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Study Guide for Test 2

by: Emily

Study Guide for Test 2 PSY 2012


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This covers chapters 3,4,5, and 11
General Psychology
Dr. Hansen
Study Guide
sensation and perception, consciousness, emotion, motivation and emotion, Biological Psychology
50 ?




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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily on Tuesday October 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2012 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Hansen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 10/18/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 3: Biological Psychology  What are the three main types of neurons? 1. Sensory neurons: inform the central nervous system of outside stimuli through the senses of touch, sight, hearing, taste and smell 2. Motor neurons: By causing muscles to contract and relax, motor neurons enable such involuntary muscle functions as the beating of the heart and the passage of food through the intestines, as well as voluntary skeletal muscle function. 3. Interneurons: form the connections that enable communication between the sensory neurons and the motor neurons and also perform many other complex signaling functions within the nervous system.  Describe the anatomy of a neuron and how each part aids in the transmission of a message. Dendrites receive messages from other neurons. The message then moves through the axon to the other end of the neuron, then to the tips of the axon and then into the space between neurons. From there the message can move to the next neuron. Neurons pass messages to each other using a special type of electrical signal. Some of these signals bring information to the brain from outside of your body, such as the things you see, hear, and smell. Other signals are instructions for your organs, glands and muscles. Neurons receive these signals from neighbor neurons through their dendrites. From there, the signal travels to the main cell body, known as the soma. Next, the signal leaves the soma and travels down the axon to the synapse. Myelin sheaths cover the axon and work like insulation to help keep the electrical signal inside the cell, which makes it move more quickly. As a final step, the signal leaves through the synapse to be passed along to the next nerve cell. Like most other cells in the body, neurons also have a nucleus which holds the cell's DNA.  Understand the main characteristics of action potentials Action potentials are electrical impulses that travel down the axon triggering the release of neurotransmitters. Threshold Active, all-or-none conduction All-or-none, same amplitude Electrical stimulus - flow of ions Polarity inside positive Other features Self-regenerating Propagates Refractory period No Temporal & spatial summation  Describe the functions of the different kinds of neurotransmitters.  What are some examples of mental disorders that are associated with an imbalance of neurotransmitters in the brain? Schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer’s, and ADD/ADHD  What is the difference between the central and peripheral nervous system? The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord and functions mainly to process information and determine the appropriate responses. The peripheral nervous system is composed of all of the sensory and motor neurons of the body and functions to gather sensory information and to control the actions of our bodies. 1. Describe the parts of each including the different aspects of the autonomic and somatic systems.  Describe and know the difference between the different tools and techniques that are used to monitor brain activity. Computed tomography (CT): a scanning technique using multiple X- rays to construct 3 dimensional images. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): technique that uses magnetic fields to indirectly visualize brain structure. Positron emission tomography (PET): imaging technique that measures consumption of glucose-like molecules, yielding a picture of neural activity in different regions of the brain. Functional MRI (fMRI): technique that uses magnetic fields to visualize brain activity using changes in blood oxygen level. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): technique that applies strong and quickly changing magnetic fields to the surface of the skull that can either enhance or interrupt brain function. Magnetoencephalography (MEG): technique that measures brain activity by detecting tiny magnetic fields generated by the brain. 1. What did psychologists learn about the structure of the brain from Phineas Gage? As a result of this type of research, we know that injuries to certain areas of the brain can cause problems with language, a condition known as aphasia. Amazingly, Gage suffered no speech impairments as a result of his accident, and his memory remained intact. It is believed that the accident damaged a region in Gage's cerebral cortex that is associated with higher mental processes such as thinking, language and speech. 2. Why do we need to be aware of evidence from fMRI studies about brain functioning? Scientists often use fMRI to image brain activity in response to certain tasks, like looking at emotional faces or solving math problems.  