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MARSHALL / Biology / BSC 227 / What are the two body systems that control internal communication and

What are the two body systems that control internal communication and

What are the two body systems that control internal communication and


School: Marshall University
Department: Biology
Course: Human Anatomy
Professor: Jennifer mosher
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: nervous system and Endocrine system
Cost: 50
Name: BSC227 Chapters 13-18 Study Guide
Description: This guide is for you to review for the upcoming exam on October 26th. I have tried to include the most important information pertaining to the topic at hand. Please feel free to check out my notes on these chapters if you would like more information. If you have any questions, don't hesitate to ask.
Uploaded: 10/21/2016
9 Pages 113 Views 2 Unlocks

Chapter 13 - Nervous Tissue

What are the two body system that control internal communication and coordination?

Study SS


What are the two body system that control internal communication and coordination? nervous endocrine What are the three primary functions of the nervous system? 1. receive infoabout changes wternat

2. processinfo + determine response 3. corsmord Cells to carry out response Generally what are three universal properties of neurons

What are the three primary function of the nervous system?

to exatability, 2. Conductivity 3. Secretion ce nourotransmitter Terms to know: Central Nervous System - bran and spinal core information processing Peripheral Nervous System - nerves' + ganolta; Sensory - input footMotorOudts from CNS Autonomic Nervous System - part of visceral motor division of motor perparol system

How many spinal nerves come off the cord?

If you want to learn more check out How does the movement of the myofibrils lead to muscle contraction?
If you want to learn more check out How is covering and lining epithelium categorized?

Sympathetic - prepares body for action

Parasympathetic - adopts to calm neurons - Comunicators of nervous system ; nerve celi

soma- cell body, contains nucleus and protein synthesizing organelles dendrite - htree roots from some that receive signals

axon-"nerve tai" that transmits Signals away from Soma nerve fiber - A.K.A axon

somatic - Skeletol muscle, skin, bones, joints al visceral - Organs / Smooth, care ac mucole in thoracic or abdominal cavities eg heard, lunga Stornach, bladder O Don't forget about the age old question of What did lerner and loewe write?

b ipolar neurons - have one axons, one dendrit; rare - retina, inner ear $0 Emultipolar neurons - one axon, multiple dontytes, most common- motor neurons to muscle 24-unipolar neurons - one process arising from Soma ; sensory 0 Spinal cord. If you want to learn more check out What did the human genome project discover?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of forensic science?

>anaxonic -no axon, dendrites; no action potentiota - brain, renna

sensory afferent) neurons - carry sensory sianals from sense receptors CNS motor (efferent) neurons - carry motor Signals from CNS to effector: target interneurons - entirely wiin CAS ; 901. of neurons i connect tocom senses routgong ganglia - Knot bundle-like swelling in a nerve where cou bodies are contentated only inte neuroglia (glial cells)- protect nie neurons Don't forget about the age old question of What is the brief, immediate material we are currently processing?

oligodendrocytes - produce myelin ,+ support in ONS microglia - macrophages of CNS, produced by WBC 1 astrocytes support, blood-brain barcr promote neurolorowth +Synape fora atom, regulate

Lependymal cells - produce cerebrospinal Aud ANS Schwann cells - produce pela in PNS

Csatellite cells - little-known ferchon myelination (white and gray matter) - white; myelinated axons ; greu:unmyelinated aenaritts * somos

synapse (chemical and electric)-chemical: presynaptic nerve releases neurotransmiter, electricalTapi

(gap, une fransmision, neurotransmitter - chemical that binds to post synaphe receptors

no decision

Mottag Chapter 14 - Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves

CNS Seatroute

What are the three basic functions of the spinal cord?

