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UIUC / Art History / ARTH 211 / What is the meaning of “new advertising”?

What is the meaning of “new advertising”?

What is the meaning of “new advertising”?


School: University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Department: Art History
Course: Design History Survey
Professor: Weissman
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Design, history, new, York, school, coporate, Identity, IBM, Computer, paul, Rand, and eames
Cost: 25
Name: ARTH 211 Design History: Week 9 Lecture and Reading Notes
Description: This week's notes cover week 9 lectures and reading (Colomina, "Enclosed by Images"). We talked about primarily about corporate identity, IBM and early computer design.
Uploaded: 10/22/2016
7 Pages 153 Views 7 Unlocks


What is the meaning of “new advertising”?


Corporate Design, IBM and Early Computer Design

⮚ Themes

o New York School // New Corporate Graphic Design

▪ Use of photography

▪ Use of negative space

▪ Intuitive playfulness

o Corporate Identity and early computer design

▪ New synthetic materials and miniaturization

▪ Naturalizing the computer  

⮚ Names/Terms

o New York School (graphic design)

o “New Advertising”

o Eliot Noyes

o Herbert Matter

What does eliot noyes known for?

o Paul Rand

o Rand, Thoughts on Design, 1946

o Bradbury Thompson

o Saul Bass

o Milton Glaser

o Chermayeff & Geismar Associates

o Charles and Ray Eames

o “Parlour and coal cellar” principle

o George Nelson

o The Information Machine, 1958

⮚ The New York School

o School of graphic design If you want to learn more check out How long is the french revolution?

o Known as “new advertising”

o Herbert Matter is associated with it

o Five tendencies of the New York School…

Who is herbert matter?

▪ Use of photography over illustration

▪ Use of white/negative space

▪ Intuitive sense/playfulness in design  

▪ Minimal copy

▪ Immediate visual impact  

o Parallels between Dadaism and New York School’s playfulness

▪ Dadaism doesn’t have a hierarchy but New York School does Don't forget about the age old question of When are the types of research methods in linguistic anthropology?

▪ Both Schwitters and Rand are interested in using symbols

o Bradbury Thompson

▪ Westvaco Inspirations, 1951, 1958

∙ Half toned reproductions that create shapes and visual patterns  

o Saul Bass

▪ Worked on the film The Man with the Golden Arm

∙ Film titles  

o Kinetic sequences of animated bars and typography  

▪ Appear, disintegrate, transform in time and space

∙ Logo for the film

▪ Revolutionized film graphics  

▪ First to come up with a comprehensive design program

▪ Worked on the film Exodus  

o Paul Rand

▪ Intuitive, pragmatic, playful design  

▪ Less formal than European modernist graphic design

▪ Wrote several books

∙ Don’t undervalue humor and surprise when conveying something about  a product

∙ Aura surrounds letters

▪ Advertisement for Coronet Brandy, 1947 We also discuss several other topics like What happened in moscow 1972?
We also discuss several other topics like How do you find the bonding atomic radius?

▪ Reduce communication content to symbolic essence

▪ Rand, Jazzways yearbook cover vs. Doesburg and Maholy-Nagy, book cover  ∙ Both use primary colors and geometric shapes/lines

∙ Rand only uses lower-case (informality) and Doesburg uses all caps  Don't forget about the age old question of How many ribosomes can attach to a single mrna strand created that is a polyribosome?

∙ Rand’s is haphazard and Doesburg’s has a lot of grid-like horizontality  

and verticality  

∙ Both are stripped down—only essential information is there

▪ Rand, American Institute of Graphic Art poster vs. Bayer, European Arts and  Crafts poster

∙ Rand has a lot of organic curves/shapes; Bayer’s is in a grid

∙ Colors in both are pretty bright  

∙ Rand’s is very playful (clown); Bayer’s is very serious  

∙ Rand’s is irrational; Bayer’s is very clear and understandable

⮚ Corporate Identity  

o Paul Rand

▪ Most well-known for his work with IBM

∙ Designed the logo for IBM We also discuss several other topics like How does the size of the marginal propensity to consume mpc affect the size of the multiplier?

