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study bundle (1)

by: Gabriela Saint-Louis

study bundle (1) PSYC_3150_10

Gabriela Saint-Louis
GPA 3.04
Psychology of Sex Differences

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book chapters 6,8,9...12 and 15 coming later.
Psychology of Sex Differences
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This 35 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabriela Saint-Louis on Friday April 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC_3150_10 at George Washington University taught by Forssell in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 148 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Sex Differences in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 04/03/15
Chapter 6 Sexual Response SEXUAL RESPONSE William Masters and Virginia Johnson 0 observed masturbation o categorized erotic response into four stages the Human sexual response cycle HSRC excitement o the beginning of physical sexual esponse plateau 0 when erotic arousal intensi es orgasm o the intensely pleasurable climax of sexual excitement resolution 0 when the sexual tension dissipates and arousal reduces o incude mental state of quotdesire though not included in HSRC Desire 0 when a person ants sexual stimulation or intimacy he or she is feeling desire can last for a eeting moment or persist for a lifetime Desire is harder to de ne than other stags of sexual arousal because it exists in the mind rather than the body 0 types of desire proceptivity best described as lust or libido it is automatic intense hormonedriven and independent of the situation related more to male sexual desire arousability a person39s capacity to become aroused once certain triggers cues or situations are encounteredmay best describe female sexual desire especially in women desire and physical arousal are not always connected 0 when it comes to sexual arousal men39s minds re more in synch with what their bodie are doing than women39s are Excitement the rst phase of Masters and johnson s sexual response cycle it is the bodys initial response to feelings of sexual desire can last anywhere from a few minutes to several hours 0 can occur without any noticeable sexual stimulation Blood rushes to the vessels f the genitalia vaocongestion which enlarges and deepen in color sex ush a rashlike reddening of the skin of the upper abdomen and chest caused by dilating capillaries EXCITEMENT IN WOMEN shaft of the clitoris increases in size and becomes erect though not as fir as an erect penis labia majora spread and separate and the labia minora increase in size and darken in color uterus lifts and enlarges and the size and shape of the vagina changes the upper twothirds of the vagina gets both wider and longer while the outer onethird narrows allowing it to better grip the penis the vaginal will lubricate as uid EXCITEMENT IN MEN blood rushes into the genital tissues causing an erection Penis becomes stiff hard and larger in length and diameter the angle of the penis changes urethral opening in the glans widens scrotal skin thickens and constricts and the testes elevate and enlarge most men nipples become erect erection is controlled by autonomic processes Autonomic nervous system ANS o sympathetic nervous system controls quotfight or ightquot responses mobilizes body to act in case of emergency 0 parasympathetic nervous system responses are medited diminishes an erection non sexual related erections 0 both penis and clitoris become errect during REM sleep though more observed in men 0 quotmorning woodquot secondary phenomenon of REM sleep and we usually wake up directly from REM which happens at the end of cycle Plateau during ths phase sexual arousal grows as a precursor to orgasm changes form excitement continue 0 increased heart rate respiratory rate blood pressure and muscle tension lasts anywhere from a few seconds to a few minutes WOMEN O MEN Orgasm derives from Greek word quotorgasmosquot meaning excitement or selling consideref one of the most pleasurable physical events humans can experience typically lasts less than a minute in both males and females characterized by a feeling of euphoria along with a sseies of rhythmic contractions of the genital region During orgasm brain areas related to reward are activated while the amygdala the seat of fear and rage shuts down orgasmic platform the lower third of the vagina sells as it engorges with blood coronal ridge and glans of the penis increase in size and deepen in color during the plateau prostate gland enlarges and the testes elevate and rotate slightly so they lie closer to the groin WOMEN 0 strong muscular contractions of the vagina uterus and anus between three and fteen of these rhythmic contractions which occur at 08second intervals some women may expel a small amount of the uid from the prostatelike skene39s glands multiple orgasms occurs when a person as an orgasm and then goes on to have one or more additional orgasms within a short period before the body returns to a preplateau level of excitement for most women the ability to orgasm depends on many variables including physical psychological and societal factors Freud and idea of two female orgasms quotimmaturequot orgasm obtained through clitoral stimulation quotmaturequot vaginal orgams chieved through intercourse 0 Irving Singer proosed three types of female orgasm vuva uterine and blended 0 MEN 0 two stages emission seminal uids move into the upper urethra giving men a feeling of ejaculatory ineveitality the sense that an orgasm is coming and cant be prevented ejaculation the ejection of sperm frm penis usually accompanied by orgasm but can occur independently retrograde ejaculation 0 some or all of the semen goes into the bladder o uncommon can occur in men with diabetes after prostate surgery or with use of some drugs 0 semen does not hurt bladder and is eliminated with urine on average 26 millimeters of uid is ejaculated and the ejaculate can be expelled up to 2 feet unlike women most men experience a refractory period after orgasm o a period of time during which they are physiologically incapable of having another orgasm or ejaculation 0 can last for a few minutes to more than 24 hours quotBlue ballsquot an in ammation of the testicles and epididymis that can occur ifaman is sexually excited with no ejaculation epididymorchitis 0 during sexual excitation bood collects in the testicles which can produce an ache and a bluish tinge in the skin of the scrotum doesn39t last long and will not cause permanent damage Female orgasms vs Male orgasms O O O O Males 0 females don39t have a refractory period and are more likely to have multiple orgasms can have extended orgasms which last for a long time discontinuation of stimulation in the middle f a female orgas the orgasm ends have more contractions and a wider area of tissue undergoes contractions quotpoint of no returnquot once a man39s orgasm begins it will continue automatically even if stimulus stops Faking Orgasms O O O Resolution 0 reasons feeling too tired or distracted to enjoy se and feel faking orgasm will end it sooner images from the media feed into some people39s unrealistically high expectations for sex be polite to partners to encourage their quothard workquot body returns t its nonexcited state Heart rate blood pressure and respiratory rate rst dip below normal then return to their normal prearoused levels cause sleep loss of muscle tension and a feeling of relaxation Release of prolactin and other substances during orgasm may even Other Models of Sexual Response Triphasic Model Helen Singer Kaplan39s model of sexual response that includes desire excitement and orgasm pateau is redundant Erotic Stimulus pathwav theorv Focuses less on the physical changes and more on the psychosocial aspects of sexual response includes 4 stages seduction includes all the actions that enhance attractiveness sensation such as sound ouch and smell affect our arousal how we interpret these sensations is in uence by our past experiences surrender psychically we surrender to orgasm because its necessary to give up control