Describe the brain structures and their basic functions: Hindbrain (cerebellum), Midbrain, Forebrain (cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, amygdala, hippocampus), and the cerebral cortex (the four lobes). The brain is made of three main parts: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. The forebrain consists of the cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus (part of the limbic system). The midbrain consists of the tectum and tegmentum. The hindbrain is made of the cerebellum, pons and medulla. Often the midbrain, pons, and medulla are referred to together as the brainstem. Thalamus Thalamus- a large mass of gray matter deeply situated in the forebrain at the topmost portion of the diencephalon. The structure has sensory and motor functions. Almost all sensory information enters this structure where neurons send that information to the overlying cortex. Axons from every sensory system (except olfaction) synapse here as the last relay site before the information reaches the cerebral cortex. Hypothalamus Hypothalamus- part of the diencephalon, ventral to the thalamus. The structure is involved in functions including homeostasis, emotion, thirst, hunger, circadian rhythms, and control of the autonomic nervous system. In addition, it controls the pituitary. Amygdala Amygdala- part of the telencephalon, located in the temporal lobe; involved in memory, emotion, and fear. The amygdala is both large and just beneath the surface of the front, medial part of the temporal lobe where it causes the bulge on the surface called the uncus. This is a component of the limbic system. Hippocampus Hippocampus- the portion of the cerebral hemisphers in basal medial part of the temporal lobe. This part of the brain is important for learning and memory . . . for converting short term memory to more permanent memory, and for recalling spatial relationships in the world about us  What is the corpus callosum and what happens when it is cut? It helps the hemispheres share information, but it also contributes to the spread of  seizure impulses from one side of the brain to the other. Acorpus callosotomy is an operation  that severs (cuts) the corpus callosum, interrupting the spread of seizures from hemisphere  to hemisphere.  What is the function of the endocrine system and hormones? the endocrine system is a network of glands that secrete chemicals called hormones to  help your body function properly. Hormones are chemical signals that coordinate a range of  bodily functions. The endocrine system works to regulate certaininternal processes.   What is brain plasticity? brain plasticity, refers to the brain's ability to CHANGE throughout life. The  human brain has the amazing ability to reorganize itself by forming new connections  between brain cells (neurons).  What are genes? How are phenotype and genotype different? Genes are a distinct sequence of nucleotides forming part of a chromosome, the order  of which determines the order of monomers in a polypeptide or nucleic acid molecule which a  cell (or virus) may synthesize An organism's genotype is the set of genes that it carries. An organism's phenotype is  all of its observable characteristics — which are influenced both by its genotype and by the  environment.  How do psychologists study the connection between genes and behavior? How is the nature vs. nurture debate relevant? One of the oldest arguments in the history of psychology is the Nature vs Nurture  debate. Each of these sides have good points that it's really hard to decide whether a person's development is predisposed in his DNA, or a majority of it is influenced by this life experiences  and his environment. Chapter 4: Sensation & Perception  Define sensation and perception Sensation refers to the process of sensing our environment through touch, taste, sight,  sound, and smell. This information is sent to our brains in raw form where perception comes  into play. Perception is the way we interpret these sensations and therefore make sense of  everything around us.  What is subliminal perception? perception of or reaction to a stimulusthat occurs without awareness or consciou snessAlso called subception  You don’t need to know all of the anatomy of the sensory system, but be able to explain the different roles of rods and cones in vision Rods are responsible for vision at low light levels (scotopic vision). They do not mediate color vision, and have a low spatial acuity. Cones are active at higher light levels (photopic vision), are capable of color vision and are responsible for high spatial acuity. The central fovea is populated exclusively by cones. There are 3 types of cones which we will refer to as the short-wavelength sensitive cones, the middle-wavelength sensitive cones and the long-wavelength sensitive cones or S-cone, M-cones, and L-cones for short. The light levels where both are operational are called mesopic.  Compare the trichromatic and opponent-process theory of color vision Trichomatic theory It states that there are three types of color receptors or cones that help us see: RED, GREEN, BLUE. Mnemonic: Tri=3 "RGB are the cones that let us see!" These primary colors of light helped create the first color photographs: Clark Maxwell took a picture of a ribbon using a red filter, then green, then blue and created a photo of a color Tartan Ribbon. The opponent-process theory, Developed by Ewald Hering(1920/1964), the opponent-process theory states that the cone photoreceptors are linked together to form three opposing colour pairs: blue/yellow, red/green, and black/white.  Describe the properties of sound that are responsible for translating the auditory message (including frequency, pitch, and amplitude)  How do we determine the direction of a sound source? Sound localization  Are there any links between our different senses? (Ex: What is the McGurk Effect?)                       