Exam 2 Review Chapter 8 Quiz Questions: 1. One potential drawback of using social media in the workplace is that social media causes distraction from work and too much socializing. a. Social media presents many challenges and risks. The primary challenges arDon't forget about the age old question of fau math day
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e cultural. Tbl. 8.2 2. A unique set of professional skills and attributes that others associate with you is called your personal brand. a. Think carefully about developing a personal brand in a professional sense. 3. Which of the following would a company consider an ethical use of social media by its employees? Letting friends on Twitter know about a publicly posted job opening. 4. Fumiko, who works in accounting, wants her online presence to signal that she is a business professional. What would be the best profile picture to use? A photograph of her smiling face. 5. Igor put the statement “I’ve noticed that some coworkers seem discouraged about how the company is doing. I thought it might help if we discuss the causes of an possible remedies for this malaise. My personal opinion I that management doesn't care what we think, which causes people to feel detached.” What could Igor have done to improve this post? He should not have included a blaming statement. a. Blaming, like complaining, often places responsibilities onto others. It often serves as an attack on others. 6. One advantage of using social media in the workplace is that social media ensures quicker access to business expertise and knowledge. a. The emerging work culture associated with the Social Age presents many benefits to companies and business professionals in the context of team and networked communication. Social media provides quicker access to business expertise and knowledge. Tbl. 8.2 7. Which of the following would a company consider an unethical use of social media by its employees? Criticizing a supervisor by name after receiving a poor review. a. Much more than your online reputation is at stake with social media use. The reputation and performance of your company is at stake as well. Criticizing a supervisor by name on social media is an attempt to damage that person’s reputation and the reputation of the company. 8. Which of the following are collections of pages that anyone with approved access can edit, thus lending themselves to collaborative writing? Wikis. a. Wikis are collections of pages that anyone with approved access can edit, thus lending themselves to collaborative writing. 9. Which of the following guidelines should professionals follow in their social media use? Join teams built around common interests. a. Venture out from your formal work teams to establish work relationships with other members of your company or professional network. Voluntarily joining teams built around common interests – often called communities of practice – allows you to share and learn from other professionals in your area. 10. Which of the following has the strongest potential to be collaborative tool? Wikis. a. Users can add, remove, and change content. Wikis allow employees to collaborate and participate in decision making more easily, creatively, and effectively. The collaborative potential of wikis is stronger than that of any of the social media tools. Chapter 8 Notes: ∙ The social age is an era in which people engage in networked communication, collaborate across boundaries, and solve problems communally. ∙ Industrial Age: commandandcontrol (little communication between teams); respect for position; holding authority is power; efficiency, competitiveness, and authority are key values (mid1700’s – 1985) ∙ Information Age: mass twoway communication (extensive communication between teams); respect for expertise and position; holding knowledge is power; autonomy, innovation, and achievement are key values (19702025) ∙ Social Age: networked communication (extensive communication between individuals with shared interests); respect for expertise and contributions to network; sharing knowledge is power; transparency, honesty, and camaraderie are key values (2005???) ∙ Web 1.0 – most web pages were read only ∙ Web 2.0 – readwrite web, where users interact extensively with web pages; authorizing content, expressing opinions, and customizing and editing web content ∙ Benefits of social media in the workplace help with team communication, recruitments, idea sharing, training, interfacing with customers, decreased marketing time for new products, innovative approaches to work issues, fewer resources for business travel, building professional networks, access business expertise, and enhance camaraderie with peers ∙ Risks of social media in the workplace involves lacking adoption, permanence, confusion with which communication channel to use, distraction from work, lack of information control, lack of rewarding networked and team communication, lack of boundaries between professional and private lives, lower productivity due to multitasking, excessive selfpromotion, and mistakes broadcasted to larger audiences ∙ Primary challenges are cultural; older employees are more accustomed to older communication tools; Web 1.0 ∙ Risks can include the release of confidential information and the posting of inappropriate comments leading to reputation loss or credibility loss ∙ Organize your dashboard to control your communication and information flow – your front page when you login to a system and includes messages and information that will help you work efficiently and avoid distractions∙ Complete a professional profile – provide complete information with professional background, abilities, and interests ∙ Blogs – posts that are