∙ Substitutes letters for a longer name (International Business Machines)  ∙ IBM’s corporate style came about after Eliot Noyes was hired as the  

director of design

o Noyes hires Rand as the graphic coordinator  

o Only after they were hired, IBM became known for its design  


▪ IBM objects were meant to create an aesthetic  


▪ Clean, crisp

▪ Trying to make secretarial work an attractive  

alternative to the more lucrative work in a factory

▪ ABC Logo, 1964

∙ Typical logo

∙ Reminiscent of Bayer’s universal alphabet

▪ Westinghouse Logo, 1960

∙ Evoke ideas of wires and plugs

▪ Rand constructs the face of these companies, but he also creates design  internally

∙ Took IBM annual financial reports and made it a communication  


∙ The sleek, beautiful look of annual reports were extremely important  because they helped create a positive image to stockholders and

because such design helped make clerical work at least seem like an  

attractive alternative to factory work

o Gas stations

▪ Mobil

o Chase logo  

▪ Gains recognition by redundancy  

⮚ IBM’s Computer (IBM 360)

o Introduced at the World’s Fair 1964

▪ The World’s Fair focused on atomic energy, space exploration, and the  

emergence of the information age

o Took a gamble

▪ IBM was on the brink of bankruptcy and they thought the computer might save  the company

▪ Though perhaps that it could became an essential part of human life

o The idea of a machine mimicking the human mind haunted computer experts  ▪ Real risk of nuclear holocaust

▪ People were afraid of computers taking over

o IBM tasked Eliot Noyes with redesigning the whole computer  

▪ Wanted to naturalize/humanize the computer and allay people’s fears  

▪ Revolutionize the interaction between humans and computers  

▪ Take away the assault of wires and tubes (hide them)

∙ “Parlour and Coal Cellar” Principle

o Inner workings of the computer, unpleasant—maybe even  

dangerous—should be hidden away in the “coal cellar” behind  


o Interfaces (keyboards, mouse) should be conceived as furniture  

in the “parlour”

o Only the most minimal information about the inner workings of  

the computer would be revealed to the user in the parlour

o Today this principle is known as the interface of the computer,  

governing the form of those sties of interaction between the  

computer and the user

∙ One of the problems of mass-marketing computers was about visual  


▪ Noyes took on George Nelson and the Eames to help him  


⮚ Themes

o Corporate Identity and early computer design

▪ Making clerical work exciting!

∙ Corporate identity creation

▪ Naturalizing the computer

∙ “Parlour and Coal Cellar”

∙ Computer as tool

▪ Introducing Multi-Screen Perception

∙ A new kind of multimodal space – a new kind of attention

∙ The Circus and the War Room

⮚ Names/Terms

o Paul Rand

o Chermayeff & Geismar Associates  

o Charles and Ray Eames  

o “Parlour and Coal Cellar” principle

o George Nelson

o Eero Saarinen

o The Information Machine, 1958

o IBM Pavilion, New York World’s Fair, 1964

o Moscow World’s Fair, 1959

o The Kitchen Debates  

⮚ Sections/schedule of lectures/topics (see slide on COMPASS)


⮚ Corporate identity  

o Paul Rand and IBM

o Designed objects were important because it made clerical work seem attractive  o Abstracted logos (Mobile, Chase)

⮚ IBM computer

o Risked more than its net worth on its mainframe computer

▪ Needed it to be successful  

▪ A stake in this gamble (investing everything they had) was the place of the  computer in culture as a whole  

∙ Could the computer be a part of everyday life?

o Wanted to naturalize the computer because people were afraid of it

▪ “Parlour and Coal Cellar Principle” (see notes on previous lecture)

o IBM’s marketing of the computer did go a long way in making people less afraid  o The problem of was visuals not of technology

▪ IBM hired Eliot Noyes to re-design the computer  

o Noyes brought in the Eames to help him

▪ Eames were tasked with educating the public about the computer  ▪ Eames, A Communication Primer (film), 1953

∙ Theory of communication

∙ Why were the Eames, as designers, so interested in making films  about mathematical equations?

o They saw themselves as heirs of Bauhaus; they were drawn to  

the rigor of the former logic of Bauhaus

o Saw in information theory a means to expand the range of  

objects and problems to which designers could apply their  


▪ Design starts to become a discipline that’s just about  

problem solving—not just about making an object or  


▪ Charles Eames, The Information Machine, 1958 (video on COMPASS) ∙ Meant to introduce the electronic computer

