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LONG BEACH STATE / Communication Science and Disorders / CSD 261 / What is the source-filter theory of vowel production?

What is the source-filter theory of vowel production?

What is the source-filter theory of vowel production?

Description

School: California State University Long Beach
Department: Communication Science and Disorders
Course: Anatomy and Physiology for Speech, Language, and Hearing
Professor: Garcia
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Speech and Hearing and anatomy
Cost: 50
Name: Anatomy Speech Study Guide
Description: These notes should help for the test on Monday. Everything on this study guide should correlate with the one the professor posted on beachboard. Good luck and have fun studying!
Uploaded: 10/19/2016
4 Pages 39 Views 1 Unlocks
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Anatomy Quiz 2 Study Guide


What is the source-filter theory of vowel production?



*_______ = on study guide vocab list or you should know

Source-Filter Theory of Vowel Production - This theory describes how the oral cavity shapes our speech.

● States that a voicing source is generated by vocal folds, then travels through the vocal tract, and shaped into sounds of speech.

● Depends on cavities to shape the acoustic output (remember when the professor cups his mouth and speaks, it changes his vocals)

● Changes in shape and configuration of the tongue, mandible, soft palate; and other articulators The Eustachian Tube a.k.a auditory tube – aerates the middle ear 


What is the eustachian tube?



If you want to learn more check out How are internal and external hard drives related?

● Connects middle ear to nasopharynx

○ Nasopharynx - above the soft palate, contains pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids); the lateral wall of the nasopharynx contains the orifice of the Eustachian tube ● The opening of the eustachian tube equalizes atmospheric pressure in the middle ear ○ When you close the opening, it protects the middle ear from loud sounds & pressure changes 

● Tensor veli palatini - opens auditory tube to permit aeration of the middle ear cavity ● Torus Tubarius - bulge of tissue that partially encircles the orifice of the Eustachian ● The base of the eustachian tube is under the mucous membrane of the nasal part of the pharynx


What is the tensor veli palatini?



If you want to learn more check out What is the seller's cost of production?

Bones that Articulate with the Nasal Bone 

● The nasal bone articulates with the perpendicular plate of the Etmoid bone, the Frontal bones superiorly, the Maxillae laterally, and the nasal septal cartilage

○ Nasal septal cartilage - dividing plate between the two nasal cavities

○ Etmoid Bone - the core of the skull and facial skeleton; you won't see it on most diagrams bc it is in the center of the skull

○ Maxillae - upper jaw; makes up most of the roof of the mouth and is involved in the clefting of the lip and hard palate

○ Frontal - make up bony forehead

Beating Ciliated Epithelia * epithelium are secretory or have cilia

● Cilia (hairlike organelles) constantly and actively beat to remove contaminants from the epithelial surface of the respiratory system If you want to learn more check out What is the content of the first law of behavior genetics?

○ Cilia are found in the respiratory passageway, w/in ventricles of the brain, lining of canal in spinal cord

○ “Have beating behavior from their hairlike protrusions” - textbook

○ Cilia move fast in one direction and slow in the opposite/return direction ■ This allows them to move material slowly (removing the “gunk”) and return rapidly to its original position

● Removes mucus from respiratory passageway

Muscles involved in :

1. Elevating the mandible: *mandibular elevators have muscle spindles to help counterat gravity a. Masseter - elevates mandible

b. Temporalis - elevates mandible and draws it back if protruded

c. Medial Pterygoid - elevates mandible If you want to learn more check out What do we mean by imperialism?

d. Mandibular - muscle of protrusion

e. Lateral Pterygoid - protrudes mandible; grinding action We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of the embden-meyerhof-parnas pathway?

2. Retracting the Tongue:

a. Anterior Genioglossus 

b. Superior/Inferior Longitudinal * all are tongue body retractors

c. Styloglossus

3. Elevating the Tongue:

a. Superior Longitudinal - elevate tongue tip 

b. Palatoglossi - posterior tongue elevator If you want to learn more check out What is the formula for discrete in probability distributions?

