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UH / Biology / BIOL 3332 / Does artificial mean fake?

Does artificial mean fake?

Does artificial mean fake?

Description

School: University of Houston
Department: Biology
Course: Elementary Microbiology
Professor: R. knapp
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Microbiology
Cost: 25
Name: Questions to think about Unit 2 Part I/II
Description: Unit 2: Questions to think about Part I/II Chapters 5-6 Explanation and reasoning for the Questions pertaining to Chapters 5 and 6
Uploaded: 10/19/2016
0 Pages 43 Views 1 Unlocks
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Waturals


Does artificial mean fake?



1 Chapter 9 Transformation : DNA fragments from environment (naked PNA)

Jacquire new genes, metabolism related = adagot to

food source Gran +

Gram - competence factors Type I pilus: grabs fragment, en longation

quorum sensing Hemophillos

cell density


What is an example of a conjugated verb?



Neisseria dependent (ex. Biofilm

PINES

(+) com setence factors activate transcription to create transformasome | transformosome "imports single strand DNA (pore like) If you want to learn more check out What happened to the ming dynasty in 1644?

Sthreshold of competance factors must bemet (enough surrounding

Artificial man directed transformation


How do you check resistance with a multimeter?



- heat shock-creates pores in membrane

- electrical shock (pulse), electrogration - creates pores ( Conjugation 3 involves cell to cell contact +fransfer of DNA

I through sex pills Fi has gene IF factor - fertility factor, how are genespassed on? F = lacks cere) If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of mechanistic organizations?

o Conjugation Specific Genes

- tra genes Granite - sex piller

- relaxosomes

Ori T-transfer

* Look at rolling orde

replication conjugation,

bridge F > integrate into chromosome → Hfr strain

High frequency recombinant Hfr strains can donate gene to reapients

y not likely to become Ft

rolling

Oriv

SEO

Tet résistance -> antibiotic resistance Ffactor - integrated ffactor

excired from host chromosome Selective media to isolate F- (+val) L extra genes → F'plosmid Don't forget about the age old question of What is wireless 2-way radio communications?

bafter the DNA has been transferred from HERS Conjugation Limited to members of Genus (Closly related)

creates partial diploid if recipient has gene already Transduction

infection by virus

genes integrated

• phage carries DNA from prior hot

IL host DNA inserted in capsid lambda phage DNA integrated into hosts. Jott Psite in phage

batt B site in host Prophage forms

Study Soup

SOU

Logro34.0%

livingat

Unit 2 Questions to think About Chapters o What is the decimal reduction time or D Value? What factors affect the D value of a microbial agent? Why aren't cells Killed instantly upon exposure to an anti-microbicel agent? If you want to learn more check out What does meteorology mean?

D-value is the amount of time for the antimicrobial agent to kill 90% of the population. If you want to learn more check out What is the eustachian tube?

Logarithmic Graph 7.007. Since 1o9. (X) = ratio. of population. I

cells y looking for slope based on graph

... Do

y ou 100-4. = 109...(10,000 24 104-10,000... 10%

[minutes) population = 10,000

time to go from 10% = log., (1000) =3 10 = 1000 | 10,000 >1,000 population = 1,000 Don't forget about the age old question of What is a database and why is it beneficial?

E lminute

cells are not killed immediately since antimicrobial

targets specific cell processes to kill the cell takes time (2) Describe physical acents that control microbial growth and the

mechanisms in which they act. Which is most effective in

Killing Spores? Physical]

Commercial - heat steam*

ethanol, iodine, chlorine – damage proteini, lipids, DNA - high pressures

detergents dissolve membranes | - pasteurization

formaldehyde > oxidizing agent starver cells - cold

ethylene oxide (gas) → breaks down metabolic processes -filtration

y aka oxirane cirradiation - breaksdown, kethylene oxide is used in Sterilizing in hospital

G best for killing spores. riolet * albng with extreme heat answer

Steaming

DNA

3 List of commercial disinfectants and their effect on microbes

t seen on page before *

Do microbes become resistant to these agents? What are antibiotics? Where do they originate from?

How does resistance to antibiotics compare to disinfectants?

Microbes cannot become "resistant instead the viability is dependent on the concentration of disinfectant.

Spores t more extreme bacteria= more

disinfectant Antibiotics - originally found in microbes, fungi in their environment normally used to defend itself and foor source.

Alexander Flemics and Penicillia Gahibits cell wall formation)

Resistance in antibiotics had to do with mutated plasmid DNA and microbial survival depends on this mutation natural selection ocwrs, transformation, conjugation , recombinants

survive.

