Women and Men in Colonial Society
What do we already know?
-double standards: different standards based on gender
-European vs Americans: different demands for them by men -different levels of participation
Purity of Blood:
-strict control over female choice and sexuality
-trying to keep jews and moors out of their colonies
-machismo: male dominance
-analyze historical roots: where does this hang-up and attitude come from? • the reconquest of iberia
Women of the Gente Decente:
-rich wealthy women of colonial latin america
-white women critical for maintenance social status
• only 1/3 immigrants were women
• most married
-sexual liberty of european males
-constriction activities of daughters
-pampered, idle, restricted lives, servants in home
-entered streets only in company of men or trusted servants -married older men, wealth as asset
-widows managed haciendas or obrajes (textile mill), commerce We also discuss several other topics like Can someone commit assault but not battery or battery but not assault?
-weighed heavily on young women
-behavior to uphold honor and respectability
-dowry used to pass along wealth, control over bridegrooms -elite women had some choice in marriage
-church controlled marriage, priests forced couples sign consent -marriage in colonial brazil
-once betrothed, more freedom, but danger pregnancy
-if he backed out of pledge: public scandal
-elite women without honor became less desirable for marriage: secluded in household or sent away If you want to learn more check out What is fick's second law of diffusion?
If you want to learn more check out Give an example of a moral entrepreneur.
-foundling homes for white babies born out of wedlock
-children of color almost never in orphanages
-women defined as much by social status as by gender
-few common ties between women of different classes
Women of the Gente de Pueblo:
-most nonwhite women did not enjoy protection
-common physical abuse with family
-men beat for discipline or to punish for adultery
-in brazil, women caught in adultery legally killed on the spot -prevailing double standard encouraged male promiscuity -sex between white males and women of color common
-mixed race women, survived by consort with a white male -children had better chance because of lighter skin Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of a classification pathway?
-a third of the women of color heads of households
-illegitimacy in brazil and spanish indies was very high
-lima: 40% of births was out of wedlock
-sao paulo: 40% births out of wedlock, 70% mothers had no formal ties to natural fathers
-only native women in rural villages had higher rates legitimate births -lack of family structure among persons mixed race challenge
-men of genre de pueblo imposed patriarchy
-double standard for sexual behavior among men
-measured manliness by how many children produced
-even if subservient to employer, at least king in own home -men spent more disposable income away from home
-poor women contested gender understandings: How?
-how could women seek control?
• withheld sex
• physically separated drunken men from bottles If you want to learn more check out Who uses accounting information?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of fluid mosaic model?
• upbraided men for economic failure and neglect of family • appeared to local priests
• took abusive husbands to court
• worked outside the house with and at times without husbands support
-Verena Stilke: “Conquered Women"
-explains the intersections between gender and race
-Chica da Silva: 1732-1796
• mother african, father portuguese
• king’s royal diamond contractor
• lived in mines gerias
• rich clothing, place of honor, dozen maids
• park with waterfalls, artificial lake, miniature ship • son studied at european universities
• portuguese visitors: “butler take care of the sailor boys" • scornful brazilian slang for portuguese immigrants