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adolacao

adolacao

Description

School: University of Illinois at Chicago
Department: Biological Sciences
Course: Evolution and Ecology
Professor: Nelson
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology: Ecology and Evolution, Ecology, and ecology&evolution
Cost: 25
Name: Ecology/Evolution Week 9 Notes BIOS 230 : Density/Population Growth
Description: Density / Population Growth. This week we learned about fundamental equations to use on Exam 2.
Uploaded: 10/21/2016
7 Pages 312 Views 0 Unlocks
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Determining Density / Population GrowthWe also discuss several other topics like What is psychology neuromuscular theory?

Review:

Lincoln - Peterson index assumes:

  • Random sampling (each individual has an equal chance of being caught)
  • Marked animals are distributed throughout the environment

If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of a cosine?

Determining Density Requires Sampling

  • Other methods may used to estimate abundance that use observations about the presence of organisms rather than direct counts
  • Signs of the presence of animal include:
  • Vocalization counts (bird song)
  • Scat counts along a length of trail
  • Track counts
  • If there is a relatively constant relationship between the observations and the total population, we can track animals

We also discuss several other topics like What can make a free woman detrimental?

PopulationsDon't forget about the age old question of ucsc math 3

Populations sizes arranges as a function of several factors:

  • Birth rate
  • Death rate
  • Fertility rate
  • Age structure
  • Sex ratio
  • Immigration / Emigration and possible others…

  • Age structure affects population growth,

Importing age classes:

  • Pre productive
  • Reproductive
  • Post productive
  • Each age group = a cohort
  • Populations with a higher % of younger cohorts will expand more rapidly

If you want to learn more check out Who was a Russian physician who conducted biological research on the nervous system from about 1890 to 1936?

Sex Ratio

  • Sex ratio affects populatiin growth
  • Primary sex ratio = ratio at conception
  • Secondary sex ratio = ratio at birth
  • (These may be different)

If you want to learn more check out What are the eight steps of forecasting?

Population Growth

  • Populations can grow in several ways:
  • Linear growth = the population increases steadily
  • Exponential growth = population growths at an exponential rate
  • Logistic growth = population experiences exponential growth, and then levels off (sigmoidal)

Exponential growth leads to:

  • Crowding, less shelter
  • Starvation
  • Increased disease risk
  • Increased predation risk

  • Fewer offspring, lower survival
  • Small offspring, reduce adult survival, fertility

Populations

A real - life example → equation →

Exponential Growth Equation

You want to look at the overall trend

Nt=Noert

N0 = initial population size

Nt  = # of individuals after”time”

E = ~2.72 (natural log base)

R = instantaneous per capita growth rate

In an exponential growth situation, the rate at which individuals are added to the population is:

This is the derivative of the exponential equation,

        Nt= Noert r = instantaneous per capita growth rate

 varies according to population size

Geometric Growth

  • Most populations don’t grow continuously
  • They aren’t seasonal: increases and decreases depending on the season

geometric growth  = population change over discrete time intervals

Rate of geometric growth =  =

 = Nt+1/Nt where t = time

Rearrange:          Nt = Nt+1

  • To project the growth rate at a specific time:

N1 = N01

N2 = N02

N3 = N03

> Nt = N0t geometric growth equation

Populations

  •  > 1.0, population will increase
  •  < 1.0, population will decrease
  •  = 1.0, population remains stable
  •  = net reproductive rate
  •  = (# of offspring) x (probability that kids survive childhood)
  • Total # of kids produced = fertility

Intrinsic rate of increase

Ym = intrinsic rate of increase (malthusian parameter)

  • Maximum possible growth rate under ideal conditions
  • The exponential rate of increase of a population with a stable age distribution
  • Rm is more useful identifying environmental conditions affecting population growth that is an accurate predictor of population growth
  • Most populations do not have a stable age distribution

R0 = net reproductive rate (fecundity x  survival of newborn)

Survival and Fertility Decline in Crowded Populations

Survival is reduced by:

  • Limited food
  • Increase waste
  • Increased vulnerability to predators
  • Increase stress
  • Disease

Fertility is reduced by:

  • Limited food for adults
  • Increased behavioral interaction (fight, stress)
  • Smaller adults due to competition during adolescence
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