Chapter 6 o What is a virus? describe and define what it is.

What is a vinion? How do phages differ from animal viruses?

Virus- acellular, obligate intracellular parasite.

basic genome in a capsid, some have special features that are specific to their hosto how they replicate.

Virion- complete Virus particle that includes protein coat

(capsid), viral genome, and all extra features 2 What is viral infectivity?

how effective avirus is at replicating itself. Host Range - What cells can this virus infect?

Broad - Specific affects

Vaffects Broad easier to replicate large #of cells specific cells

and survive

Animal Viruses are more complex due to immune system and it's strength, must by pass this for survival,

Bacterial .CRISPR "immune sustem isn't as complex and neither is the cell (does not have to replicate in nucleus)

hemoglutinin glycoproteio Spikes are used for attachment but also act to have the virus blend in to environment.

envelope- protects virus and capsid within, acts as a barrier, glycoproteios found outside.

tegument proteins-found in between envelope and capsid, aid in DNA replication, and contain polymerases and proteases (virus specific.only some)

SE

une system ral. t as complex

cate in

How do Viral Genomes differ among viruses?

*See Baltimore Classification in notes

+ complexity → depends on host, specificity etc

+ prions (viral protein Descripe/compare/contrast viroids and prions

Viroids-"naked RNA, just genome, no capsid Prions- does not contain å "aenomeno

nucleotides, just a viral protein Camino acids) ☺ Structure of a Virus

Complexity of virus ti virion dependent on host, survival

first page of notes (chapter (6)

protein layer (capsids surrounding protecting genome capsids- must interact with cell surface receptors (wo envelope)

1- must be targe enoush to encase genome - proteins encoded ane identical units

Symetric equalateral de Asymetric icosahedral-envelopes Complex viruses helicals glycoprotein often large genome

rotational

symetry icosahedral = 60 basepairs (phage) © What are the criteria for Classifying Viruses ICTV? m O genome composition

size of virion Page 3 capsid symetry znotes 4 host range

I envelope Baltimore Classification: based on genome composition

troute to express messenger RNA

but also oment.

7, acts!

zlope rain nly some)

6 What are the basic steps to any viral life cycle ?

Basic

hemoglutinin Host recognition © genome entry → could enter w/ capsid (large hastcell, animal)

virion assembly → replication process

exit and transmission > off to infect more cells Phage:Lutic + Lyso genic Cycle > Page 2 Notes

Dattachment © entry + degration DNA attachment

Synthesis

2 entry (nodegration of DNA) assembly

@intergration using integrase enzyme lyse cell burst

Mitosis (Host+ virus duplicated) : release examples: cold, flu, AIDS examples: HIV Herpes, chicken pox

Slow release exit

- phase replicates, does not kill hast cell → cell grows slowly - Does not integrate DNA into host genome (difference from Lyso.)

ex. M13 filametous phase

CRISPR:Clustered regularly interspaced short pallindromic repeats

L'immune system for bacteria, viral DNA fragment is cleared then inserted into bacterial chromosome for bateria cell to "remember vicus. If virus attacks again, CAS CRNA

will target and inactivate the vicus's DNA

@ Animal Virus Life Cycle a tropism - What is the preferred or required hostcell

for replication. Tissue Specificity

b) uncoating- how the virus enters the host

o direct penetration 2) membrane fusion < endo oytosis

Human Papilloma virus (HPV)

-DNA double strand - oncogenic → rapid growth (Keratinocytes) - stable form Basal - Uses DNA polymerase from Host - endocytosis - Shedding of epithelial cells releases virion-> lysogenic

Picornavirus - Single Stranded,+RNA

FORD B Reze CRNA dependent RNA polymerase

- Group V (notes) - polio, rhinoviros

Polymerase

Retrovirus

- single stranded +RNA PARD-DNA → EDNA +RNA → virion

reverse transcriptase > Host DNA polymerase → HOST RNA d) BNA Dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP).