arranged chronologically, similar to a journal format; in the workplace, they allow business professionals to share their ideas and experiences ∙ Microblogs – such as Twitter; shorter blogs containing just a few sentences; used for broadcasting announcements and urgent information, as well as questions needing immediate responses ∙ Team Blogs – organized around formal work teams ∙ Project Blogs – organized around particular projects that generally involve temporary teams ∙ Team and Project Blogs are used for team updates, progress reports, problem solving discussions, project timeline and goals, and announcements ∙ Wikis collection of pages that anyone with approved access can edit, thus lending themselves to collaborative writing; allows employees to collaborate and participate in decision making more easily; stronger than any other social media tool ∙ Forums – used to discuss ideas between meetings for thoughtful and well documented comments o Avoid leading posts o Avoid ignoring competing points of views o Avoid strong, rigid language o Avoid complaining o Avoid blaming o Avoid offtopic points o Avoid excessively short or lengthy posts o Avoid sarcasm o Read peers’ comments completely and carefully o State the purpose of the forum clearly o Use flexible, open, and inviting language o Build on the ideas of others and pose questions o Show appreciation for your teammates and their ideas o Participate often o Meet in real time for touchy points o Summarize and, as appropriate, identify next steps o Talk with your team about ways to make forums help your decision making and coordination ∙ Carefully think about developing a personal brand – unique set of professional skills and attributes that others associate with you ∙ Consider the meta messages and overall and underlying messages that others decode from your online communications ∙ Read over Tbl. 8.4 Chapter 9 Quiz Questions:1. Which of the following is most likely to damage your credibility with the people who receive your emails? Leaving out some of the necessary information. a. To make sure your message receiver will comply, include all needed information. 2. Which statement about announcements is true? Event announcements should allow readers to gather all relevant information in 1015 seconds. a. Announcements are broadcasted to a large number of receivers. To prevent employees and customers from ignoring announcements, the subject must be specific, and must create interests.they should be designed to let readers gather all relevant information in 1015 seconds. 3. Routine messages that include details about deadlines are most likely to be messages that set expectations. a. Three components are central in setting expectations for those you manage: describing responsibilities, providing deadlines, and discussing coordination. 4. Routine messages should be direct and frontloaded. a. The most important planning step is message structuring. Since routine messages are so common and your readers are likely overloaded with many other messages and tasks, your primary challenge is to make sure your readers pay attention. 5. During the drafting stage, the process of designing the message focuses on making the message easy to read. a. As you draft your message, you should focus on making it easy to read. Use short sentences and paragraphs. Design your message so readers can find information in just moments. Use bullets, numbering, special formatting, and external links to relevant information to highlight key ideas. 6. Which type of routine messages should you ask a colleague to review before you send it? When you are speaking on behalf of a team. a. Proofreading occurs in the review stage and should take a minute or two. Since routine messages are straightforward and rarely sensitive, you generally do it need to ask for feedback. When speaking on behalf of your team, you might check with those team members to ensure they agree on the content. 7. Which of the following generally takes the least time to complete? Routine messages. a. Since you send and receive so many routine messages in any given business day, one of your primary goals is efficiency. You need to produce credible messages quickly. Completing routine messages requires less time than other types of business messages. 8. Which of the following is an accurate statement about messages that provide directions? Since describing stepbystep procedures is so specific, insufficient detail can frustrate readers. a. For routine matters, you are generally safe reviewing your own work and making sure it is complete. For more technical and complicated procedures, make sure you have several people test the procedures to find where you can better clarify the steps involved. 9. In the case of a routine request, one of the primary goals of the message is to retain the goodwill of the recipient.10. In the case of an email that is a routine message, where should you place the primary message to capture attention? In the subject line. a. Primary message should have 10 words or fewer, and you should typically place it in the subject line. Chapter 9 Notes: ∙ Components of Routine Messages: o State the primary message with 10 words or fewer, typically in the subject line o Provide short detailed paragraphs in the body of the message consisting of 2080 words o Restate the request or key message in more specific terms o State goodwill ∙ Planning Stage – audience analysis, idea development, message structuring ∙ Drafting Stage – tone, style, design ∙ Reviewing Stage – FAIR Test, proofreading, feedback ∙ Read “Why Does This Matter?” ∙ Just 10% of employees say supervisors thank them daily; 55% say they're never thanked ∙ Components of showing appreciation: o Give thanks o Provide rationale of why you're giving thanks o State goodwill ∙ Components of apologies: o Make acknowledgement of the mistake made o Express regret for the action o Take responsibility for said action o Offer a commitment to avoid such behavior in the future o State goodwill ∙ Express sympathy with sincerity ∙ Offer support and express concerns ∙ State goodwill Chapter 10 Quiz Questions: 1. Which principle of influence operates on the idea that people think there is limited availability of something they want or need, so they must act quickly? Scarcity. 