and take our mind off our performance in order to experience it re ection Re ection on the sexual experience will affect our future sexual patterns BrashOMcGreer circular model for female sexual response suggests that as a woman re ects on a satisfying sexual experience it can increase her desire leading to the seduction phase of the next sexual expenence Sexual response Across the Life Span sexuality is expressed in different waysat different points in life depending on a biological psychological societal and cultural in uences Children adolescents and teenagers male infants get erections and the vaginas of female infants lubricate infants as young as 5 months can have orgasms and children may masturbate at a very young age a young child39s hpothalamus is very active secreting a burst of GnRH every90 minutes this stops at about age 4 at about age 10 the adrenal glands release a bit of sex hormones sexual fantasies and masturbation often begin around this age 0 by age 12 he ulse generator in the hypothalamus has been turned back on and steroid hormones are again released leading to puberty Adults over 50 sexual arousal cycle slows down stages may take longer to achieve and may be less intense women 0 increased sexual response in midlife due to freedom from the fears of pregnancy satisfaction in their relationships or improved selfesteem 0 decrease in sexual response and activity as a result of the hormonal changes associated with menopause metabolic rate slows body fat percentage increases and the distribution of fat changes settling more around eh abdomen 0 more realistic in their body image 0 more satisfying sex lives than men in their 305 adjusted to what they want out of life less concerned with career stress and more con dent and comfortable in who why are AdinoElderIV culture doesn39t usually acknowledge the sexuality of older adults media images of sexually active older adults are few and far between and are often viewed with humor or even disgust Effect of Disease or injury on sexual response Cardiovascular Disease affects more than 70 million Americans 0 may impair sexual functioning reduced blood flow associated with heart disease can hinder blood ow to the genitalia resulting in dif culties with erection and lubrication Diabetes 0 most diabetics have impaired blood flow andor some degree of nerve damage two factors that underlie erectile dysfunction and problems with vaginal lubrication in addition the high blood glucose predisposes diabetic women to yeast infection treatment of conditions can impair sexual functioning painrelieving narcotics reduce a person39s orgasmic potential and many antidepressants reduce sexual desire and functioning Psychological Control of Sexual Arousal spectatoring mentally stepping outside of oneself during sexual activity with a partner and monitoring the experience Masters external factors may affect sexual arousal a partner39s excitement or lack thereof emotions feelings of guilt or regret or thoughts of past negative sexual experience may slow or prevent a person from responding to a sexual s ua onO sexual response is also affected by physical concerns 0 men are more likely to have concerns regarding sexual performance whereas women are more likely to be anxious about their body usually its appearance or odor physiological Factors that control sexual response Central Nervous Svstem many areas of the CNS the brain and spinal cord play an essential role in sexual response nerves of the spinal cord carry important signals to and from the genitals and the brain the brain39s cerebral cortex processes thoughts memories and fantasies receives sensory signals and sends out voluntary motor responses the temporal lobe of the cortex which contains the amygdala and the hypothalamus is particularly important for sexual response the hypothalamus is vital for sexual arousal and functioning in addition to controlling hormone release biological rhythms and sex drive the hypothalamus regulates emotions and the behaviors that accompany them many neurotransmitters in uence sexual functioning dopamine may facilitate sexual arousal Neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin may inhibit sexual activity Hormonal Control of Sexual Resoonse estrogen39srole in sexual arousal is unclear Women need certain level of estrogen for vaginal lubrication and blood ow to the genitalia women feel sexier and irt more in the days before ovulation when estrogen levels are highest 0 women are more likely to have sex during their most fertile days ovulation and the ve days preceding ovulation Testosterne necessary for normal sexual functioning in males Menwho have hypogonadism produce abnormally low levels of testosterone and generally experience less sexual desire and activity Castration use of surgical or chemical technique whereby a biological male loses use of the testes thus drastically reducing his testosterone levels 0 Although testosterone is involved in the sex drive it does not appear that taking more testosterone will heighten a person39s sex drive 0 also important in women39s sexual functioning sexual drive decrease of androgen levels in women result in a diminished sex drive Senses Touch Skin is the largest organ in the body the sense of touch most directly affects our response to sexual stimuli Touch is necessary for more than sexual arousal it is necessary for life itself 0 When young animals are given food and water but deprived of physical contact they develop abnormal cognitive and behavioral functions as adu s Erogenous zones areas of the body that are particularly sensitive to touch and that lead to sexual arousal when stimulated primary erogenous zones very sensitive areas with many nerve endings most are located around body openings such as the genitals mouth ear and anus but also include the breast and ngers secondary erogenous zones become sensitized through experience and are speci c for each person ex for one person a partners stroke at the back of the knee may cause sexual arousal for another the same behavior may arouse nothing more than giggles Vision vision is second only to touch in its importantce for sexual arousal both men and women can be sexually aroused by visual cutes such as an attractive person or erotic artwork which produce a strong response in the brain which occur even before the brain is able to classify the content of a picture men report more sexual arousal when viewing visual erotia men and women showed similar brain activity upon viewing visual erotica except men had more activity in their hypothalamus sexual partners often have strong preferences in relation to what substances they will allow to come in contact with their mouths preferences depend not only for the speci c secretion but on the state of arousal Hea ng sounds have the potential to both enhance and lessen a person39s sexual arousal a partner39s sounds of delight may heighten the erotic potential of an encounter whereas the sounds of a roommate39s conversation in the next room may sti e the mood Olfaction amp Pheromones smell was probably the rst sense to develop and more primitive species depend on this sense to nd food detect danger and sniff out mates signals from the olfactory system in humans travel directly to the limbic system an area of the brain containing structures that are involved in motivation memory and emotional response In Humans the effect of smell is subconscious and subtle body odor can signal physical and immunological health and as such can be important component in mate selection Cahill 1997 whereas men primarily consider a woman39s appearance women rank a man39s body odor as the most important characteristic I choosing a sexual partner 0 Some nd the odor of genital secretions to be very sexually arousing others are turned off by the smell 0 Men can smell when women are at the most fertile times of their cycle t shit experiment men rated the smell of the tshirts worn by women in their fertile phase as more pleasant and sexier human pheromones may play a role in attraction and arousal mood reproductive cles and other forms of subconscious sexual communication