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SJU / Biology / BIOL 2000 / What is the meaning of aerobic in respiration?

What is the meaning of aerobic in respiration?

What is the meaning of aerobic in respiration?

Description

School: St. John's University (NY)
Department: Biology
Course: Fundamental of Biology II: Cell/ Molecular
Professor: Achaibar
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Cost: 50
Name: Study guide for Biology Exam on 10/27/16
Description: This study guide covers what's going to be on the exam on 10/27/16
Uploaded: 10/22/2016
32 Pages 41 Views 1 Unlocks
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EXAM 2We also discuss several other topics like What does eliot noyes known for?

CHAPTER 9

RESPIRATIONS

  • Respiration”
  • Aerobic - with O2

Steps of Aerobic Respiration

  • 1. Glycolysis:
  • Glucose → Pyruvate
  • 2. Kreb’s Cycle (CAC)
  • Acetyl CoA → Oxaloacetate
  • Electron Transport Chain
  • Most ATP made
  • Anaerobic - without O2
  • Alcoholic fermentation
  • Ethanol by product
  • Lactic acid fermentation
  • Lactic acid fermentation (gives lactic acid)
  • Step 1: Glycolysis (outside of mitochondria)
  • Investment Phase (2 ATP spent)
  • Glucose →
  • Glucose - 6 - phosphate →
  • Fructose - 6 - phosphate →
  • Fructose - 1,6 - Bisphosphate (GC)
  • → Dihydroxyacetone

  • → glyceraldehyde - 3 - phosphate
  • Output Phase (4 ATP spent; Net 2 ATP)
  • Glyceraldehyde - 3 - phosphate --(Intermediate)(1,3 - Bisphosphate glycerate) →  
  • 3 phosphoglycerate →
  • 2 phosphoglycerate →
  • Phosphoenol pyruvate →
  • 2 pyruvates (3 carbons each)
  • Starts with glucose + O2 ; Ends with two pyruvates (3 carbons)
  • 1 Glucose → 2 Pyruvates (3C) --(Pyruvate decarboxylase) → 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) [Goes inside mitochondria to start Kreb’s Cycle]

  • Step 2: Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle (CAC)
  • Pyruvate (3C) → Acetyl CoA (2C)
  • Acetyl CoA (2C) and Oxaloacetate (4C) → Citrate (6C) → Isocitrate (6C) → α-Ketoglutarate → Succinyl CoA --(ATP made)→ Succinate --(Complex 2 of ETC)→ Fumarate →  Malate → Oxaloacetate (4C)
  • I have a Citrus drink that needs Ice and it has been sitting in A keg, which Sucks and it Sucks even more because Fumor is Mal for one Ox.
  • Outside Mitochondria: 1 Glucose (6C) → 2 pyruvates (3C) → Inside Mitochondria: 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) → 2 Kreb’s Cycle
  • Step 3: Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
  • “ETC + Chemiosmosis” -> oxidative phosphorylation
  • Comprises of 4 complexes:
  • Complex 1
  • Complex 2 → part of CAC
  • Complex 3
  • Complex 5
  • Chemiosmosis
  • The complexes push H from mitochondrial matrix → intermembrane space.
  • H then moves back across the membrane
  • Passing through the ATP synthase, which drives the phosphorylation g ATP.
  • NADH and FADH2
  • Electron carriers are produced in glycolysis and Kreb’s Cycle. Then shuttled to ETC
  • Respiration
  • → Breathing → Inhaling or Exhaling; O2 or CO2
  • → External Respiration → lungs → blood
  • → Internal Respiration → bloodstream to tissues
  • → Cellular Respiration → Inside or outside the mitochondria

If you want to learn more check out How long is the french revolution?

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

  • Autotrophs- make their own food
  • Heterotrophs- get food from outside sources
  • Chloroplasts - green
  • Site of photosynthesis
  • Located inside the mesophyll
  • Contains thylakoid
  • Granum: thylakoid
  • Thylakoid- site of light reaction
  • Stroma- fluid in chloroplast
  • Site of dark reaction
  • Reaction for photosynthesis:
  • 6 CO2 + 12 H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O
  • So CO2 (comes from gaseous exchange in stoma, guard cells), water (roots with adhesion and cohesion) and light energy (sun chlorophyll reflects green light) are needed for photosynthesis
  • Chlorophyll
  • Chlorophyll A - (methyl group) used in photosynthesis
  • Chlorophyll B - (carbonyl group) helps expand the spectrum that can be absorbed.
  • Carotenoids- helps absorb the damaging wavelength of light
  • There are two photosystem
  • Photosystem 2 (this comes before 1)
  • Photosystem 1
  • Light Cycle
  • Steps marked on the arrows
  • Go to dark cycle
  • Calvin Cycle (Dark Cycle)
  • Occurs in stroma
  • Uses NADPH (2 ETC) and ATP (1 ETC) from light cycle
  • Uses CO2 which comes from opening and closing of stoma (guard cells)

  • Carbon fixation
  • Connects CO2 with other substances and makes sugar ⇒ (glyceraldehyde- 3 -phosphate) [direct product of Calvin Cycle]
  • Chemiosmosis in plants
  • Chemiosmosis in animal cells

Used or Produced

Glycolysis

Kreb’s Cycle

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Light Reaction

Calvin Cycle

Glucose

u

---

---

---

p

O2

---

---

u

p

---

CO2

---

p

---

---

u

H2O

---

---

p

u

---

ATP

u/p

p

p

p

u

ADP

u/p

u

u

u

p

NADPH

p

p

u

p

u

        u = used, p = producedWe also discuss several other topics like When is the difference between langue vs. parole or competence vs. performance?

CELL DIVISION (Mitosis and Meiosis)

Cell Division necessary for multiplication of cells, required for growth and development of a fertilized cell. We also discuss several other topics like What type of polarity is the international system today?

CHROMOSOMES

Cell Division

  • Mitosis (division of nucleus)
  • Cytokinesis (division of cytoplasm)

Phases of Cell Division

  • Mitotic phase
  • Interphase (duplication of genetic material)

Don't forget about the age old question of What's the effective nuclear charge of atom?

→ C11

→ S (duplication of genetic material)

→ C12Don't forget about the age old question of What is the chemical released by damaged tissue cells?

Mitotic Phase

Meiosis

  • Mother and father chromosomes are homologous.
  • Homologous pairs at chiasmata
  • Chiasmata – site of crossing over
  • Helps create variation in genetic material

MEIOSIS I

  1. Prophase I
  • 23 tetrads in the nucleus
  1. Metaphase I
  • 23 pairs of tetrads
  • Crossing over occurs
  1. Anaphase I 
  • tetrad and split apart
  • Chiasmata breaks
  • Forms homologous chromosomes
  1. Telophase I
  • Cleavage form

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