Final Exam Biology: Test 1: Introduction to Evolution and Natural Selection (Ch 21) 1. What are the three domains of life? Archaea, Eukarya, Bacteria 2. What are the 4 kingdoms of Eukarya? Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia 3. Universal genetic language? DNA Can be traced from bacteria to humans 4. What are the features of cell structure?If you want to learn more check out study guide chapter 2
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Cilia of paramecium (a bacteria) and in our trachea 5. What is evolution? Descent with modification from common ancestor Gradual change over time 6. Characteristic of evolution? Unifying concept in biology? 7. What is a theory? Something supported by large amount of evidence Can never be proven, only be falsified Example: Newton’s Theory of Gravitation 8. What was the previous thought before Darwin? Species are unchanging and humans are at the top of the ladder (most complex and important) 9. What voyage did Darwin go on? HMS Beagle Voyage (18311836) 10 . What is geology? Cumulative effect of slow but continuous processes have produce earth’s ….. If slow gradual processes can happen on earth, that could be applied to organisms 11. What are 3 things Darwin observed? Taxa showed continental affinities Taxa showed similarities b/w extinct and living forms in the same locale Unique species groups on Galapagos Island 12. What are the mechanisms for evolution? Natural selection Gene flow/Migration Sexual Selection Genetic Drift → Founder Effect and Bottleneck effect Mutation13. What is Artificial selection? When a certain gene or trait is purposely selected 14. Who is coined for making up the theory of Natural Selection? Charles Darwin and Wallace 15. What previous thought changed after Darwin’s theory of evolution? Species are not unchanging 16. What is a mechanism of evolution that Darwin published? Natural Selection 17. What is natural selection? Differential success in the survival and reproduction of different phenotypes 18. What is evolutionary adaptation? Characteristic that enhances the ability to survive and reproduce 19. What is Fitness? Ability to pass on genes to the next generation 20. How was life organized before Darwin, and after? As a ladder (Aristotle's Great Chain of Being) Now, it's a tree and branching = point of divergence 21. What are the 5 observations he made? Individuals of a population vary extensively in their characteristics Traits are inherited from parents to offspring All species have high potential fertility and population sizes would increase greatly if all individuals lived to reproduce Environmental resources are limited and as a result, populations tend to remain stable in size 22. What are the 2 inferences that Darwin made from evolution? Survival of the Fittest (individuals whose traits are better for survival will leave more offspring than the less fit individuals) The unequal ability to survive and reproduce will lead to gradual accumulation of favorable traits over generations 23. Does evolution act on individuals? NO, only on populations 24. Evolution can act on only what type of traits? Only on heritable traits 25. Do environmental factors vary in space and time? YES, it’s not cold everywhere 26. Does natural selection/environment create resistant forms? Natural selection doesn't create anything, but it selects for certain traitsEvolution II: How Genotypes and Phenotypes Change Over Time (Ch 21): 27. What are the 2 types of variation? Genotypic (change in DNA/genes) Phenotypic (observable traits) (this depends on genes and environment) Side note: variation is key to evolutionary process 28. What is a Species? Have the potential to interbreed and share alleles with one another Interbreeding → exchanging info (genetic material and sharing of alleles) 29. What is a Gene Pool? All of the alleles present in the individuals in a species. Individuals represent different combinations of alleles drawn from this 30. What is a population? Group of individuals belonging to the same species in the same geographical area Refers to individuals of a species that are actually interbreeding 31. What are population genetics Studies patterns of genetic variation Species differ in degree of genetic variation. Humans are least genetically diverse Fruit flies are the most and then adelaide penguin Fruit flies contain the most alleles in their gene pool . leads to more genetic variation 32. What are sources of genetic variation Mutation = only source of new variation ( deleterious, neutral, advantageous) Recombination = shuffling of alleles (variations of a gene ), during Meiosis I 33. How do we measure allele/genotype frequencies? 1. Observable traits Single gene traits only. Ex: The ABO blood system. 2. Gel electrophoresis Genes or proteins separated by size and charge 3. DNA sequencing Single nucleotide difference (G rather than T) 34. What is Modern Synthesis and does it still continue? Combination of Natural Selection and Mendelian Genetics Discrete ( observable traits) vs continuous ( allele frequencies) variation Several genes are often responsible for a single trait. Modern synthesis still continues today. 35. What changes allele frequency? Natural selection changes frequency of alleles, positive or negative selection. Nonrandom Positive selection increases the frequency of a favorable allele = (“selected for”) Fixation favorable allele has frequency of 1 Negative selection decreases the frequency of a harmful allele =(“selected against”) Different perspective: trait (phenotype) Height, length, color, etc. Stabilizing, directional, disruptive36. What are the different perspective selections? Stabilizing: selects against extremes Directional: selects against one of the two extremes Disruptive: selects against the mean 37. How to change Fixation? Gene flow/Migration introducing new alleles into the gene pool 38. What is Sexual Selection? Individuals in a population differ in their ability to attract mates Intersexual females choose mate Intrasexual males compete for female Sexual Dimorphism difference between males and females in same species 39. What affects Variation? 