Pheromones colorless odorless airborne chemical signals given off by the body which are thought to affect behavior in animals whether they also affect human behavior is a controversial question some pheromones may decease libido recent study found that when a woman cries her tears contain a pheromone that may reduce a man39s sexual arousal unclear whether human pheromones act by means of the vomeronasal organ VNO the organ in other species that perceives pheromones or through the olfactory epithelium SEXUAL PROBLEMS ampTREATMENTS Sexual Desire Disorders Hypoactive sexual desire HSD the persistent or recurrent absence of sexual thoughts fantasies desire for or initiation of sexual activity either alone or with a partner thought to be the most common sexual problem in the US affecting women more than men problematic in applying male standards of quotnormalcyquot to women who may be pahtoliges as having low sexual desire compared to a male benchmark physical psychological factors all affect a person39s sexual desHe hypoactive sexual desire becomes a diagnosable disorder when this absence of desire causes personal distress or problems in the relationship hyposexual desire might best be considered as a discrepancy in desire between partners when partners routinely experience different levels of sexual desire to the point where it has a negative impact on their relationship cognitivebehavioral therapy CBT most successful in treating disorders of low sexual desire Focuses on how a person thinks and how these thoughts affect his or her attitudes and behaviors Sexual Aversion Disorders a person with sexual aversion disorder reacts to sexual contact or activity with extreme discomfort disgust or fear 0 can occur in both sexes though more common in women 0 some women even avoid gynecology appts sensate focus designed to reduce anxiety these exercises help participants focus on the sensory experience rather than viewing orgasm as the sole goal of sex SEXUAL AROUSAL DISORDERS de ned as the persistent or recurrent inability to attain or maintain suf cient sexual excitement be it erection or lubrication for satisfactory sexual encounters impotence failure to achieve or maintain an erection suf cient for sexual activity most men experience this at least once in ther lives when persistent may be classi ed as erectile dysfunction ED increases with age more treatments for ED than for any other type of sexual problem cognitive behavioral therapy and a range of pharmacological surgical or mechanical approaches oral medications most popular Viagra originally developed a a drug to treat blood pressure and cardiovascular ailments it39s effectiveness in promoting erection was discovered The ED durgs Viagra Cialis and Levitra all work by inhibiting the enzyme phosphodiesterase5 men who take Ecstasy may experience increased sexual desire but also impairment in their ability to maintain an erection Vacuum pressure pumps can be used to increase blood ow to the penis to help men achieve erections if penile blood vessels are blocked or damaged vascular surgery may reserve the problem When all else fails in treatment of erectile dysfunction a penile implant may be used In atable or partially rigid at all times WOMEN 0 may be slow to lubricate or have trouble becoming sexually excited in response to sexual stimulation 0 women39s sexual arousal is not as closely tied to their physical responses as it is in men instead anxiety fatigue negative imagery or relationship issues are more likely to underlie a woman39s lack of sexual arousal no drugs available for any form of female sexual dysfunction ORGASMIC DISORDERS MEN orgasmic disorders characterized by one of the following two conditions 0 1 a persistent or recurrent delay in or absence of orgasm following sexual stimulation or o 2 the occurrence of orgasm more quickly than desired most commonly manifested in males as early ejaculation and in females as a delay in orgasm the incidence of quottoo rapidquot female orgasm is rarely recognized and not classi ed as a sexual dysfunction in the DSMlV TR no universally accepted de nition or diagnostic criteria for premature ejaculationPE in general men wit PE ejaculate too rapidyeither with minimal sexual stimulation or shortly after penetration for their partners to fully enjoy sexual relations physicaly men with PE may have abnormal responses of the sympathetic nervous system early in the sexual response cycle which slows erections and prematurely triggers the ejaculatory re ex premature ejaculation is treated with a combination of cognitivebehavioral strategies plus pharmaceutical interventions while no medications are currently indicated speci cally for PE doctors can prescribe antidepressants which have been found to have a side effect of delaying ejaculation number of techniques that can be employed to lengthen intercourse such as squeezing the glans or the quotstopstarttechnique in which he lerns to emporarly halt sexual stimulation ight before ejaculation delayedOejactulation occurs when a man is unable to reach orgasm or reaches orgasm only after prolonged stimulation for example intercourse that lasts for 3045 minutes or more WOMEN failure to achieve orgasm with intercourse is more common for women than erectile dif culties are for men orgasmic disorders are the second most frequently reported sexual problem by women after hypoactive sexual desire anorgasmia an inability to reach orgasm even with quotadequatequot stimulation orgasmic disorder more commonly has psychosocial foundations 0 women with orgasmic disorders are less likely to be educated about sex less comfortable in communicating their desire for clitoral stimulation to their partners more likely to have negative attitudes about masturbation and more likely to have psychosocial problems SEXUAL PAIN DISORDERS Dyspareunia dif cult or painful or sexual intercourse women are more often affected by this problem than men 0 can result from both physical factorssuch as infection endometriosis vaginal dryness or phimosis and emotional factorssuch as inhibitions or abuse vaginismus painful involuntary spasm of the pubococcygeus PC muscles of the outer third of the vagina making penetration dif cult or impossible penis captivus term used to describe an occurrence that is theoretically possiblea man becomes stuck in a woman after her vaginal muscles clamp down on his penis Sexual Issues in Gay and Lesbian Relationships heterocentricity evaluating sexual issues of people in samesex relationships according to what is deemed standard quot or quotnormal for heterosexual relationships many studies have shown that lesbians have less sex than heterosexual women When comparing men and women in heterosexual relationships with those in same sex relationships there are more similarities than differences 0 men and women in mixed and same sex relationships report similar levels of sexual satisfaction and sexual communication gays and lesbians reported slightly higher levels of sexual desire than those in heterosexual relationships 0 Gay men have many of the same sexual concerns as hetero or bisexual men ED and desire discrepancy between partners some sexual issues are more commonly seen in men who have sex with men such as pain during receptive anal intercourse and the need to negotiate relationship openness agreements whereas other issues occur less frequently delayed ejaculation is not a common problem among gay men 0 Women who have sex with women report fewer sexual problems than women who have sex with men 0 Lesbian bed death the slang term for the diminishment of sexual activity between two longterm lesbian partners US Incidence of Sexual Dysfunctions men experience more sexual problems as they age which can be attributed to erectile dysfunction and a decrease in sexual desire women experience fewer problems as they mature except for dif culties associated with lubrication sexual instability in conjunction with inexperience may lea to mor tressful and less satisfying sexual encounters higher educational attainment was associated with fewer sexual problems married people show the lowest rates of