2. The aim of persuasion is to help your audience find the value in your position. a. Persuasion implies you are communicating with someone who does not think or feel the same way as you do. Your goal is to help the audience identify with and find merit in your positions. 3. The principle of influence known as social proof refers to the idea that people determine what is right, correct, or desirable by seeing what others do. 4. A colleague asks you for advice on how to understand the audience of his persuasive message. Which of the following pieces of advice will you offer? Consider the psychological principles that impact people's decisions. a. Understanding the needs and values of others is not simple. It requires a strong listening orientation. Ask lots of questions to get beyond the surface understanding about the hopes, expectations, and hidden assumptions of your target audience. 5. The principle of influence known as reciprocation refers to the idea that people tend to feel obligated to return favors. 6. Harry is brandconscious and has been very loyal to Revy Jeans. Leroi is a famous Hollywood star who is Harry’s idol. Harry shifts his jeans from Revy to Ace because of Leroi. Which principle of influence has affected Harry? Authority. a. Authority is the principle of influence whereby people follow authority figures. 7. To be able to craft messages that persuade people to modify their ideas or actions, you need to spend a significant amount of time analyzing the audience. a. To convince others to modify their own ideas and accept yours, you need to show that you care about them and that your ideas fit into their interests. 8. Which statement accurately describes persuasion in the posttrust era? In the posttrust era, persuasion is becoming increasingly difficult. a. We live in a time of increasing mistrust. 9. Which of the following is the first step in the planning process for writing persuasive messages? Analyzing the audience. a. Analyzing your audience to understand their needs, values, and how they are influenced; developing your ideas as you wrestle with the complicated business issues at hand; and creating a message structure that most effectively reduces resistance and gains buyin. 10. Persuasion almost always involves communicating with someone who thinks differently than you do. a. While credibility is critical to all business communications, it's importance is heightened for persuasive messages. Chapter 10 Notes: ∙ Understand your audience; once you understand their needs and values, you are in a strong position to explain how your product, service, or idea benefits them o Persuade though shared purpose and shared values; sincerely act on behalf of the organization (caring, character) o Show people they are sincerely needed and appreciated; influencing is easier when the person knows they are appreciated for their hard work, abilities, and good intentions o Understand methods of influence Reciprocation – based on returning favors Consistency – once people make an explicit commitment, they tend to follow through or honor that commitment Social proof – people determine what is right, correct, or desirable by seeing what others do Liking – people are more likely to be persuaded by people they like Authority – people follow authority figures Scarcity – people think there is limited availability of something they want or need, so they must act quicklyo Persuade through emotion and reason; understand that resistance to ideas, products, and services is often emotional and the audience could have a strong emotional attachment to a competitor ∙ Develop your ideas to establish credibility; use strong ideas in the interest of your audience ∙ Set up the message structure with indirect and implicit messages; providing a rationale for the request ∙ Components of persuasive messages: o Gain attention by asking rhetorical questions, providing a compelling fact, revealing compelling statistics, issuing a challenge, or posting a testimonial; to fill a gap between what is and what could be Tbl. 10.1 o Raise a need in the body of the message to your readers; show how your product, service, ideas meets their needs – then describe your solution by recommending that product, service, idea – then provide a strong rationale as to why you chose that solution o Validation – implies you recognize and appreciate others’ needs, wants, ideas, and preferences as legitimate and reasonable o Counterpoints – show how your ideas, products, services are superior to competitors o Then conclude with a call to action ∙ Guidelines for tone: o Apply a personal touch by showing interest in them personally and that you are seeking benefits for them specifically Tbl. 10.2 o Use actionoriented and lively language to achieve a sense of excitement, optimism, and other positive emotions Tbl. 10.4 o Write with confidence Tbl. 10.5 o Offer choice rather than intent; using youvoice; contains short sentences Fig. 10.1 o Show positivity to help focus on the benefits rather than the drawbacks of what you are trying to promote ∙ Make your message personalized, upbeat, positive, and pressurefree; provide statistics that only pertain to that area; it is fun and exciting yet does not avoid negative words, and there's a call to action ∙ Review Stage o Get feedback and reread your messages because they are directed to others that resist your ideas, products, services o Apply the FAIR Test to be sure you're being fair to your audience; avoid manipulation Fig. 10.14 Chapter 11 Quiz Questions: 1. Ideally, which should a manager avoid when delivering negative performance reviews? Sugar coating the bad news. 2. While delivering bad news in writing to customers, use passive verbs. a. Even when customers are at fault, use neutral language to point out mistakes.3. In delivering negative performance reviews, a focus on the ___ of an employee is least likely to provoke defensiveness or a counterproductive response. Actions. 