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UCSB / Philosophy / PHIL 20 / What is the greek concept of arete?

What is the greek concept of arete?

What is the greek concept of arete?


School: University of California Santa Barbara
Department: Philosophy
Course: History Philosophy
Professor: Tsouna
Term: Summer 2016
Tags: history and philosophy
Cost: 50
Name: Essay 1 Study Guide
Description: This is a review of the topics that the first essay can be written about.
Uploaded: 10/19/2016
4 Pages 117 Views 2 Unlocks

1. Anaximander and Anaximenes

What is the greek concept of arete?

a. Arete - virtue

b. Anaximander and apeiron - no limits (non+limits); has no qualities EXCEPT gave life to everything

i. Anaximander’s belief was that everything is “apeiron,” meaning unlimited space and time in this case.

ii. Space surrounds the Earth and time is eternal.

iii. Separates off by differentiation

iv. Nothing define in order to not limit any characteristics.

v. Similar to definition of gods → divine, immortal, ultimate controller vi. Principle of sufficient reason - earth is resting on nothing but doesn’t move because it has no real reason to

vii. Made up of opposite forces (day and night, light and dark, sour and sweet)

1. Elements get into the realm of another element (opposites) and

What did anaximenes believe in?

pushes back

2. Reaches equilibrium b/c of struggle of opposites If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of a wash fixture?

c. Anaximenes’ thoughts about apeiron

i. Too vague (no definite characteristics) If you want to learn more check out What is responsible for forming the nucleolus?

d. Anaximenes’ belief

i. Aer - (air but not air we think of) dense atmospheric mist that makes up everything with no start or end

ii. Bright, clear, imperceptible, divine, eternal, and transparent

iii. Material make up that is moving and external

iv. Transforms

1. Fire to wind to clouds to water to earth to stones and reverse too

2. Condensation (felting) and rarefaction

3. All made up of same matter (aer)

4. Fire in rarefaction; water in condensation

e. Improvements from Anaximander to Anaximenes

Does xenophanes believe in god?

i. Describes definite substance If you want to learn more check out What are the types of mollusks?

ii. More than Thales’ water

iii. More reasonable

iv. Describes process

f. Compare and contrast Apeiron with Aer





● Unlimited space

and time

● Apeiron

● Vague

● Opposite forces

● Characterizing

god-like materials

● 1 origin

● Material make up

which is also

divine and eternal

● No beginning or


● Material

condensation and


● Aer

● Definite substance

● Transformation

● Has properties

We also discuss several other topics like What are the interactions between cells and their environment?

2. Xenophanes

a. Ancient Greeks’ view of gods

i. Human-like

ii. Anthropomorphic (looks human)

iii. Human faults

iv. Gods are born

v. Gods are immoral

vi. Gods have a master

vii. Gods interfere with small human affairs

b. Xenophanes’ view on gods (1st to introduce skepticism)

i. One god

ii. Moral

iii. Knows everything

iv. Governs world with thought

v. Change-maker (big affairs, not petty)

vi. Unlike humans

c. Bottom-line

i. Gods are above humans, therefore cannot have human traits

ii. Rational religion, but Xenophanes just tries to reason, not set religious beliefs Don't forget about the age old question of What is the content of the sugar act of 1764?

3. Parmenides

a. 3 Paths of Inquiry

i. Underlying laws

1. There are no half-truths because nothing real can be both real and not real.

2. Nothing real can have or associate with nothing (non-being; what

is not).

ii. Path of Truth/Conviction

3. It (truth) is not possible for it not to be.

a. It is ungenerated and imperishable

i. You can’t think of something that doesn’t

exist already. There has to be sufficient

reason for something to exist. If X was

made, there must have been something

there for it to exist; this breaks law 2.

b. Undivided and continuous

i. It never passes away or is divided because

it is all one and always there. Something is

always there to hold it together. If the idea

that “nothing” as a subject is there to hold

somethings together, than “nothing” would

have to exist to hold it together. Therefore,

everything existing is continuous.

c. Motionless

i. Since the beginning, it existed and still

exists until destroyed (has not happened). Don't forget about the age old question of How many spinal nerves come off the cord?

Necessity holds it in place. There is no

sufficient reason for it to go.

d. Uniform with no stretches, no variation in size of

space, equal on all sides

i. It is perfect when existing. Everything is


iii. Unlearnable Path

1. It is not and is necessary for it not to be.

a. Problems= if something is necessary, than it must be

because something is not nothing

iv. Mortal Opinion

-To be and not to be are the same and not the same.

1. Existential: It exists (can stand alone)

2. Veridical: It is truthful (can stand alone)

3. Predicative: (described as copula) needs something more after “it is” such as “it is pretty;” cannot stand alone

b. Arguments

i. Deductive reasoning

1. It is necessary that this happens.

a. It is. Necessity

ii. Inductive reasoning

1. Because something happens, it is expected that this will happen

due to it.

a. Night. Day.

iii. Premises

1. Reason for the conclusion; backing up the argument

4. Democritus

a. Atomism continued by Democritus, originally from Leucippus

b. Atomism

i. Mechanistic theory that says that there are infinite atoms that are unbreakable, uncuttable, unchangeable, and never made or destroyed; can only change location and position; the outside of atoms can be

changed, but the core remains constant

ii. Void space is where atoms cannot go and are not. AKA nothingness or nothing. Thus, atoms are something. The void is considered real, still. iii. New arrangements of atoms and void “create” new things (but really just new shapes bc everything is already there.

c. Similarity and difference between Democritus and Parmenides

i. Atomism satisfies Parmenides’ Path of Truth.

ii. Parmenides would not agree there is void, because if something is there, even nothing, it must be there because it is acknowledged.

iii. Similar to Parmenides bc everything is made from perfect, uniform, undivided, ungenerated, imperishable something. Democritus just added some information like voids and arrangements.

d. Moral responsibility and free will

i. Believes nothing happens randomly.

ii. His teacher believed that there is a “great cycle” in the kosmos that keeps repeating.

iii. There are no gods in his beliefs, so people had to live up to moral responsibility in his opinion. The world is composed of both moral responsibility and determined fate working together, is closer to what he believed in.

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