sexual dif culties THE EFFECTS OF EXTERNAL SUBSTANCE SON SEXUAL AROUSAL Aphrodisiacs Herbs named for Aphrodite the Greek goddess of love and desire substances that are thought to arouse or increase sexual response generally if an aphrodisiac works it is because the user believes it will work the mind is the most powerful controller of sexual arousal a substance that causes erection is not necessarily an aphrodisiac the Spanish y case and plants various herbs and plants have been reported to improve sexual functioning tea from bark and roots of muira puama potency wood vegetable maca said to increase reproductive rates sperm counts and sexualdesue etcc Substances that improve overall health Druos zinc is necessary for sperm production and motility vaginal lubrication and hormone metabolism oysters amino acid arginine necessary for proper erectile functioning brown rice peanuts and cholocate vitamin E whole grains green leafy vegetables and wheat germ sperm production and motility sexual enrgy and endurance and other substances poppers popular in the bar scene of gay men in the 19705 and 19805 falsey considered as a possible cause for the unmade AIDS before the HIV virus was discovered cause a quothead rush and facilitate erection perhaps because of its ability to reduce inhibitions and judgments drinking is often associated with risky sexual behaviors Date rape drugs Rohypynol quot roo esquot or GHB mmay be slipped into a mperson39s drink making him or her more prone to sexual assult Ectasy MDMA has been called the quotlove drugquot because some nd it to increase empathy and bonding does not improve seuaI functioning and it has potentially fatal side effects amphetamine and cocaine may initially enhacnce sexual desire longterm use can lead to sexual dysfunction problems achieving erections and orgasm for example Ana ph rodisiacs de nition inhibit sexual response antidepressants Prozac work by affecting serotonin levels a substance involved in modulating sexual desire may delay r increase the dif culty in achieving erection and orgasm Opitoids such as codeine heroin oxycontin and the cough suppressant dextromethorphan also diminish sexual function and orgasm Nicotine constricts blood vessels which can impair the ability of the genitals to become engorged with blood during excitement Chapter 8 Love WHAT IS LOVE gt Distinguish between the three phases of romantic love Lust Attraction amp Attachment Stage Characteristics Hormones amp Biological Neural pathways Foundations involved Lust Craving for sexual Androgens and To initiate the grati cation with estrogens mating process any appropriate pheromones and partner the senses Attraction Energy and High dopamine and Allows both attention focused norepinephrine parties to keep on one particular low serotonin focused on each person decreased other in order to attention on other choose and potential partners pursue a partner and to maintain a relationship Attachment Feelings of Oxytocin To sustain the security comfort vasopressin relationship long and emotional enough to union complete parental duties Love emotion or a drive 0 studies of brain activity of people in the early states of passionate love FMRI scans showed increased activity in the areas related to reward and motivational drives 0 Aron and colleagues suggest that early passionate love is not an motion in and of itself rather it is probably characterized as quot a motivation or goaloriented state that leads to various speci c emotions such as euphoria or anxiety gt List and describe the six Lee quotlove styles three primary styles of love 1 eros Romantic or passionate love emphasizes physical attractionadn sexual desire erotic love isheighly idealized which is why purely romantic love cannot last forever aws and shortcomigns exist and erotic lvoers are quick to fall in and out of love although erotic lovers are more likely than other type sof lovers to be highly satis ed with their relationships 2 storge Deep compassionate attachment or nonsexual affection this is the sot of love that binds parents and children close friends as well as couples whose quite calm love has built overtime storgic lovers don39t suddenly fall in love with an idealized lover they instead develop feelings of affection for their partner though pleasurable activities Commitment stability and comfort are the goals women often score higher than men on storgic scales 3 ludus A gameplaying style of love Ludic lovers enjoy the game of seduction and do not necessarily value commitment or intimacy sex is for fun not for expressing emotion or commitment and a game player may juggle several relationships at once more common in collegeaged men and in women whose parents are divorced Other forms are 4 mania obsessive jealous love that combines eros and ludus o manic love Characterized by roller coaster highs and lows o Manic lovers may sit by the phone for hours waiting for that all like an erotic lover a manic lover wants an intense physically stimulating relationship but usually chooses inappropriate partners 5 agape altruistic love that combines eros and storge o altruistic and sel ess love nothing is expected in return and the other39s wishes are considered more important than your own an agapic lover may not try to nd a perfect partner for him or herself but instead submit to the will fGod or try to support all those who need their love this sort of love is considered more socially acceptable in women than in men 6 pragma pragmatic love that combines storge and udus combines the cold conscious elements of udic love with the nonsexual affection of storgic ove practical and businesslike partners tend to balance the negative with the positives to get the best relationship quot dealquot that they feel they can pragmatic lovers may plan the best time to get married have children or get divorced based on nancial or social factors Pragmatic love is more often seen in women than men gt Illustrate Sternberg s triangular theory of love 1 2 Steinberg suggests that love is made up of three components intimacy passion and commitment that combine to form various kinds of love according to the theory the amount of love depends on the absolute strength of each of the components and the kind of love depends on the strengths of the three components relative to each other Couples are wellmatched if their triangles are roughly the same shape an d size ie if they have approximately the same levels of passion and commitment and intimacy o Intimacy involves emotional closeness caring and sharing It includes the desire to give and receive emotional support the feelings of warmth toward another person and the wish to share one39s innermost thoughts with the other 0 Passion describes an intense romantic or sexual desire for another person and is usually accompanied by physical attraction and physiological arousal Involves a deep desire to form a union with the object of your affection This quothot componentquot of love is often the rst element in a romantic relationship as well as the rst to end 0 Commitment called the quotcoldquot conscious component of love involves both a shortterm and a longterm decision the decision that one loves another and the decision t maintain that love a dedication to maintaining the relationship through good times and bad and can alone sustain a relationship if both intimacy and passion or gone gt Clarify the six different types of love described by the Sternberg Theory 0 Liking involves only emotional intimacy relationships with friends 0 lnfatuation passion without intimacy or commitment quot love at rst sightquot 0 Empty love involves only commitment a couple whose relationship has long since lost any intimacy or passion but who stay together quot for the childrenquot social appearance or other reasons 0 Romantic love combines both passion and intimacy may be present in the rst phase of a relationship or in summer ing characterized by emotional intensity fragility and sexual excitement o Compassionate love intimacy and commitment example marriage in which the passion has faded or a longterm deeply committed friendship o Fatuous love