-Enzyme encoded in genome of all RNA containing

viruses (except for retrovirus), sense -RNA - catalyzes Synthesis of complimentary RNA strand

Study SOU

e) Reverse Transcriptase

Case = enzyme tenzyme responsible for catalyzing the synthesis of DNA

from RNA template inserted into chromosome - Retroviruses *HIV

f) Envelope

Flipid bilayer membrane that surrounds virus capsids. -derived from host cell membrane and glycoproteini - helps virus by pass host's immune system -adaptive to environment blend) 1 identify and bind

G does not survive outside the hostcell to host membrane

for long jumps from cell to cell receptor sites

a

Infe capsid fuse with host Budding ..

and virus membrane - virus uses host cells

membrane to form envelope, "disguise itself outsideahost - viral receptors attach to outside of part of bostcell for

a "quick exit - cell does not die immediately but instead it is slow - antiviral responses detect dead cell

like a Small hole

in ball

h

Hostcell Defences

• Genetic mutations

immune system. — innate: inferons

adaptive antibodies

• RNA can block translation apoptosis: Cell senses attack and kills itself

- makes sure mutated cell isn't reproduced

Waturals

1 Chapter 9 Transformation : DNA fragments from environment (naked PNA)

Jacquire new genes, metabolism related = adagot to

food source Gran +

Gram - competence factors Type I pilus: grabs fragment, en longation

quorum sensing Hemophillos

cell density

Neisseria dependent (ex. Biofilm

PINES

(+) com setence factors activate transcription to create transformasome | transformosome "imports single strand DNA (pore like)

Sthreshold of competance factors must bemet (enough surrounding

Artificial man directed transformation

- heat shock-creates pores in membrane

- electrical shock (pulse), electrogration - creates pores ( Conjugation 3 involves cell to cell contact +fransfer of DNA

I through sex pills Fi has gene IF factor - fertility factor, how are genespassed on? F = lacks cere)

o Conjugation Specific Genes

- tra genes Granite - sex piller

- relaxosomes

Ori T-transfer

* Look at rolling orde

replication conjugation,

bridge F > integrate into chromosome → Hfr strain

High frequency recombinant Hfr strains can donate gene to reapients

y not likely to become Ft

rolling

Oriv

SEO

Tet résistance -> antibiotic resistance Ffactor - integrated ffactor

excired from host chromosome Selective media to isolate F- (+val) L extra genes → F'plosmid

bafter the DNA has been transferred from HERS Conjugation Limited to members of Genus (Closly related)

creates partial diploid if recipient has gene already Transduction

infection by virus

genes integrated

• phage carries DNA from prior hot

IL host DNA inserted in capsid lambda phage DNA integrated into hosts. Jott Psite in phage

batt B site in host Prophage forms

Study Soup

SOU

Logro34.0%

livingat

Unit 2 Questions to think About Chapters o What is the decimal reduction time or D Value? What factors affect the D value of a microbial agent? Why aren't cells Killed instantly upon exposure to an anti-microbicel agent?

D-value is the amount of time for the antimicrobial agent to kill 90% of the population.

Logarithmic Graph 7.007. Since 1o9. (X) = ratio. of population. I

cells y looking for slope based on graph

... Do

y ou 100-4. = 109...(10,000 24 104-10,000... 10%

[minutes) population = 10,000

time to go from 10% = log., (1000) =3 10 = 1000 | 10,000 >1,000 population = 1,000

E lminute

cells are not killed immediately since antimicrobial

targets specific cell processes to kill the cell takes time (2) Describe physical acents that control microbial growth and the

mechanisms in which they act. Which is most effective in

Killing Spores? Physical]

Commercial - heat steam*

ethanol, iodine, chlorine – damage proteini, lipids, DNA - high pressures

detergents dissolve membranes | - pasteurization

formaldehyde > oxidizing agent starver cells - cold

ethylene oxide (gas) → breaks down metabolic processes -filtration

y aka oxirane cirradiation - breaksdown, kethylene oxide is used in Sterilizing in hospital

G best for killing spores. riolet * albng with extreme heat answer

Steaming

DNA

3 List of commercial disinfectants and their effect on microbes

t seen on page before *

Do microbes become resistant to these agents? What are antibiotics? Where do they originate from?

How does resistance to antibiotics compare to disinfectants?

Microbes cannot become "resistant instead the viability is dependent on the concentration of disinfectant.

Spores t more extreme bacteria= more

disinfectant Antibiotics - originally found in microbes, fungi in their environment normally used to defend itself and foor source.

Alexander Flemics and Penicillia Gahibits cell wall formation)

Resistance in antibiotics had to do with mutated plasmid DNA and microbial survival depends on this mutation natural selection ocwrs, transformation, conjugation , recombinants

survive.

Chapter 6 o What is a virus? describe and define what it is.

What is a vinion? How do phages differ from animal viruses?

Virus- acellular, obligate intracellular parasite.

basic genome in a capsid, some have special features that are specific to their hosto how they replicate.

Virion- complete Virus particle that includes protein coat

(capsid), viral genome, and all extra features 2 What is viral infectivity?

how effective avirus is at replicating itself. Host Range - What cells can this virus infect?

