1. Anaximander and Anaximenes
a. Arete - virtue
b. Anaximander and apeiron - no limits (non+limits); has no qualities EXCEPT gave life to everything
i. Anaximander’s belief was that everything is “apeiron,” meaning unlimited space and time in this case.
ii. Space surrounds the Earth and time is eternal.
iii. Separates off by differentiation
iv. Nothing define in order to not limit any characteristics.
v. Similar to definition of gods → divine, immortal, ultimate controller vi. Principle of sufficient reason - earth is resting on nothing but doesn’t move because it has no real reason to
vii. Made up of opposite forces (day and night, light and dark, sour and sweet)
1. Elements get into the realm of another element (opposites) and
2. Reaches equilibrium b/c of struggle of opposites If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of a wash fixture?
c. Anaximenes’ thoughts about apeiron
i. Too vague (no definite characteristics) If you want to learn more check out What is responsible for forming the nucleolus?
d. Anaximenes’ belief
i. Aer - (air but not air we think of) dense atmospheric mist that makes up everything with no start or end
ii. Bright, clear, imperceptible, divine, eternal, and transparent
iii. Material make up that is moving and external
1. Fire to wind to clouds to water to earth to stones and reverse too
2. Condensation (felting) and rarefaction
3. All made up of same matter (aer)
4. Fire in rarefaction; water in condensation
e. Improvements from Anaximander to Anaximenes
i. Describes definite substance If you want to learn more check out What are the types of mollusks?
ii. More than Thales’ water
iii. More reasonable
iv. Describes process
f. Compare and contrast Apeiron with Aer
● Unlimited space
● Opposite forces
● 1 origin
● Material make up
which is also
divine and eternal
● No beginning or
● Definite substance
● Has properties
We also discuss several other topics like What are the interactions between cells and their environment?
a. Ancient Greeks’ view of gods
ii. Anthropomorphic (looks human)
iii. Human faults
iv. Gods are born
v. Gods are immoral
vi. Gods have a master
vii. Gods interfere with small human affairs
b. Xenophanes’ view on gods (1st to introduce skepticism)
i. One god
iii. Knows everything
iv. Governs world with thought
v. Change-maker (big affairs, not petty)
vi. Unlike humans
i. Gods are above humans, therefore cannot have human traits
ii. Rational religion, but Xenophanes just tries to reason, not set religious beliefs Don't forget about the age old question of What is the content of the sugar act of 1764?
a. 3 Paths of Inquiry
i. Underlying laws
1. There are no half-truths because nothing real can be both real and not real.
2. Nothing real can have or associate with nothing (non-being; what
ii. Path of Truth/Conviction
3. It (truth) is not possible for it not to be.
a. It is ungenerated and imperishable
i. You can’t think of something that doesn’t
exist already. There has to be sufficient
reason for something to exist. If X was
made, there must have been something
there for it to exist; this breaks law 2.
b. Undivided and continuous
i. It never passes away or is divided because
it is all one and always there. Something is
always there to hold it together. If the idea
that “nothing” as a subject is there to hold
somethings together, than “nothing” would
have to exist to hold it together. Therefore,
everything existing is continuous.
i. Since the beginning, it existed and still
exists until destroyed (has not happened). Don't forget about the age old question of How many spinal nerves come off the cord?
Necessity holds it in place. There is no
sufficient reason for it to go.
d. Uniform with no stretches, no variation in size of
space, equal on all sides
i. It is perfect when existing. Everything is
iii. Unlearnable Path
1. It is not and is necessary for it not to be.
a. Problems= if something is necessary, than it must be
because something is not nothing
iv. Mortal Opinion
-To be and not to be are the same and not the same.
1. Existential: It exists (can stand alone)
2. Veridical: It is truthful (can stand alone)
3. Predicative: (described as copula) needs something more after “it is” such as “it is pretty;” cannot stand alone
i. Deductive reasoning
1. It is necessary that this happens.
a. It is. Necessity
ii. Inductive reasoning
1. Because something happens, it is expected that this will happen
due to it.
a. Night. Day.
1. Reason for the conclusion; backing up the argument
a. Atomism continued by Democritus, originally from Leucippus
i. Mechanistic theory that says that there are infinite atoms that are unbreakable, uncuttable, unchangeable, and never made or destroyed; can only change location and position; the outside of atoms can be
changed, but the core remains constant
ii. Void space is where atoms cannot go and are not. AKA nothingness or nothing. Thus, atoms are something. The void is considered real, still. iii. New arrangements of atoms and void “create” new things (but really just new shapes bc everything is already there.
c. Similarity and difference between Democritus and Parmenides
i. Atomism satisfies Parmenides’ Path of Truth.
ii. Parmenides would not agree there is void, because if something is there, even nothing, it must be there because it is acknowledged.
iii. Similar to Parmenides bc everything is made from perfect, uniform, undivided, ungenerated, imperishable something. Democritus just added some information like voids and arrangements.
d. Moral responsibility and free will
i. Believes nothing happens randomly.
ii. His teacher believed that there is a “great cycle” in the kosmos that keeps repeating.
iii. There are no gods in his beliefs, so people had to live up to moral responsibility in his opinion. The world is composed of both moral responsibility and determined fate working together, is closer to what he believed in.