you don39t really know the person to whom you39re making a commitment combines passion and commitment without intimacy example whirlwind courtship in which two people meet and decide to get married after spending a weekend together 0 Consummate love combination of passion intimacy and commitment in balance this is the type of relationship most of us are seeking gt Compare and contrast quotlike quotIo ve and quotin lo ve Liking Love In Love Most common Positive mood when Positive mood Arousal wl characteristic thinking about or when thinking thinking a being with the other about or being with the o with the other Distinctive Desire for Trust Arousal characteristic interaction with the Tolerance and Thinking a that differentiate other altruistic the other the emotions Attribution of behavior toward Behaviort positive the other the other characteristics to Calmness due to inhibited the other the other39s Perception of presence similarities with the other gt Describe what it feels like to fall in lo ve 1 complex amalgam of emotions 2 one can experience euphoria or torment sleepless THE ORIGINS OF LOVE gt 3 nights or restless day hope or uncertainty a person in love may alternate between soaring ecstasy and crushing fear between feeling invincible and feeling helpless 4 the lover can experience a longing for emotional reciprocity along with a fear of rejection The areas of the brain that correspond to the emotion of love 1 2 3 whether romantic or maternal love and attachment stimulate similar neuronal pathways in the brain Romantic love stimulates the hypothalamus which controls among other things sexual arousal Maternal love stimulates the periaqueducta gray a brain area high in oxytocin and endorphins thought to be involved in maternal behaviors and pain reduction during childbirth Identify the role that speci c neurotransmitters play in the expression of love 1 Dopamine DA and norepinephrine NE are neurotransmitters that are involved in mood motivation attention and excitement thought that the attraction phase of love is associated with physiological arousal as well as an almost obsessive focus on one s beloved 2 Serotonin a neurotransmitter that has been linked to mood obsession sex and sleep 0 Levels decrease during infatuation which may cause the obsession one often feels during this early phase of love 3 Phenvlethvlamine PEA a neurochemical released during infatuation and excitement called the quotlove drugquot because high levels of this substance have been associated with love and orgasm 4 Oxytocin hormone involved in uterine contraction love and bonding causes the uterus to contract during labor and allows for release of breast milk Oxytocin also seems to be important in trust empathy emotional accessibility and pair bonding orgasm increases levels of oxytocin perhaps promoting a desire to be with your partner increasing the likelihood that you will have sex and thus releasing more oxtocin and enhancing the pair bonding process 5 Vasopressin important for bonding and parenting behaviors 6 Endorphins give us feelings of security euphoria and peace Begin separated from your beloved for unusual periods can literally make you lovesick like an addict not getting his or her x gt describe the psychological theories that explain why people fall in love 1 Behavioral Reinforcement Theories suggest that we like or love people because we associate good feelings with them 0 the better the feelings we associate with a person the stronger the feeling ie we like a person that we associate with good feelings and love a person we associate with VERY good feeHngs 2 thsiolooical Arousal theories 0 our bodies experience a physiological change and THEN we assign an emotion to that physical sensann the most commonly described feelings associated with love and infatuation are very similar to our body s stress reaction 3 Evolutionarv Theories love arose due to some basic sociobiological needs the drive to protect offspring the need to be protected from outside threats and the sexualdnve the feeling of love allows us to form the bonds e need to achieve these goals and to successfully pass on our genes gt Recognize the psychological and physiological bene ts that love and friendship bestow 1 People who feel loved and who share close loving relationships with others show lower rates of health problems including heart disease and cancer 2 those with commitments to and relationships with other people tend to eat better and take fewer risks 3 companionship can affect the way our bodies respond to stress 4 Being in love can make us more creative even WITH WHOM DO WE FALL IN LOVE gt Understand the factors that affect whom we fall in love with 0 Ph vsica attractiveness According to the matching hypothesis people are more likely to form longterm relationships with partners who match the in physical attractiveness May be due to tendency of people to avoid being rejected by someone more attractive than themselves when we see couples in which the man is signi cantly less attractive than the female we tend to assume that the man is wealthy intelligent andor successful 0 Reciprocity another s feelings toward us we like people who like us if we discover that someone likes us we appreciate their good taste and give them a second look Relationships in which only one person is expressive and complimentary are unlikely to last 0 proximity the more we are exposed to something the more we like it quothigh preselection localesquot locations in which people gather who share common interests 0 Similarities shared traits and values When dealing with the complexities involved with humanlove it is much more likely that quotbirds of a feather ock together most married couples in the USgt share the same race and religion and are similar in terms of age socioeconomic class intelligence education and physical attractiveness study newlyweds showed people tend to marry those with similar attitude religion and values though these factors did not correlate with satisfaction in marriage Similarities in personality that appear to be more important in marital happiness gt Recognize that love occurs at all stages of the life span 0 an infant39s relationship with his or her primary caregiver can in uence attachment styles later in life 0 Infant Studies securely attached infants happily explored the new environment while using mom as a quothome basequot engaged with strangers and appeared to feel safe showed some distress when their mother left but when reunited infants sought contact but then continued to explore their environment anxiousambivalent Less likely to disengage from their mothers t explore fearful of strangers and very distressed when their mothers left the room upon returns infants often responded to her with rage or indifference avoidant May show little emotion to the mother or the stranger and may not react when the mother leaves the room or upon her return 0 3 rami cations these styles can have in our adult behavior 0 Divorc 5 Securely attached adults nd it relatively easy to get close to others and have others get close to them without smothering their partner don39t over worry about emotional intimacy 6 Anxiousambivalent adults are often more insecure in relationships and they may want to merge completely in efforts to become close to their partner 7 Avoidant adults may nd it dif cult to trust their partners to depend on others and to share intimacy In the United States about 56 of subjects classi ed themselves as securely attached 19 as anxious ambivalent and 25 as avoidant Hazan amp Shaver 1987 e Women whose parents were divorced showed more avoidant and less secure attachments as adults Males from divorced homes scored higher on eros or romantic love scales and men who grew up on families in which the parents remained married but were unhappy scored lowest on Eros scales evidence it might not be the actual divorce but rather the quality of relationship a person has with his or her parents that affects the person39s intimate relationships 0 NO age limit on love falling in love at a young age vs older age older people are secure of who they are what