4. Depressing the Tongue:

a. Inferior Longitudinal - tongue tip depressor

b. Genioglossus, Chondroglossus, Hyoglossus - all tongue body depressors

i. Genioglossus - prime tongue mover

ii. Hyoglossus - pulls sides of tongue down

iii. Chondroglossus - tongue depressor

Know Details About:

Lip Muscles

1. Risourius - superficial; retracts corner of mouth,

a. Involved in smiling  

2. Buccinators - retracts corner of mouth

a. deep(far from surface) to risourius

b. Involved in mastication

3. Obicularis Oris - encircles mouth opening

a. Paired upper and lower muscle

i. Obicularis Oris Superioris and Inferior

4. Depressor Labii Inferioris - pulls lip down and out

5. Depressor Anguli Oris - depress corners of mouth

6. Zygomatic Major - elevate and retract angle of mouth (also smiling)

a. Zygomatic Minor - elevate upper lip

Tongue Muscles

1. Intrinsic Muscles: * muscle of tongue, invloved in the shaping of the tongue a. Transverse Muscle - narrows tongue

b. Vertical Muscles - flatten tongue

c. Superior Longitudinal Muscle - elevate tongue tip

d. Inferior Longitudinal Muscle - depress tongue tip

2. Extrinsic Muscles: *muscles that help tongue move, attaching the tongue to something else a. Genioglossus - prime tongue mover

b. Hyoglossus - pulls sides of tongue down

c. Styloglossus - draws tongue back and up

d. Chondroglossus - tongue depressor

e. Palatoglossus - elevates back of tongue

Mastication / Mandible

1. Mandibular Elevators

a. Masseter - elevates mandible

b. Temporalis - elevates mandible and draws it back if protruded

c. Medial Pterygoid - elevates mandible

d. Mandibular - muscle of protrusion

e. Lateral Pterygoid - protrudes mandible; grinding action

2. Mandibular Depressors

a. Digastricus (anterior & posterior) - depress mandible, together they also elevate hyoid i. Digastricus Anterior - also draws hyoid up and forward

b. Mylohyoid - depresses mandible if hyoid is fixed

c. Geniohyoid - depresses mandible if hyoid is fixed

d. Platysma - considered a muscle of the neck

i. Also a mandibular depressor

Velum (Soft Palate)

● Muscles depress only when you use nasal sounds 

● Muscles elevate during most speaking time and when swallowing; also when you swim so water doesn’t enter respiratory passageway

○ Elevate to separate oral and nasal areas

1. Levator Veli Palatini (Levator Palatine - ) a. Makes up the bulk of the soft palate; primary elvator of the soft palate (Velum)

Extra Info 

* most of these bones were not on the study guide; you can study them for extra knowledge :) 1. Facial Bones

a. Mandible - lower jaw; movable articulator

b. Maxillae - upper jaw; makes up most of the roof of the mouth and is involved in the clefting of the lip and hard palate

c. Nasal Bones - make up superior nasal surface; form upper margin of nasal

cavity

d. Palatine Bones - provide posterior ¼ of hard palate (the front roof of your mouth)

e. Nasal Conchae - small scroll-like bones on upper surface of the nasal cavity; humidifies air as it passes through the nasal cavity

f. Vomer - makes up part of the nasal septum

g. Zygomatic Bones - forms the cheekbones

h. Lacrimal Bones - forms part of the eye sockets; small portion of lateral nasal wall and medial orbit (most hidden in the skull)

i. Hyoid Bone - at the root of the tongue, place of attachment for most muscles involved in articulation

2. Bones of Cranial Skull

a. Etmoid Bone - the core of the skull and facial skeleton; you won't see it on most diagrams bc it is in the center of the skull

b. Spenoid Bone - located within the braincase; lesser and greater wings

c. Frontal - make up bony forehead

d. Parietal - paired bones forms middle portion of the braincase

e. Occipital Bone - posterior braincase

f. Temporal Bone - lateral skull

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