4. In terms of maintaining credibility, the most important quality to convey when delivering bad news is honesty. 5. Which is an example of reframing thoughts in order to respond to negative feedback constructively? Getting an honest assessment of my work will help me succeed. a. To avoid counterproductive responses, learn to recognize and name these emotions. Develop a reframing statement to respond more effectively. 6. Which is the best example of a buffer in a message to turn down a job applicant? Thank you for your interest in the market research position at Bookworm Inc. a. A buffer is used to establish common ground, show appreciation, state your sympathy, or otherwise express goodwill 7. Which helps organizations maintain credibility when delivering bad news? Providing a clear rationale. 8. To avoid counterproductive responses or negative emotions such as fear, anxiety, and anger, a person should learn to recognize and name these emotions. a. High emotional intelligence is required. 9. Serena, a bank Manager at the United Frost Bank, heads the business loan department. Which guideline should she follow to communicate bad news to her customers? Use specific and simple language. a. Easier to interpret as honest and upfront. 10. Which is the richest communication channel for delivering badnews messages? A personal meeting. a. Enables you to use verbal and nonverbal cues to show your concern and sensitivity. Chapter 11 Notes: ∙ Honesty and openness are key to maintain credibility during the deliver of bad news messages ∙ Guidelines for delivering badnews messages: o Deliver bad news in a timely manner o Choose the right mix of channels to deliver the bad news Tbl. 11.1/11.2 o Sympathize with the person receiving the bad news and soften the blow o Provide a simple and clear rationale o Explain the immediate impacts o Focus on solutions for long-term benefits o Show goodwill ∙ Components of indirect bad-news messages: o Ease in with a buffer Tbl. 11.3 Neutral statement in subject line; appreciation; sympathy; common ground; compliment – the beginning of a bad news message o Provide a rationale o Deliver the bad newso Explain impacts o Focus on the future o Show goodwill and concern ∙ Delivering negative feedback requires you to be clear about the need for improvement o Adopt a teamcentered orientation so the poor performer is aware that they are working as a team o Avoid sugar coating the bad news so that the person knows they need to improve o Explain the impacts of the poor performance o Link to the consequences of that poor performance o Probe for reasons why the performance is not higher o Emphasize problem solving to fix the issue for the future rather than place blame o Be firm Chapter 12 Quiz Questions: 1. Which research source is most likely to be biased by the writers’ career objectives? External Blogs. a. If you rely on Blogs, make sure you carefully determine the expertise of the blog writer. 2. Survey questions should be short enough to answer in a few seconds. a. They should contain short questions and short response options. Respondents should be able to read the entire question in 1020 seconds and select a response that matches their true opinions and feelings. 3. Which is a helpful guideline for formatting tables? Arrange entries in ascending and descending order. 4. First step in developing researchbased business reports is identifying what decision makers want to accomplish. 5. Catherine, an economist, wants to graphically represent the prices of small cars in the United States over a period of three years. She should use a line chart. a. Line charts are useful for depicting events and trends over time. 6. Peter wants to create a chart that shows how market share is divided among the top companies in his industry. He should use a pie chart. a. Pie charts are useful for illustrating how a whole is divided into pieces or proportional segments. 7. Which type of questions is designed to gain the response that the survey designer prefers and produces unreliable and unusable information as a result? Leading. 8. Which relates to how current and representative data is? Reliability. 9. Which is helpful for formatting bar charts? Bars should be arranged in scenting and descending order in most cases. 