th3y want in a patner already achieved success in their lives may feel less pressure to score and focus more on being with a partner with whom they can be themselves WHEN LOVE GOES BAD About 1525 of all homicides in the US involve intimate partners about 1000 women are killed each year by current or exhusbands The decreased incidence of spousal murder may be due to the increased availability of abused women39s shelters Also decrease in men killed by their spouses when women have options for escaping their abusive spouses they are less likely to kill them gt De ne unrequited love and recognize its relationship to obsessive or even violent behaviors 0 Unreduited Love love that is not reciprocated associated with negative emotions such as pain suffering jealousy disappointment anger and frustrations can become obsessive relational intrusion Similar to stalking it is the willful and continued intrusion into the personal life of a former partner 0 1 million American women and 370000 American men are followed and harassed by rejected lovers 10of men and 235 of women report having experienced intrusion behavior including receiving unwanted communication visits or gifts being followed or monitored or family being pursued relational stalking can also become more serious when one makes verbal or physical threats against target or loved ones damages property or invades personalwork space 0 eaousy A state of envy fear or suspicion caused by a real or imagined threat to an existing situation or relationship de ned as an emotional state quot that is aroused by a perceived threat to a valued relationship or position and motivates behavior aimed at countering the threatquot prodcues feelings of anxiety and insecurity mistrust and rejection one of the most commonly mentioned reasons why a relationship fails can hurt a relationship but can also be a sign of how important a person39s partner is to him or her gt Evaluate the ndings regarding gender differences in jealousy 0 study men said they would be more upset when imagining their partner having sex with someone else 0 if a man s wife has sex with another he may unwillingly end up supporting another man s child women were more upset at emotional in delity if a woman39s husband falls in love with someone else her child may suffer from the loss of his resources Gender differences disappeared when a partner has an affair with someone of the same sex 0 Both men and women report less jealousy in response to a samesex in delity than to an oppositesex in delity May be because the evolutionary threat of impregnation is removed or because the injured part consoles him or herself with the idea that they aren39t competing on the same playing eld CULTURAL EXPRESSIONS OF LOVE gt understand that love is universal 1 love is universal but there are differences in in the way men and women of different cultures value or express their love 2 Fischer study 1992 examined 166 tribal cultures and found that passionate love existed in at least 147 of them 3 men vs women men fall in love faster and take longer to give up at the end of a relationship men most likely to have a ludic or game playing style of love storgic agapic or pragmatic love styles are more characteristic of women both men and women value communication commitment and intimacy in loving relationships gt consider how Io ve is expressed differently by disparate groups of people 1 throughout history those in political and religious power have viewed passionate lovers powerful feelings as a threat to the social order 2 for 1500 years the Catholic Church proclaimed passionate love and sex for any purpose other than procreation to be a moral sin 3 differences in basic de ning characteristics between Western and other cultures determine variations in how we View love US Canada and Western Europe cultures are individualistic in which individual goas are emphasized over group goals in these cultures it is not only acceptable but often encouraged to deviate and identify one s self outside of the group identity 0 American society values passionate love as a basis for marriage Collectivist cultures such as China Africa and Southeast Asia emphasize collective goals and duties over individual rights self is de ned by group membership and by one s relationship with others 0 In these cultures conformity and harmony are valued a person is encouraged to choose partners based on the family s wishes Companionate respectful friendly partnerships are valued over passionate ones gt Analyze the messages about love that are disseminated by the media 1 The media presents us with a number of myths about love which we incorporate into our expectations Dr Galician your soul mate is cosmically predestined so nothing and no one can ultimately separate you There is a such thing as quotlove at rst sightquot your perfect partner should know what you39re thinking or feeling without you having to tell them to attract and keep a man a woman should look like a model while the man must be taller stronger older and richer than the woman Bickering and ghting a lot is a sign that a man and woman really love each other passionately all you need is love so it doesn39t matter if you and your love have different values and they lived happily ever after 1 Lamar and Cherise stay together for the sake of the children Though their marriage no longer has intimacy or passion they feel a deep sense of commitment to raising their children in a twoparent household Empty love involves only commitment a couple whose relationship has long since lost any intimacy or passion but who stay together quot for the childrenquot social appearance or other reasons 2 Betty and Barney met in Las Vegas and fell quotin love at rst sightquot they spent 24 hours a day together for a week eating laughing gambling and having amazing sex At the end of the week they go to the Graceland chapel where they are legally married by an Elvis impersonator lnfatuation passion without intimacy or commitment quot love at rst sightquot 3Tom and Mark have been together for 40 years they are open and loving but no longer have sex Compassionate love intimacy and commitment Example marriage in which the passion has faded or a longterm deeply committed friendship 4Shane and Carson met while they were on a service learning trip to the DR While there they shared a passionate connection both emotional and physical When the trip was over both went back to their partners in the states Romantic love combines both passion and intimacy may be present in the rst phase of a relationship or in summer ing characterized by emotional intensity fragility and sexual excitement Chapter 9 Committed Relationships and Communicating with your partner COMMUNICATION AND BUILDING A RELATIONSHIP gt Explain Cycle by which trust dependence and commitment interact 0 Intimacy trust commitment and communication all can help a relationship grow Intimacy involves emotional closeness caring and selfdisclosure of feelings hopes dreams and fears couples may become more committed to a relationship as their interdependence deepens Commitment can increase prorelationship acts which can enhance one s partner s trust which increases willingness to become dependent on the relationship Although both males and females equally value intimacy Heterosexual males may have been raised with cultural inhibitions against expressing intimacy or showing vulnerability Gay males are more likely than heterosexual males to agree with the statement you should share your most intimate thoughts and feelings with the person you lovequot maybe because gay men are less likely than hetero men to adopt stereotyped beliefs about gender roles gt List some skills for effective communication 0 0 Plan proper time and place If you have something important to discuss choose an occasion when you are alone relaxed and have plenty of time Levelno and editno state your thoughts and feelings clearly simply and honestly without sarcasm or judgments Be speci c with examples and requests Give your partner concrete examples of things he or she has done that have hurt you and behaviors you would like to