1. Conduction 2, Locomohon Centre pattern Generator 3. Reflexes Basic structure of the spinal cord Where does it start, where does it end? bose of foramen magnum through vertebral canal te handelbtinis How many spinal nerves come off the cord? 31 pairs of Spinal nerves Where do the spinal nerves exit the vertebral column? first pour pass between Skull + Ci, the

reslo pass through the intervertebral foramina



Know the following terms associated with the spinal cord ventral median fissure - middie * . in anterior white matter dorsal median sulcus - modre ford" in posterse white matter medullary cone-louer " that's technically not sperat core. Looks like after L cauda equina - pony fronta end of spinal cord medulla cone,

"pony tail of nerves - L2 - 95

Cauda equina. Meninges of the spinal cord Wiratare the three layers of the meninges:

Dura mater - tough, durable, collacenous membranc Hot fourns sheat around cord Arachnoid mater - Odheres derectly to deep side dus water; web-Azke most of Collagenous

Pla mater - tender, soft, translucent membrane that contours de spinal corel epidural space - between Sheath mete vertebrae, contains bisocivessels adipose sue, 1665e subarachnoid space gap deco $ arachnoid mater - between arochnoed & pra meter filum terminal - part of coccygeal ligament that anchors cord to L2 denticulate ligament - lateral of the cord that stabuzes met anchors cord in vertebral formen


Cross sectional anatomy Where is the gray matter and white matter? grey.inner Ideep, makes Hineord; white remaining anterior, lateral, and posterior horns - Dokvior better "butterfix winas posters are top" butterlinge de la central canal - hole in Ceator of ord gray commissure connects two are pas her halves columns - tonsist on fracts (bundles of axons)

CLS Carry sentary info up Cord y pically crosses 3 types of neurons first order - detects astmulus * moves it to brainstemos Spinel COLOR second order - Vnoves sonor 70 halon-sks (Sensory gateway)

third order neurons - moves signal is cerebral cortex descending tracts - conduct motor impulces down involves two neurons!

upper motor - begins in Cerebral Cortex for Voluntary movement ov brainstem Cox tavolusto lower motor neurons - moves siena toare

Spinal Nerves: endoneurium -wraps around a single nerve cell perineurium-wraps around a bundle of nerve cells epineurium - Wraps around entire here perve-fiber fascicles bundle of nerve celo afferent-sensory nerve efferent (motor) nerve somatic nerve-nerve to skinvoluntary muscle visceral nerve - nerve to organs special nerve Small tocal oceans in head - taste, hearing, Smeli

ve Widespread nerve involverment

Only Unipolar, afferent motor nerve - are multipolar efferent mixed nerve - both sensory motornost nerves

ganglia dorsal root ganglia - bundle of Somos on dorsal root dorsal root - perve branch off posterior horn, Sensory ventral root - nerve branch of anterior born, Motos dorsal rami - fiberu

- hiber that goes branches into bac muscles

ventral rami - fiber follows ribs o tio maps pack to Spine; intercostal nerves in thoracic, plexuses

- in other regions Know pathways for somatic motor and somatic sensory for the body

axor Somatic motor - one neuron from CNS 4 skeletal muscle on mye

Somatic sensory - afferent neeves sense in skin skeletakse to CNS on myciated oxon Know what structures spinal nerves innervate - 5km, upper lower appendiges, diaphree Know the named nerves and plexuses we went over and the areas they innervate) (se sensory, mu motor)

Cervical plexus (phrenic nerve) - ventrale rammi ff Ci (between stue er) - CSL beuren voran bene 0.05)

phrenic-diaphree runks (3) - right

Intercostal nerves - between cos Ofer point of Brachial plexus (rami, trunks, divisions, cords)- vertal; CS-TI

a Hachment

posterior cord (axillary and radial nerves)- Ox n. (S* y Shoulder); radialne (S+M> posteriorarmt upper, middle, lower

fercare medial cord (ulnar and median nerves)- ulnarn, (3-mede of hand, m-anterior forearm); median n. (salater divisions (2) - Trunks

lateral cord (musculocutaneous nerve)-($lateral forearm M-anterior arms Spot into anterior

Lumbar plexus (femoral and obturator nerves)- femoral (bio nerve - anterier than anads), obturatorn.