Broad - Specific affects

Vaffects Broad easier to replicate large #of cells specific cells

and survive

Animal Viruses are more complex due to immune system and it's strength, must by pass this for survival,

Bacterial .CRISPR "immune sustem isn't as complex and neither is the cell (does not have to replicate in nucleus)

hemoglutinin glycoproteio Spikes are used for attachment but also act to have the virus blend in to environment.

envelope- protects virus and capsid within, acts as a barrier, glycoproteios found outside.

tegument proteins-found in between envelope and capsid, aid in DNA replication, and contain polymerases and proteases (virus specific.only some)

SE

une system ral. t as complex

cate in

How do Viral Genomes differ among viruses?

*See Baltimore Classification in notes

+ complexity → depends on host, specificity etc

+ prions (viral protein Descripe/compare/contrast viroids and prions

Viroids-"naked RNA, just genome, no capsid Prions- does not contain å "aenomeno

nucleotides, just a viral protein Camino acids) ☺ Structure of a Virus

Complexity of virus ti virion dependent on host, survival

first page of notes (chapter (6)

protein layer (capsids surrounding protecting genome capsids- must interact with cell surface receptors (wo envelope)

1- must be targe enoush to encase genome - proteins encoded ane identical units

Symetric equalateral de Asymetric icosahedral-envelopes Complex viruses helicals glycoprotein often large genome

rotational

symetry icosahedral = 60 basepairs (phage) © What are the criteria for Classifying Viruses ICTV? m O genome composition

size of virion Page 3 capsid symetry znotes 4 host range

I envelope Baltimore Classification: based on genome composition

troute to express messenger RNA

but also oment.

7, acts!

zlope rain nly some)

6 What are the basic steps to any viral life cycle ?

Basic

hemoglutinin Host recognition © genome entry → could enter w/ capsid (large hastcell, animal)

virion assembly → replication process

exit and transmission > off to infect more cells Phage:Lutic + Lyso genic Cycle > Page 2 Notes

Dattachment © entry + degration DNA attachment

Synthesis

2 entry (nodegration of DNA) assembly

@intergration using integrase enzyme lyse cell burst

Mitosis (Host+ virus duplicated) : release examples: cold, flu, AIDS examples: HIV Herpes, chicken pox

Slow release exit

- phase replicates, does not kill hast cell → cell grows slowly - Does not integrate DNA into host genome (difference from Lyso.)

ex. M13 filametous phase

CRISPR:Clustered regularly interspaced short pallindromic repeats

L'immune system for bacteria, viral DNA fragment is cleared then inserted into bacterial chromosome for bateria cell to "remember vicus. If virus attacks again, CAS CRNA

will target and inactivate the vicus's DNA

@ Animal Virus Life Cycle a tropism - What is the preferred or required hostcell

for replication. Tissue Specificity

b) uncoating- how the virus enters the host

o direct penetration 2) membrane fusion < endo oytosis

Human Papilloma virus (HPV)

-DNA double strand - oncogenic → rapid growth (Keratinocytes) - stable form Basal - Uses DNA polymerase from Host - endocytosis - Shedding of epithelial cells releases virion-> lysogenic

Picornavirus - Single Stranded,+RNA

FORD B Reze CRNA dependent RNA polymerase

- Group V (notes) - polio, rhinoviros

Polymerase

Retrovirus

- single stranded +RNA PARD-DNA → EDNA +RNA → virion

reverse transcriptase > Host DNA polymerase → HOST RNA d) BNA Dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP).

-Enzyme encoded in genome of all RNA containing

viruses (except for retrovirus), sense -RNA - catalyzes Synthesis of complimentary RNA strand

Study SOU

e) Reverse Transcriptase

Case = enzyme tenzyme responsible for catalyzing the synthesis of DNA

from RNA template inserted into chromosome - Retroviruses *HIV

f) Envelope

Flipid bilayer membrane that surrounds virus capsids. -derived from host cell membrane and glycoproteini - helps virus by pass host's immune system -adaptive to environment blend) 1 identify and bind

G does not survive outside the hostcell to host membrane

for long jumps from cell to cell receptor sites

a

Infe capsid fuse with host Budding ..

and virus membrane - virus uses host cells

membrane to form envelope, "disguise itself outsideahost - viral receptors attach to outside of part of bostcell for

a "quick exit - cell does not die immediately but instead it is slow - antiviral responses detect dead cell

like a Small hole

in ball

h

Hostcell Defences

• Genetic mutations

immune system. — innate: inferons

adaptive antibodies

• RNA can block translation apoptosis: Cell senses attack and kills itself

- makes sure mutated cell isn't reproduced

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