The McGurk effect is a perceptual phenomenon that demonstrates an  interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception. The illusion occurs when the  auditory component of one sound is paired with the visual component of another sound,  leading to the perception of a third sound.  Understand the structures of the ear and the function of each  Discuss the theories of detecting sound: place theory and frequency theory Place theory is a theory of hearing which states that our perception of sound depends on where each component frequency produces vibrations along the basilar membrane. The frequency theory of hearing, the frequency of the auditory nerve's impulses corresponds to the frequency of a tone, which allows us to detect its pitch. Sounds come into the ear as acoustical signals and are later transformed into nerve impulses by the cochlea.  Why does the “under 20 sound” exist?  Be able to explain the main terms associated with the senses of smell and taste  Explain stimulus detection and the factors that influence how or if we perceive it Signal detection theory (SDT) is used when psychologists want to measure the way we  make decisions under conditions of uncertainty, such as how we would perceive distances in foggy  conditions. SDT assumes that the decision maker is not a passive receiver of information, but an  active decision­maker who makes difficult perceptual judgments under conditions of uncertainty. In  foggy circumstances, we are forced to decide how far away from us an object is, based solely upon  visual stimulus which is impaired by the fog. Since the brightness of the object, such as a traffic light, is used by the brain to discriminate the distance of an object, and the fog reduces the brightness of  objects, we perceive the object to be much farther away than it actually is  What is gate-control theory and how does it relate to perceiving pain? The gate control theory of pain asserts that non­painful input closes the "gates" to painful input, which prevents pain sensation from traveling to the central nervous  system. Therefore, stimulation by non­noxious input is able to suppress pain.  What can the two-point discrimination test tell us about sensory receptors in our skin? Two­point discrimination is the ability to discern thattwo nearby objects  touching the skin are truly twodistinct points, not one. It is often tested  with twosharp points during a neurological examination  :6  and is assumed to reflect  how finely innervated an area of skin is.  What is our vestibular sense? Is it connected to any other senses? Our vestibular sense, also known as the labyrinthine sense, is an elaborate sense that is  involved in body position and movement of the head. It comes from the vestibular system in our  inner ear and is activated when there is a change in gravity or when our head moves. We would feel  very dizzy without our vestibular sense. It helps us focus and feel centered.  What are different principles of organization of our sensory information? What is the Gestalt perspective? Recognize the differences between the different laws of grouping. Gestalt psychologists theorized that perception is more than the result of accumulating sensory data. Gestalt means "shape" or "form". as used in psychology, it means "organized whole". Gestalt psychologists postulated a series of laws to explain how our brains group the perceived features of a visual scene into organized wholes. Gestalt psychology holds that our brains use innate principles to organize sensory information. these principles explain why we perceive "a car" and not "metal, tires, glass, doorhandles etc." an object exists as a unit, not as a collection of features.  How do different visual illusions work? They trick the mind out of using its usual shortcuts to see a clear and reliable thing.  How are monocular and binocular cues used in order for people to perceive depth? Binocular cues include stereopsis, eye convergence, disparity, and yielding  depth from binocular vision through exploitation of parallax.  Monocular cuesinclude size: distant objects subtend smaller visual angles than  near objects, grain, size, and motion parallax.  What is selective attention? Example: what is the cocktail party phenomenon? The capacity for or process of reacting to certain stimuli selectively when several occur simultaneously. The cocktail party effect is the phenomenon of being able to focus one's  auditory attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli,  much the same way that a partygoer can focus on a single conversation in a noisy  room.  What factors lead to higher incidences of inattention blindness? The research that has been done on inattentional blindness suggests that there are four possible causes for this phenomenon. These include: conspicuity, mental workload, expectations, and capacity  What is the difference between inattention blindness and change blindness? Inattentional blindness is the failure to see a stimulus, such as an object that is  present in a visual field. However,  change blindness is the failure to notice something different about a visual  display.  What are some problems with people who provide eye-witness testimonies? Eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors: o Anxiety / Stress o Reconstructive Memory o Weapon Focus o Leading Questions (Loftus and Palmer, 1974)  How can we improve police line-ups so that we can reduce false identifications? Tell the witness the suspect may not be in the lineup. Chapter 5: Consciousness  What is consciousness? Our subjective experience of the world, our bodies, and our mental perspectives.  