see One issue ata time try to address one issue at a time without bringing up past offenses Don t assume you can only know someone s behavior not the intention or emotion behind it don t assign an intention to your partner s behavior Complain don t criticize a complaint is a healthy way to vent your anger about something you wish were otherwise whereas a criticism attacks or blames another criticisms often begin with you while complaints can begin with Maintain your independence speak for yourself Validation demonstrate to your partner that you can understand his or her feeHngs Respect your partner listen respectfully and fully without interrupting try to tolerate your differences Handind impasses couples cannot always resolve their issues gt describe some ways that men and women differ in their communication styles 0 MEN use language to inform to negotiate or to gain status less likely to ask for advice or driving directions or to admit insecurities as this puts then in a quotonedown position listen for the bottom linequot for a decision that needs to be made or an action that has to be taken in silence Men are prone to assume all is well o WOMEN more likely to use language to connect and create rapport with others more likely to respond to others in a way that shows that they understand others positions and feelings women listen for details to ll in the big picture ask more questions in silence women are more likely to presume something is wrong gt Recognize the importance of nonverbal communication 0 Most of our communication with others is actually nonverbal your tone of voice body language and facial expressions can all in uence the impact of your message gt Consider how characteristics of an ideal partner have changed over time Both men and women want love and mutual attraction in a partner as well as a dependable character emotional stability and intelligence Good looks are considered more important today than they were in the mid20th century gt Understand some of the factors that make up a successful Iong0term relationship a Most relationship do not end because the couple fell out of love but because they stopped working on the relationship a Money and sex are common causes of difficulties in relationships gt List some ways to increase the positive interactions in a relationship Know your partner like your partner interact frequently care for your partner respect your partner let you partner in uence you solve your solvable problems be committed to your relationship and your partner TO MARRY OR NOT TO MARRY as of the beginning of the 21st century the most common type of American household almost one in threeOconsists of a person living alone 25 million family households husband wife kids and 27 million single adult households over the past decades it has become much more common for an American adult to be single Being single is much less stigmatized today than in the past 0 people are waiting until later in life to marry 0 many are choosing to live together rather than legally wed 0 others haven t found Mr or Ms Right gt De ne Cohabitation 0 when a couple lives together in a consensual union that has not been legally formalized or religiously sanctioned 0 many view cohabitation as a precursor to marriage about 75 of cohabitors say theyp9lan to marry their partners 0 Some such as samesex partners who are legally forbidden to marry consider living together as an alternative to marriage 0 understanding of sexual delity o few legal r religious sanctions to regulate the lives of cohabitors 0 less likely to hold traditional ideas about the family and gender roles and are more likely to share equally in household tasks 0 More likely than married couples to join with a partner of a different race or educational level 0 cohabitation has been rising in the USgt today most couples who marry lived together rst 0 cohabiting unions have become the most revalent type of relationship among men and women in their 205 most young adults believe cohabitation is acceptable even if marriage is not being considered more common among those with lower educational and socioeconomic status less religious have been divorced or whose parents were divorced those who hold less traditional views of marriage and gender roles and people who are more sexually liberal gt list the reasons for and rami cations of cohabitation 0 Reasons people are marrying at a later age batter loneliness save on nancial costs and provide a steady safe sexual partner changes in the way we view marriage and divorce may enter into cohabitations unions to avoid the emotional and nancial devastation occurred in divorce cohabitation gives them a chance to test compatibility and evaluate relationship 0 in actuality those who cohabit before marriage have a greater chance of divorcing in later marriages May be due to selection factors because cohabitation changes one s view of marriage or a consequences of other factors entirely many people choose to live together due to nancial concerns or legal restrictions MARRIAGE gt Compare and contrast the reasons for marriage in the past and today 0 until recently marriages were a practical matter neither passion nor romantic love were the basis of wedlock created extensive ties between groups through which families could accumulate wealth and power in earlier times producing children to carry on the family line was of paramount importance and a major motivation to marry Historically many marriages formed because of nancial necessity o TODAY introduction of oral contraceptives did much to change the face of modern relationships Americans today are more likely to see child rearing and marriage as separate pursuits and outofwedlock births are becoming much more accepted love is considered of utmost importance in marriage and has become more signi cant in the process of choosing a mate than it was in the past people want to marry a best friend soul mate forever always kinda thing gt de ne quottraditional marriage and quotegalitarian marriage 0 Traditional marriage a marriage in which spouses allocate roles and responsibilities based on sex women being responsible for domestic duties and children while men take nancial responsibility and make family decisions 0 Egalitarian marriage A marriage characterized by shared roles and responsibilities regardless of gender gt Assess the amount of housework done by men and by women 0 Having a husband adds an extra 7 hours per week of housework to a woman s load while having a wife saves a man an hour of housework each week 0 When men leave a union to live alone they increase time spent on household chores by 16 0 when women become single it decreases their household chores load by 16 0 Traditional gender roles in housework still stand in most American homes traditional male tasks usually have the following qualities a well de ned start and nish personal discretion as to whent eh taskshould eb performed and a leisure component within the task Traditional female tasks cooking cleaning and child care must be performed daily at set times with little discretion as to when the task should be done 0 amount of housework performed seems to correlate with a woman s outside employment women perform more housework than men regardless of whether they work outside of the home or not as a woman s outside earnings increase from none to about half of the total household income the division of housework becomes more equitable ln households where the wives are the primary breadwinners they also perform the vast majority of household chores The more a husband is economically dependent on his wife the LESS housework he does gt recognize the diminishing social role that marriage plays in our society today 0 Marriage today plays a less dominant role in American society than it did in the past 0 those who are single divorced or widowed cohabitating or living with a samesex partner head a growing number of households 0 Although the social reasons for marriage family and social ties legitimacy for children and parental partnerships are becoming less of a motivation o marry the personal aspects of marriage such