of m and posterior

ine Cords (3) - specifice

Sacral plexus (sciatic, tibial, and common fibular nerves; pudenal nerves)

through foremo Coccygeal plexus nerves

Sciatic - fusion of tibial

thigh, I medol, odducis

Abalar nerves; largest nerve back 545, Colifu mbene puderal n.- $2-4 Centats) What are dermatomes and why are they important?

each nerve Lexcept C) has sensory input from Specho

See where Spinal cord nurt is define reflex arc

Somate receptor l afferent nerve -> CNS - efferent norue s oie - reflex Brain and Cranial Nerves

median n.

anereor ari

fermoral llo


Know the following structures or terms: rostral-towards nore caudal - toreros tai brainstem - all of brain cxccpt cerebom cerebellum longitudinal fissure. bio "Canyonsepareras hemispheres right and left hemispheres - L R portions of brain white matter (tracts - projection, commissural & association) - inner, volume ; projechen,

e projecton) Cerebrum body

(Kenwiss urat her sphere gray matter (cerebellar cortex, cerebral cortex, nuclei) - surface laver

Communication corpus callosum-bundle of nerves connecting hemispheres

0650C.CH ON Tonerhen soker gyri - rased ridges sulci - grooves lateral sulcus - big asoove separetire frontal parietal et temporer central sulcus - $ig groove Separating frontal + parietal precentral gyrus - ridae immediately posted of central sula Broca's area-motor speaking in frontal lobe postcentral gyrus - fidge chcela ronda C Con s ulting

etnickes Area - language comprehension 4 planning in loft terperd Solec angular gyrus – abito react Writin para loke vermis = the fissure o cerebellum folia - parallel folds in cerebellum arbor vitae-ree of life" - maior nerve thor avanches into cevegelum cerebeliai peuunIES - connects Cerebellum a rointem? limbic system - middle of breuen emotion hypothalamus, hippocampus, Amygdala amygdala - area of fear, almond Shape infront of hippocampus

upothalamus, hippocampus, Amygdala, ongelate gyrus, basale gang!

a What are the special senses? vision, hearing a balance, taste.smell What are the general (somatosensory) senses? +

Touch, proprioception (sense of positron)

part of


What do the motor and sensory homunculus describe? describes what body parts are alrected by which brain

procedural memory- tying your shoe, Cornes Ruta declarative memory anything you can talk about a frets cerebral lateralization - one hemsohere is better at a ll the other


Know the different regions of the brain, the structures found within each region and the functions of these structures: Forebrain

Cerebrumman Orain, 5 15bes-Frontal (coonston), Parietal (general sentine), occhettalveston),

motor cortex Diencephalon

I temporal (hearing, learning, smell), insula (taste Thalamus (lis), gateway grey matter; sensory signals except Smeu process « relays

Hypothalamus - autonomie endocine hormones; meronyi homeostosis Pituitary-hormones

Epithalamus - roof over third verticle i poreon aiand, Chorond plexus Midbrains innerchangeable

CSSMesencephalon- between hind bandlencephalon

corpora quadrigemina 4 bulges on Postester midlertuin

superior colliculi- top bulges for visual outcoin inferior colliculi - bottom bulces Orocess and try a rolas kalon substania nigra - Srcetus movementos

cerebral peduncles - verticle Strands that clay snfo Hindbrain


Cerebellum - Ane stor skills, bush on Cawan baino

Pons. bia buloc on anterior lovca Stenrespirator Center, connects LR hemispheres o Myelencephalon

Medulla oblongata (decussation, nuclei/centers) > Obers that come up k Spinel.com

to L. Brain Vice Versa regulate biological feas ons reflexes blood pressure, arcu Cerebral lobes: know locations and functions of each Cerebrum

Frontal - front Temporal - sides Parietal - top Occipital- back

Insula - deep to tempore Know the three meninges (dura, arachnoid, pia), where they are and any special functions/structures associated with them. No epidural seace

Dura Mater - two leves(l.perit steal taule. Outer touchea skul 2.