What are some different ways it can be measured in a lab? 1. What are we really measuring? (ex: EEG vs EMG) 2. Does it exist in animals? yes  What is the difference between your biological clock and your circadian rhythm? Your biological clock is a term for the area of the hypothalamus that’s responsible for controlling our levels of alertness. Circadian rhythm is a cyclical change that occurs on a roughly 24 hour basis in many biological processes.  Explain the implications of “selective attention”: process of selecting one sensory channel and ignoring or minimalizing others. 1. What is the difference between inattention and change blindness? Change blindness and inattentional blindness are both failures of visual awareness. Change blindness is the failure to notice an obvious change. Inattentional blindness is the failure to notice the existence of an unexpected item.  Describe the various stages and characteristics of sleep 1. Stage One: When we are preparing to drift off, we go though Alpha and Theta, and have periods of dreaminess, almost like daydreaming, except we are beginning to fall asleep. These are interesting states, in that we experience them throughout the day and some people may have more of these waves than others. Those who practice meditation, or deep prayerfulness, often kinda “hang out” in Alpha. It’s a restful place. During this stage, it’s not unusual to experience strange and extremely vivid sensations or a feeling of falling followed by sudden muscle contractions. These are known as hypnogogic hallucinations. You may even feel like you are hearing someone call your name, or the phone ringing. Recently, I thought I heard the doorbell, but realized that it was a hypnogogic hallucination and went back to sleep. We then begin to enter Theta, which is still a relatively light period between being awake and asleep. This usually lasts for 5-10 minutes. Research has shown that the average sleeper takes about 7 minutes to fall asleep. You may fall asleep sooner, or take longer. 2. Stage Two: The second stage of sleep lasts about 20 minutes. Our brain begins to produce very short periods of rapid, rhythmic brain wave activity known as Sleep Spindles. Body temperature begins dropping and heart rate starts slowing down. 3. Stage Three: Deep, slow brain waves known as Delta Waves begin to emerge during this stage. It is a transitional period between light sleep and a very deep sleep. 4. Stage Four: This is sometimes referred to as Delta Sleep because of the delta waves that occur during this time. Stage Four is a deep sleep that lasts for about 30 minutes. Sleepwalking and bed-wetting typically happen at the end of Stage Four sleep. (This does not include the problems that can happen with sleep medications like Ambien and Lunesta). 5. Stage Five: REM: Most dreaming occurs during Stage Five, known as REM. REM sleep is characterized by eye movement, increased respiration rate and increased brain activity. REM sleep is also referred to as paradoxical sleep because, while the brain and other body systems become more active, your muscles become more relaxed, or paralyzed. Dreaming occurs because of increased brain activity, but voluntary muscles become paralyzed. Voluntary muscles are those that you need to move by choice, for example, your arms and legs. Involuntary muscles are those that include your heart and gut. They move on their own. Rapid eye movement, or REM sleep, is when you typically dream. You may have images float by in earlier stages, particularly when you are going through Alpha or Theta, but the actual dream state occurs in REM. This period of paralyzation is a built-in protective measure to keep you from harming yourself. When you are paralyzed, you can’t leap out of bed and run. Do you ever feel like you can’t escape during a dream? Well, the truth is, you can’t. You can breathe, and your heart is working, but you really can’t move.  Discuss the function of REM sleep. When do most of our dreams occur? is a unique phase of mammalian sleep characterized by random movement of the eyes, low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.  What are different theoretical perspectives on dreaming? What is lucid dreaming? Lucid dreaming: experience of becoming aware that one is dreaming  Describe the various sleep disorders 1. Insomnia 2. Narcolepsy: a dramatic disorder in which people experience bouts of sudden sleep lasting anywhere from a few seconds to several minutes and, less frequently, as long as an hour. 3. Sleep Apnea 4. Night terrors 5. Sleepwalking and sexsomnia  Describe the different psychological perspectives on hypnosis A. Sociocognitive theory: approach to explaining hypnosis based on people’s attitudes, beliefs, expectations, and responsiveness to waking suggestions. B. Disscociation theory: approach to explaining hypnosos based on a separation between personality functions that are normally well integrated. 1. Understand the facts and myths about hypnosis. See pages 188-189 2. Can hypnosis be therapeutic? How can it also be controversial?  