautiful writing)

■ Art from calligraphers is highly regarded in the art realm of Islam

● 5 pillars of Islam

1. Believe with all their hearts (pledge to Islam)

2. Regimented prayer ( 5x a day)

● Prayed directly to god ( no intercession/intercessors/clergy) ● Prayers were short

● Tended to Pray in company of other believers

○ Prayed in a Mosque

1. Fasting

2. Pilgrimage to Mecca (once in lifetime)

3. Help those less fortunate

● Original house of Muhammad

○ In town of Medina

○ In the form of a Roman house ( germ of the idea for house of prayer a.k.a Mosque)

○ People could to prayer at Muhammad's house

How does the artist accomplish this feat?

● The viewer and artist join together in conspiracy to imaging 3-D images, when there’s only two

● Global visual culture

○ People from different places of earth

○ There was a time where people didn’t know what is a right angle

○ People have gotten to point of 3-D of in 2

● Linear Perspective: device used to show 3-D

○ It was largely based on the way we’re socialized

○ 90% of viewing is cultural, the other 10% is developed skill Where is the viewer supposed to be?

● Ex. two different paintings of “Palm Sunday” from Italy around the same time

○ The artist has power to modulates what the viewer should see ○ They can also put viewer in a particular place

● Overlapping (sophisticated way of showing 3-D)

○ The concept of putting figures on top of each other

○ Creates a sense of space

○ Also a sense of focus/importance

● Foreshortening

○ Have to be at proper place and difference

○ The farther away the more sense it made

● Modeling:Showing light on a 3-D object

○ Duplicate by mixing paint correctly the effect that light has on object

○ More white or black

■ Gives a sense of massiveness

■ “ ” weight

■ “ ” space

● Linear Perspective:

○ Eyes must be at a certain level to understand flow of artwork

○ Orthogonals meet a vanishing point

■ Assures surface that is divided into grid with sloped in lines

○ Architectural drawings/paintings

■ Two lines that are parallel will meet at a single paint at infinity

○ Same Ratio

■ Gives accurate view of what’s seen by eye

■ Based on the idea of right angles (architecture)

■ Apparent size is proportional to apparent space (

disappearing orthogonals)

Where is the vanishing point?

● Worm’s eye Perspective

○ Ex. Mantegna’s St. James led to his Execution, Eremitani, Padua

■ Horizon outside of painting

■ Vanishing point outside of painting

■ Looks good for those under level

Rule

● Verticals are always parallel

● Horizontal orthogonals disappear

Atmospheric Perspective

● The further away blurry background

○ The less distinct

○ The less colorful

● Why?

○ Because of

■ Dust

■ Water vapor

■ Exhaust

Evolution of Linear Perspective in artwork (This could be the history question)

● Ex. 1280 image of Madonna

○ Overlapping

○ High point of view

○ No linear perspective

● Ex. 1309 image of Madonna

○ Linear perspective didn’t work

○ Modeling (not consistent)

■ No single light source

○ Overlapping

● Ex. 1310 image of Madonna

○ Modeling

○ Overlapping

○ Higher point of view

● Ex. 1410 image of Madonna ○ Orthogonals on throne

○ Foreshortening

○ Single light source

● Ex. 1455 image of Madonna ○ Open window

○ Modeling is consistent

○ Foreshortening

● Ex. 1506 image of Madonna ○ Missing linear perspective ○ Modeling Atmosphere

○ Atmosphere is dealt with

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