nne toldsto create sin c ap touched skul 2. Menin a

0 Arachnoid Mater same as in some cord Pia Mater directly on brain Dural sinuses fuis was lood moves deoxusenteelle from brain to jugular ve Falx cerebri separates cerebral hemisphereas attaches to Costa e Superior Falx cerebelli - hoids careccllum up

Tentorium cerebelli - tents over Cerebellum Know functions and location of cerebrospinal fluid clear, colorless, bouyancy, protechon chemical balance

Ventricles - find chomeurs Subarachnoid space- Space below arachnoid water Central canal a hole in Spinal cord Choroid plexuses- mass of nerves off corpus callosum

Know locations and names of the ventricles.

lateral ventricles -- 2. opposite sides of thalamus third ventricle - below lateral Vermieles fourth ventricle - below therd vert. Ce per Cerebout interventricular foramen - conneos eroti v

cerebral aqueduct - Connect's third fourt ventricles What are the functions of cerebrospinal fluid? - buoyang Where is cerebrospinal fluid produced? ebendumg cua

gane, protection concussions, Shaken child syndrome),

protection concussions, Shaker

chemical balance

Cranial Nerves: (S=sensory. m:vndes, Bboth) Know the names, numbers, functions for the 12 cranial nerves S I Olfactory - Smell through cribrerforon plate

olfactory bulb - bave on top of ethmoid bone

olfactory tract - tail of builo to the brain S ll Optic - Sight

optic chiasma - bundle where perves oress Leye--> R hemisphere

optic tract - from chiasent to thatárius m III Oculomotor - motor intrinsic muscles of eye logbok , 4 others) M IV Trochlear - motors one intrinsic Muscle of eye

B V Trigeminal - muscles of Chasing-motor

Ophthalmic - Sensory to face, eye Maxillary -Sensory to face, maxilla

Mandibular nerve branches - Sensory to face, mancho C m VI Abducens - Sarre as IV B VII Facial - motor facial expressions ; taste on anterior 73

(sensor S VIII Vestibulocochlear - hearing balance

vestibular - balance

cochlear nerve branches -hearing BIX Glossopharyngeal - gotorto pharynx (Swallehang); taste on postenor '13 of tongue -sensory

5 X Vagus - motor (palate, pharynx, larynx) : sensor thoracicabdominal viscera, pharyny, diaphrer m XI Accessory-motse to stemnocleidomastoid + trapezius W XII Hypoglossal - Mestoy

"- motor to intrinsic anel

intrinsic and extre

extrensic tongue musclen Chapter 13 - Autonomic Nervous System



General Questions What are the functions of the ANS? involuntary motor contrel een viscera Which structures are under ANS control? qlands, Smooth sale, careliae "WSC! Does the ANS include both motor and sensory components? no. just motor What are the two subdivisions of the ANS? sympathenci pare sympathete What are the different responses of the sympathetic and parasympathetic portions? What is meant by dual innervation? (and antagonistic and cooperative effects)

parasympatheke - calming viscera receiving neve fers from both divisions of ANS. Antecost puse elect.. What is the ANS relationship to the CNS and PNS?

Cooperative Similar effects. Ants is at PNS. Thalamus parto CN) helps con* ANS, Heartbeat=ens, hearrate - ANS Somatic motor vs. visceral motor How do somatic motor pathways differ from visceral motor (autonomic) pathways?

Somote One neuron from ONS TO Skelen Maksele

cutoreie- from lateral horn of spiral cord, cross synapsem genglia

nerve to the target

to Second

Somato What are the different effector organs for the motor and visceral motor (autonomic) systems?