∙ Shown at the Brussels World Fair  

∙ Starts with the primitive man

o If given 3 wishes, he’d screw it up

∙ Person collecting and sorting through information

o Active “memory bank”

o Computers do the same  

∙ People make tools to collect/store data

o Computer is just a new tool to store data

o Just as all tools, direction comes from humans

∙ Child-like, choppy, rudimentary animation

∙ Cartoonist Delores Cannata use pen, watercolor, and pastels  

o Messy materials not associated with the computer age  

∙ Images are meant to distance themselves from the computer idea  ∙ Meant to alleviate the fear of the computers  

o Computers will make life easier

∙ “This is the story of a technique in the service of mankind.”  

▪ Eames also made display pavilions to advertise the computer  

∙ Sought to humanize technology

o Telling funny anecdotes within the display

o Tried to show ways in which our bodies are mathematical

o 1964 World’s Fair // IBM Pavilion

▪ Paul Rand made brochures for the Fair

▪ IBM pavilion consisted of a chaotic space that was broken down into 6 different  sections

∙ The Information Machine (egg-shaped theater)

∙ Other theaters  

∙ Computer applications area

∙ Probability machine/demo  

∙ Scholar’s Walk

∙ Administration Building

▪ Man-made trees  

▪ It’s like a circus  

∙ Attention is divided  

∙ Distraction is the main mode of perception

▪ The Information Machine

∙ A barrage of images as you walk in (screens everywhere)

∙ Breaks down any sense of conventional space  

∙ Fragmented reality

∙ Idea that you were at first shocked but then get used to it

o Fear would be transformed into wonder  

∙ Designed to erase any fears or concerns that people might have against  

the human brain and the electronic brain

∙ It presented a whole new way or thinking and simultaneously a  

completely familiar way.

∙ This Machine wasn’t actually a computer—it was all kind of smoke and  


o The successful naturalization of the computer didn’t actually  

have anything to do with explaining how a computer worked

o The idea that computers were magical and also everyday made  

it acceptable to people  


Beatriz Colomina, “Enclosed by Images: The Eameses’ Multimedia Architecture”

⮚ Today we are surrounded by simultaneous images all the time (state of distraction) o Designers, architects, and artists have influenced this from the beginning

⮚ Russia and America hosted national exhibitions for the other country (American exhibition in  Moscow and a Russian exhibition in NYC)

o Each country showed off their strengths

o America’s was in household appliances  

o The Kitchen Debates

▪ Nixon believed that “American superiority resting on the ideal of the suburban  home” and that this home represented American freedom”

⮚ The Eameses made a film for the exhibition in Moscow called Glimpses of the Future o Projected onto huge screens in a dome structure  

o Over 2000 images  

o The Eames were involved with planning the organization of the whole exhibition ▪ A dome

▪ Glass pavilion

▪ An introductory film by the Eameses

o Film starts macro (outer space) and zooms into micro (suburban homes)

o The film emphasizes universal emotions yet also conveys American abundance and thus  a kind of superiority associated with having more  

o The primary principle was of compression—to get a ton of information through a small  window

⮚ Glimpses was not the first multimedia production the Eameses were a part of o They helped produce a 55-minute show (“Sample Lesson”) for the Department of Fine  Arts at the University of Georgia for a class  

▪ Full of sensory experiences

o They paralleled their work to a circus

▪ The Eameses were fascinated with the circus

▪ They believed that the “circus [was] an example of what art and design should  be: not of self-expression but of precise discipline”

▪ The circus offers a multiple experiences at once and can’t always be completely  absorbed by the viewer  

⮚ However, multi-screens probably came from the concept of the “War Room,” a place where  information from many sources came into one place so military commanders could make  decisions  

⮚ The Eameses’ designs can all be “understood as multiscreen performances: they provide a frame  work in which object can be placed and replace”

⮚ “In every sense Eames architecture is all about the space of information” o “The multiscreen presentations, the exhibition technique, and the Eameses’ films  are…significant not because of the individual factoids they offer…but because of the  way the factoids are used as elements in creating a space that says: ‘this is what [the  space of information] is all about’”

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