Define psychoactive drugs and explain their effects: are substances that can alter the consciousness, mood, and thoughts of those who use them. Examples include tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy, cocaine, and heroin. Class of Common Main Examples Substance Name Effects Trade/Street Depressants Relaxation, Alcohol anxiety reduction, Valium sleep Barbiturates (Seconal, Nembutal) Stimulants Alertness, Amphetamine euphoria s Benzadrine Dexdrine Alertness, Cocaine euphoria Alertness Caffeine Alertness Nicotine Hallucinations Ecstasy (MDMA) Opiates/Narcotics Pain control, Heroin euphoria Pain control, Morphine euphoria Percodan Demorol Euphoria Opium Psychedelics Altered LSD, PCP perceptions, hallucinations Euphoria, Marijuana relaxation  How does addiction occur and affect an individual? Be able to explain terms like tolerance, withdrawal, and dependence. Chapter 11: Emotion & Motivation  What are some of the major perspectives in theories of motivation? (Drive- reduction, Arousal, etc.) Another early motivational theory, drive reduction theory, is based on the idea that we are driven by basic biological needs (food, water, shelter etc..). Needs drive our behavior to seek homeostasis (balance) in our bodies. If we skip breakfast, we feel hungry. The hunger need drives us to find food to get rid of the hunger (thus bringing us back to a homeostatic state). These drives can either be primary(biological needs like hunger) or secondary (learned needs like money). However, drive reduction theory cannot explain all of our motivations. Sometimes we are motivated to perform behaviors that do not seem with any need or drive, primary or secondary. (Food, sex, hunger)  What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation? extrinsic motivation doesn't always have to be another person, but it is some outside demand, obligation, or reward that requires the achievement of a particular goal. Intrinsic motivation, however, is an internal form of motivation. You strive towards a goal for personal satisfaction or accomplishment.  Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and understand the different levels. Maslow's (1943, 1954) hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. 1. Does it hold up when evaluated using principles of scientific thinking?  What factors are involved controlling hunger and eating including chemical signals, brain regions and external factors?  Internal factors controlling hunger chemical signals --glucose, ghrelin--receptors these bind to hunger --leptin--signals how much body fat --SATIATION SIGNALS=internal chemical signals such as the hormone CCK that reduce our desire to eat glucos, insulin, leptin, cck. 2. brain regions --hypothalamus contains receptors for food related hormones. ventromedial nucleus activity results in satiety, but lateral hypothalamus is hunger.  External factirs eating habits--develop through personal experience and by modeling the behavior of others --cultural and ethnic backgrounds 2. food cues--site of food 3. flavor  How do we regulate body weight and describe the associated eating disorders. Bulimia and Anorexia. Internal metabolic weight control works therefore by regulatory mechanisms that are very similar to the ones used by other control systems in our bodies that are used to guarantee a constancy of internal environment despite strong external environment changes. Various kinds of mechanism are, for example, the thermic adjustment system or the sugar adjustment of the blood systems, and the circulation of the blood control systems. This means that each time we try to modify our weight we actually fight against the powerful control mechanism. Since it does not seem possible to reset the Setpoint, the result will be that when we end our efforts to maintain our weight at an altered level, the Setpoint will tend to take the weight back to the original values.  What are some problems with using Body Mass Index (BMI) as the sole indicator of whether a person is overweight? BMI can’t distinguish between fat and muscle, which tends to be heavier and can tip more toned individuals into overweight status, even if their fat levels are low.  Describe the stages of the sexual response cycle and how it is different for men and for women. 1. excitement phase=its characterized by changes in muscle tension, increased heart rate and blood pressure, and a rushing of blood into the genital organs 2.plateau phase=arousal continues to increase, although at a slower rate, toward a preorgasm maximum point 3. orgasmic phase=characterized rhythmic contractions in the sex organs; in men, ejaculation occurs. there is also the subjective experience of pleasure, which appears to be similar for men and women 4. resolution phase=arousal returns to normal levels. for men there is a refractory period during which further stimulation fails to produce visible signs of arousal Both men and women experience these phases, although the timing usually is different. For example, it is unlikely that both partners will reach orgasm at the same time. In addition, the intensity of the response and the time spent in each phase varies from person to person.  How does evolutionary psychology explain differences in sexual motives for men and women? (Both short- and long-term) evolutionary influences=some mating strategies that appear to be universal --ie women care a lot about their mates money Several considerations influences a person's selection of a suitable mate. Evolutionary psychology indicates that characteristics that people seek in mates depend on their sex and whether it is a short-term or a long-term mating. Women are limited in the number of children they can have during their lifetime. Men have no restriction when it comes to reproduction. Both men and women compete for their choice of mate. Women will seek a mate who has resources to support their parental efforts, whereas men will seek a mate for reasons different from wanting to be a parent. This establishes a difference in views toward mating for each gender because each will have their own expectations  