Somatic skeleto Muscle

autonomic glands, Socht odiac muscle Which system is usually under involuntary control? - ANS: visceral motor Which system is usually under voluntary control?sonate motor

Define preganglionic neuron - h«4 neuron w some in brainstem or Seal Cod autonomic ganglia location of synapse postganglionic neuron latex neuron whose axon extends to target cells

Sympathetic Division

Know the following terms and concepts: At what vertebral level do the preganglionic sympathetic neurons exit the spinal cord? 11- L2 Where on the gray matter of the spinal cord does the preganglionic neuron exit? laterac hern

communicating rami - connects ganglion chain to spora cerd te horecolumbar region

white - Connects Vengre romi of seiret nerve to ganglion

connects ganglion to dorsal rami of Spine nerve on ramp fram spinal cord to gang sympathetic chain - chain of ganglia parallel to Spinal core autonomic ganglia

cervical ganglia – nerves t alands Shath muscle in heod; smooth truscle on lurgs heart paravertebral ganglia- Aerves to cuteneous structures - Sweat alands, vilcerector, Smooth muscles peripheral ganglia - A.K.A abdominal aorticalexus

celiac - nerves that pass through here 06 to stomach, spleen, loved superior mesenteric 4 * 6

Go to Small intestine, proximal lageintes inferior mesenteric ganglia . ni

c e from distal large intestine, bladder, Ridino neuronal divergence one neuron Synapsing a

Sex organs

1 other newOYS Widespread effects on multiple targets Know the detailed pathways for preganglionic and postganglionic neurons to the parts of the body under ANS control:

1) Spinal nerve route: To: Cutaneous structures (sweat glands, piloecrector muscles, and smooth muscles) Pathway: lateral horn (T1-L2) - ventral root - spinal nerve - white rami communicates - paravertebral ganglia (synapse) - gray rami communicates - back to either ventral or dorsal depending on which area of the body needs innervation

2) Sympathetic Nerve Route To: Glands and smooth muscles inside of head; smooth muscles of lungs and cardiac muscle

Pathway: lateral horn (T1-L2) – ventral root - spinal nerve - white rami communicates - ascends sympathetic chain to cervical ganglia (synapse)- then follows special sympathetic nerves to glands and smooth muscles



3) Splanchnic Nerve Route To: Smooth muscle and glands of the abdomen and pelvis Pathway: lateral horn (T1-L2) - ventral root - spinal nerve - white rami communicates - paravertebral ganglia (does not synapse) - splanchnic nerve to peripheral ganglia (synapse) (either celiac, superior mesenteric, or inferior mesenteric ganglia depending on


which structure in the abdomen or pelvis needs innervation) - then follows special nerves to the visceral structures

Parasympathetic division

Where do the preganglionic parasympathetic neurons exit the CNS? orain + S2-4

in generell ganglioneer of

with in target

Terms to know terminal ganglia > location of synapse om craniol nere ciliary ganglia- locaten of gynapse on cranial nerve il sphenopalatine ganglia - 1 1 1 1 V I submandibular ganglia - 1 15

VIT otic ganglia - 1

more info

Pathways of various effectors: 1) Smooth muscles in the eye

oculomotor nerve - ciliary ganglia (synapse) - smooth muscles of the eye 2) Submandibular and sublingual salivary glands

facial nerve - submandibular ganglia (synapse) - submandibular and sublingual

glands 3) Lacrimal gland

facial nerve sphenopalatine ganglia (synapse) - lacrimal gland 4) Parotid salivary gland

glossopharyngeal - otic ganglia (synapse) - parotid gland 5) Thoracic organs (heart, lungs, esophagus) and upper abdominal and pelvic organs (stomach, pancreas, liver, small intestine, and first 1/2 of large intestine)

vagus - terminal ganglia (synapse) - visceral organ 6) Lower pelvic organs (second 1/2 of the large intestine, rectum, urinary, and reproductive system organs)

S2-4 - terminal ganglia (synapse) - visceral organ

Review What are the similarities and differences between the sympathetic and parasympathetic

portions? (Table 16.3) Feature Sympathetics

Parasympathetic Origin in CNS Thoracolumnar






ferminal ganglia (general term)




preganglionie w


Long pre Gorglonic Short past aangenic


Extensive (2:17)




widespread + general

I focal

& specific

Chapter 18 - Endocrine System

Endocrine glands - ductless, secrete hormones Exocrine glands - (i.e., sweat, salivary, etc...), have ducts, do not secrete hormones

What do endocrine glands do?