10. “A survey should have response choices that are exhaustive.” Meaning the choices should include all possible answers. a. They should be complete and unambiguous Chapter 12 Notes: ∙ Read “Why Does This Matter?” ∙ Primary research – data that you, people from your organization, or others under your direction have collected∙ Secondary research – analysis of data collected by others with no direction from you or members of your organization ∙ Create surveys to retrieve responses from dozens if not hundreds of colleagues, customers, or other groups of interest ∙ Principles for survey questions: o Make them simple to answer because people tend to want to answer survey questions quickly to be done with them o Nonleading questions o Exhaustive and unambiguous o Single idea in each question; don't ask multiple questions in one question ∙ Line charts – depicting events and trends over time Fig. 12.2 ∙ Pie charts – illustrates pieces within a whole Fig. 12.3 ∙ Bar charts – compares amounts or quantities Fig. 12.4 ∙ Have a descriptive title, use focal points, information sufficiency, ease of processing, and a great takeaway message ∙ Read over Tbl. 12.6 for Formatting Guidelines ∙ Tables present data in a better way for comprehension and precision ∙ Include an order in which the table is set up, include indentation to set things apart from each other, present comparative data series, label columns and rows effectively, use grid lines ∙ Read Tbl. 12.7 for Formatting Guidelines ∙ Evaluate data sources for business research Chapter 13 Quiz Questions: 1. What is the advantage of placing a clear statement of the business problem at the beginning of a report? It helps establish the purpose and values of the report. 2. The purpose of an executive summary is to represent briefly the most important elements of your report, including key findings and conclusions. a. Summarize the most import contents, so that busy executives and other decision makers can quickly understand and act on the report. 3. Which should be provided throughout a document to indicate the information you have drawn from other sources? Citations. a. By documenting your shrouded, you display your thoughts, detailoriented approach. Provide a reference list at the end of the report that contains all your sources. 4. Which is an advantage of including bulletins and enumerated lists in a report? They help readers rapidly process and group dense information. 5. To avoid plagiarism on a sentence and paragraph level, writers should document all references to the ideas of others. 6. Which is likely the effect of providing a welldesigned table of contents? It creates the impression that you are organized. a. Contains all firstlevel headings and sometimes all secondlevel headings.7. Petra submits a document that analyzes the causes of the problem, outlines a way to address the issue, estimates the costs of the changes, and provides a timeline for the work. Petra has submitted a business proposal. a. Most deal with decisions about allocating resources for various business activities. They generally explain why business goals are beneficial and how you will use resources to reach those goals. Some include an explanation of the situation, specific objectives, a deliverable overview, a timeline, result enhancers, and pricing. 8. Which is an advantage of documenting your research sources? It displays your thorough, detailoriented approach. 9. To use another persons ideas and pass them off as ones own is known as plagiarism. 10. Which is most likely to be included in an appendix? Financial statements and marketing materials. a. Reports frequently include Appendixes to provide reference materials. They include financial statements, marketing materials, detailed data tables, brochures, references, resumes, and biographies. Chapter 13 Notes: ∙ Components of a business proposal: o Include a cover page o Provide an executive summary o Explain the current situation o Include specific objectives o Provide a deliverable overview o Include a timeline o Result enhancers o Pricing/budgeting ∙ Placing a clear statement of the central business problem or challenge at the beginning helps establish the purpose and value of the report ∙ Use factbased language for precision and to help raise your credibility; provide supporting details for your conclusion; carefully deal with predictions and cause/effect statements; responsibly cite your research sources ∙ Document secondary research and avoid plagiarism o Paraphrasing – use your own words to express the meaning of the original speaker or writer; you significantly alter the original words and sentence structure, but you still give credit to the original speaker or writer of the idea ∙ Base recommendations on facts and conclusions in the report ∙ Provide specific and actionable recommendations ∙ Provide a structure of the report that the decision maker is familiar with ∙ Read over Fig. 13.4 ∙ Tell the story of your report with an executive summary; nearly all reports contain one at the beginning; this is used to summarize important contents, including key findings, conclusions, and recommendations, so that busy executives and other decision makers can quickly understand and act on the report∙ A good executive summary demonstrates that you can clearly focus on your goals and state who you are, what you want, and where you are going ∙ They are about 1020 pages long ∙ Provide the story line with descriptive headings and other content markers; this is used to help quickly navigate the decision maker through your report ∙ You generally use firstlevel headings; but with reports more than 5 pages you will use also a secondlevel heading ∙ Use preview statements to frame your message and accentuate takeaway messages; these can help decision makers follow the directions in your text and allows readers to create a mental map of your key message ∙ Insert charts and tables to draw attention to your key points; make sure they fit in the story line of your text ∙ Apply bulletins and enumerates lists to make passages easier to read ∙ Create a cover page to include a title, the names of those who wrote the report, and a date ∙ Include a table of contents ∙ Include an appendix ∙ Review your report to ensure you have been fair to yourself and your readers; you also want to make sure your report is as effective as possible