as love and emotional intimacy are gaining importance gt identify the factors that in uence who a person is likely to marry 0 Similar race religion age socioeconomic class appearance and education and may even have similar genes 0 comparable attitudes and values 0 alike with regard to physical attractiveness gt list the bene ts of marriage 0 Financial Bene ts enjoy more economic bene ts than do singles or cohabiting couples Marriage helps couples to generate income through tax bene ts or health care allowances married couples save and invest more men become more economically productive after marriagethey earn between 10 and 40 more than single men with similar educational and job histories while most couples report a decline in the number of their sexual encounters over time married people report more frequent and satisfying sex than unmarried couples married couples have higher levels of trust commitment security and communication as well as lower fear of sexually transmitted infections and less drug and alcohol infused sex 0 Physical and psychological bene ts married people happier healthier and live longer than unmarried people score higher on measures of happiness and life satisfaction and lower on measures of mental illness depression and anxiety for men better off physically nancially socially and psychologically compared to single men lower rates of treatment for mental illness less likely to be depressed or commit suicide than men without a wife or girlfriendsome suggest marriage may be more bene cial to men than to women associated with stronger physical health and a lower mortality rate Married men and women have the strongest physical health followed by the single then by the widowed and nally by the separated and divorced who thavet he poorest physical health 0 Gender amp Marriade some studies suggest that while marriage improve men s physical and emotional health women are more likely to bene t nancially from marriage because of women s decreased dependence on men and marriage for nancial security there is a growing perception that marriage is more bene cial to men than to women Women in general are more likely to report negative feelings than men are and that may account for some of the difference sin marital satisfaction between men and women gt evaluate the relationship between marriage and psychological wellbeing 0 Having an intimate relationship with a spouse may greatly alleviate many of life s stresses 0 Marriage may improve your psychological outlook by giving you a wellOde ned role and de nition in a relationship as well as in society CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES ON MARRIAGE gt de ne Monogamy Polygamy Open marriage Polyamory Swinging and commonlaw marriage Monogamy from Greek word monos meaning one and gamos meaning marriage the practice of having one spouse at a time Polygamy the practice of having more than one spouse at a time Open Marriage a marriage in which partners with each other s permission and without guilt or jealousy have intimate relationships with others outside the primary relationship Polyamory the love of many people at once The love may be emotional sexual spiritual or any combination thereof Swinging Nonmonogamous consensual sexual activity that is experienced together as a couple Commonlaw marriage a marriage without license or religious ceremony that is legally binding in some states Entails that a couple cohabit are free to enter into contracts and present themselves as husband and wife Legal in 11 states and DC there is no commonlaw divorce have to go through state to legally absolve the marriage gt identify the phases of the marriage ceremony a s a Iiminal experience 0 Separation the stage where a person is separated from his or her previous situation on anticipation of taking on a new role or identity Transition the actual liminal state when the person is not in one state or another but is quotbetwixt and betweenquot Incorporation after a liminal experience the stage where a person is reintegrated back into society but in a transformed state gt compare the position that marriage holds in different religions 0 Christian Faiths Believe that God created the institution of marriage as a lifelong commitment that should not be entered into lightly lslam considers marriage a sacred obligation a contract between a man a woman and Allah Marriage plays a central role in social and spiritual life Hinduism sees marriage as a sacred duty and a means for spiritual growth Believe that people are not complete without marriage and the joining of a man and wife is important for maintaining social traditions Buddhists Believe that marriage is a personal concern and social convention not a religious duty gt Common Law Marriage 0 Entails that a couple cohabit are free to enter into contracts and present themselves as husband and wife legally binding in some states although they are not licensed nor blessed by a religious ceremony gt Interracial Marriage 0 58 of marriages in the US are interracial o Whites are least likely to wed interracially but due to their demographic majority are involved in more interracial marriages than any other group 0 The least common coupling is a black woman married to an Asian man 0 Same race and interracial couples are similar in attachment and con ict management styles although mixedrace couples actually report higher satisfaction levels in their relationships than do samerace couples 0 Interracial couples may have to deal with cultural differences and society s bigotry and fear of the unfamiliar gt compare miscegenation laws with today s laws against samesex marriage 0 Today s laws against samesex marriage may someday be looked upon with the same disdain with which we view the old miscegenation laws 0 by forbidding samesex couples the right to marry we deny them and their children more than 1000 bene ts and protections given to heterosexual CONFLICT estimated that married couples have between one and three disagreements each month 4 warning signs of a relationship in trouble 1 Criticism attacking someone s personality or characterrather than a speci c behaviorusually with blame 2 contempt when you constantly criticize and intentionally insult your partner As contempt gross respect admiration and affection diminish 3 defensiveness a psychological strategy to deal with negative characterizations of one s self often putting the blame on others rather than yourself 4 Stonewalling emotionally or physically removing yourself from the con ict by not responding to your partner Ending a Relationship between 40 60 of US marriages end in divorce and most divorced people eventually remarry the divorce rate is much higher than in the early part of the 20th century but has decreases since the 197s and early 1985 Couples often divorce due to a falling out of love lack of communication or because their emotional needs were not met a Adultery voluntary extra material sexual intercourse can also lead to divorce People may cheat because of physical or emotional dissatisfaction or due to curiosity or opportunity Remarriage 0 men are more likely to remarry than women are the likelihood that a divorced woman will remarry has been declining since the 50 s remarriages have a higher divorce rate than rst marriages those who have already divorced may be less likely to stay in a troubled marriage 0 There are many factors that correlate with a greater risk of divorce having fewer children marrying in one s teens being African American having very high or very low levels of education having very high or very low levels of education and having parents that were divorced Divorce can be nancially and emotionally draining although many adults are happier 1 year after their divorce and they were during the marriage children of divorced families show ore ambivalence in their intimate relationships as well as more physical and emotional illness although this may be effect not of divorce but of living in an unhappy households The death of a spouse is considered to be the most stressful event of adu hood


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