-secrete hormones; system regulation slow and long lasting What is a hormone?

- chemical messengers in your body What do hormones do?

-generally speed up or slow down cellular processes in target tissues What is a target cell (tissue or organ)?

- a specific cell (tissue or organ) in the body that a particular hormone effects What are the general similarities and differences of the nervous system and endocrine system?

Complementary Systems in serving internal communication

nervous - immediate + short lived, endocrine - slower to react, longer to stay Pituitary and Hypothalamus - 2 areas of pituitary

anterior lobe- adenohypophysis - Synthesizes own wormones

posterior lobe= neurohypophysis - stored bypothalarnie hormones - 8 major hormones secreted by pituitary; know hormones, which part of the pituitary they are secreted from, and the action of each hormone

(1. follicle stimulating - ovaries festes- *: ovarian follicles on estrogen Secretono speren Syocluction

Zr lute, vrut

2 - Same as 1 - f:evulation, maintain corpus luteum.mn: festosterone secretion anterior 13.thureid stimulating thyroid can growth, signal thyroid see etter

4.adrenocorhotropic" Adrenal cortex alucocorner S. prolactin so mammary nasis / testes fimik sumrests, utero homeostasis." 16. Qyow harmone


practically ev

practically everywhere - tissue qrowie, 1000x more Abilen 07. Ortidiuretic kidneyse water retention, con cause rise in blood pressure 18. oxytocin uterus, mosmary glands, brain contractions, mik release, spera transport in Mon, - which are the tropic hormones and which are the gonadotropins? more end bond


Gonadotropins: 1,215 - note that not all hormones that are secreted by the pituitary are produced by the pituitary (some are produced by the hypothalamus), understand this relationship between the pituitary and hypothalamus hypothalamus makes antidirbetic + oxytocin, posterior

pituitary stores de releases bypothalamus hormones *- releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus control the secretion of hormones

from the pituitary

Pineal -- know location, what hormones it produces, and their actions

posterior end of corpus callosum ceman Melatonin suppresses sexual maturation, relaxation Thyroid - 3 hormones secreted-largest in adults, Around wind eine

Thyroxine - T4-metabolism, rowth; produced me thyroid Triiodothyronine -T3- same 04 13 calcitonin produced

b e ing increase in bone depoxi ** (homes in children)

Parathyroid -- 1 hormone secreted - ovord grands on posterior of thyroid

parathyroid hormone -increases Calcium absorption in intestines, inhibits ca excretion

stimulates Ca resorption in bone

Adrenal Glands - 2 Fused siends superior on kidney. Secretes 50%, androgens in women - know the difference between the cortex and medulla of the adrenal glands

Medulla-inner gland

cortex - Outer gland - over 30 known hormones produced by cortex; know 3 general groups:

Mineralocorticoids - regulate mineral concentration Glucocorticoids - metabolize for carbs. protein, energy balance, fan ehecis 06 stress gonadocorticoids - Weak androgen testosterone lettrosea, reproductive development; boremas

Sexual behoor - medulla: produces 2 hormones


porta nervous syar norepinephrine -

> adrenaline - compliment S Are they similar to the actions that result by the stimulation of the sympathetic division of the ANS?

Similar 4es, but effects of medulla hormones are prolonged


Pancreas -- Why is it considered a mixed gland? both

exocrine Cosentveju endocrine

- endocrine cells = pancreatic islet secretes 2 hormones - microscopic 2'li el parereako celis

Glucagon - between meal. tells liver to make glucose from olycogen so blood suge

insulin during meal dels fissue to store / metabolize nutrients Gonads - mixed. exocrine (spermaegss). endocrine (testosterone, estrogen)

males = testes

testosterone - females = ovaries

resease 30 hormone$ for sex orcan estrogen -

development & function progesterone - -


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