Describe the different aspects of achievement motivation? an internal drive or need for achievement that is possessed by all individuals to varying degrees --pushes us to seek success and significant accomplishment in our lives --if you have a high internal need for achievement but choose not to persist on a task either because you place no value on it or because you lack confidence in your ability to succeed --cultures that emphasize individual success instead of communal success effect acheivement --genders also  Be able to differentiate between the different types of goals according to goal orientation theory. Goal orientation is a "disposition toward developing or demonstrating ability in achievement situations". Previous research has examined goal orientation as a motivation variable useful for recruitment, climate and culture, performance appraisal, and selection  How are intrinsic/extrinsic motivation linked? Can someone’s intrinsic motivation be decreased if they are given external rewards?  Are basic emotions universal? Yes, but they are influenced by culture.  Describe the facial-feedback hypothesis. the proposal that muscles in the face deliver signals to the brain that are then interpreted, depending on the pattern, as a subjective emotional state  What is the role of arousal in the emotional experience? our experience of an emotion is the result of the arousal that we experience. This approach proposes that the arousal and the emotion are not independent, but rather that the emotion depends on the arousal. The fear does not occur along with the racing heart but occurs because of the racing heart. As William James put it, “We feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble” (James, 1884, p. 190). A fundamental aspect of the James-Lange theory is that different patterns of arousal may create different emotional experiences.  Describe the differences between the James-Lange Theory of emotion, the Cannon- Bard Theory, and the Two-Factor Theory (Schacter-Singer) James-Lange Theory a theory of emotion that argues that body reactions precede and drive the subjective experience of emotions --unique physical changes should accompany each of the different emotional experiences Cannon-Bard Theory a theory of emotion that argues that body reactions and subjective experiences occur independently. people experience emotion based on CNS activity. --bc people experience fear immediately but the physiological reactions take a slower time Schactor's two-factor theory a theory of emotion that argues that the cognitive interpretation, or appraisal, of a body reaction drives the subjective experience of emotion  What can external cues tell us about a person’s emotional state? What kind of mood they are in and how we can asses the situation properly. Emotions can be perceived through visual, auditory, olfactory, and physiological sensory processes. Nonverbal actions can provide social partners with information about subjective and emotional states. This nonverbal information is believed to hold special importance and sensory systems and certain brain regions are suspected to specialize in decoding emotional information for rapid and efficient processing.  What factors in people’s lives lead them happier people?  Are there benefits to being happier in life? If so, what are some of them?  How are Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa different from each other? The main difference between diagnoses is that anorexia nervosa is a syndrome of self-starvation involving significant weight loss of 15 percent or more of ideal body weight, whereas patients with bulimia nervosa are, by definition, at normal weight or above.  Explain how attraction most often occurs? Many factors leading to interpersonal attraction have been studied, all of which involve social reinforcement. The most frequently studied are physical attractiveness, propinquity, familiarity,similarity, complementarity, reciprocal liking, and reinforcement  How/why are people attracted to one another? What is the matching hypothesis? The matching hypothesis (also known as the matching phenomenon) is derived from the discipline of social psychology and was first proposed by Elaine Hatfield and her colleagues in 1966, [1]which suggests why people become attracted to their partner. It claims that people are more likely to form and succeed in a committed relationship with someone who is equally socially desirable. This is often researched in the form of physical attraction  What are the types of love associated with Sternberg’s Triangular Model of Love? The triangular theory of love is a theory of love developed by psychologist Robert Sternberg. In the context of interpersonal relationships, "the three components of love, according to the triangular theory, are an intimac[1] component, a passion component, and a decision/commitment component." 1. Intimacy – Which encompasses feelings of attachment, closeness, connectedness, and bondedness. 2. Passion – Which encompasses drives connected to both limerence and sexual attraction. 3. Commitment – Which encompasses, in the short term, the decision to remain with another, and in the long term, plans made with that other.  What are factors that influence the development of a person’s sexual orientation/behaviors? a persons sexual and emotional attraction to members of the same sex or the other sex; homosexuality, heterosexuality, and bisexuality are all sexual orientations --may be biological--group of neurons in hypothalamus larger in homosexuals than heterosexuals


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