1. Genetic drift Allele frequencies fluctuate randomly between generations Over time, typically reduces variation Especially true for small populations ● Two types Bottleneck Effect The population has severely decreased in number and surviving individuals don’t represent the general population before. Founder Effect New population affected by the allele frequency of its founders. 2. Gene flow/ Migration Allele movement between populations; over time reduces difference between populations 40. What is Sampling Error relating to Genetic Drift? The biological form of Genetic Drift Refers to chance events More likely in small samples 41. Why is genetic variation important? Populations with heritable variation, i.e. genetic diversity, have the capacity to adapt to the changing environment. 42. What are 5 processes that change the allele frequencies in a population? 1. Mutation (introduces new alleles) 2. Genetic drift (frequencies changes randomly) 3. Gene flow/migration (new gametes or individuals bring new alleles or change frequencies of existing alleles) 4. Natural selection (change frequency of certain alleles nonrandomly) 5. Sexual selection (nonrandom mating) Evolution III : Species and Speciation (Ch 22): 43. What is speciation and what grants its significance? It is the origin of new species Process that produces new and distinct forms of life It’s the engine for biodiversity 44. How are groups of organisms classified ? Speciesgenusfamilyorderclassphylum (shared ancestry) Grouping is based off taxonomist opinion Hierarchical 45. What dictates if two organisms are members of the same species? Based on the ability to produce fertile offspring via exchange of genetic material 46. Describe the BSC ( Biological Species Concept) Species are groups of actual or potential interbreeding pop. that are reproductively isolated from other groups Offspring must be fertile ( if they can not = genetic dead end) Limitations: 1. Difficult to apply and test in most living species 2. Doesn’t apply to asexual (bacteria) or extinct (fossils) organisms 3. Ring Species: exchanges genetic material indirectly 4. Hybridization (interbreeding) 47. Describe the MC ( Morphospecies Concept) Idea that members of the same species will usually look alike Limitations: 1. Not all members look alike 2. Polymorphisms: members can show diff. Phenotypes (male vs. female) ( young vs. old) ex. Birds, butterfliescaterpillars 3. Members of different species can look very similar 48. Describe the ESC ( the Ecological Species Concept ) ..competition Complete competitors cannot coexist Impossible for two species to coexist in the same locations if their niches are too similar Basis: differences or similarities in ecological requirements Two lineages with very diff. nutritional needs = ecologically separate species Ecological niche: a complete description of the role the species plays in its environment Habitat requirements: i.e. nutritional and water needs 49. Describe the EvoSC ( Evolutionary Species Concept) Idea that all species share a common ancestor and common fate Requirement: all species descending from a single common ancestor 50. Do Individuals become extinct? No, species become extinct not individuals 51. What are the factors of reproductive isolation? Prezygotic (egg fails) and Postzygotic (individual fails) 3 types of Prezygotic factors: prevents mating or fertilization 1. Behavioral isolation (attractiveness, lock and key systems)2. Temporal isolation (separation in time: night vs. day) 3. Ecological isolation ( separation in space) 4. Gametic isolation (plant and pollen tube = no fertilization) 52. What can lead to a postzygotic factor? (Prevents viable, fertile hybrids) Genetic incompatibility Reduced Hybrid fertility i.e. a mule (viable and not fertile hybrid) Reduced Hybrid viability 53. How does speciation occur? through genetic divergence leading to reproductive isolation (gradual process) 54. How do populations become allopatric? 2 ways 1. Dispersal a. Some indiv. Colonize a distant place i.e. an island, a distant pond b. Peripatric specifically a colonization of a remote place i.e. island evolve separately 2. Vicariance easiest to study a. Geographic barrier arises separating a single into different pops. 56. What are factors that can lead to adaptive radiation? Combination of emptiness, the availability of ecological opportunity( exploitation of resources), potential for allopatric speciation 57. Why role does natural selection and polyploidy play in relation to sympatric speciation? N.S. must act strongly to counteract the homogenizing effect of gene flow Sympatry = same place Polyploidy can lead to instantaneous sympatric speciation Hybridization offspring = reproductively isolated from parents Common in plants not animals 58. What is cospeciation? Give an examples Two closely associated populations speciate in response to each other and at the same time Coordinated host parasite speciation 59. Does speciation depend on N.S. alone ? It can happen with or without N.S. Divergence of two populations can be entirely due to genetic drift Test 2: Evolution IV: Evolutionary Patterns: phylogeny and fossils (Ch 23): 60. What is the significance of phylogeny and fossils? They provide independent and corroborating evidence of evolution Phylogeny: reasoned hypothesis of evolutionary relationships based on synapomorphies Fossil record: glimpse into evolutionary history 61. What did Darwin recognize about the species he observed ? Modified descendents of earlier ones 62. What are three domains that make up the tree of life ? Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya 63. What does a branch point say about divergence ? A node is a point of speciation \ 64. What is the goal when making grouping to make a phylogenetic tree? Make a monophyletic groups ( ancestor and all of its descendants) Errors: Paraphyletic (ancestor and some of its descendants) Leaving birds out when classifying reptiles Polyphyletic ( groups that do not share the most recent ancestor) Linking birds and flying insects together based off of flight 65. How does convergent evolution occur? When characteristics are shared among groups of organisms because of similar environmental pressures NOT because of shared common ancestry Structures: analogous ( independent; environmental pressures) 66. What is the significance of determining morphological or molecular homologies? Critical to building trees Similarities based on shared ancestry Synapomorphies: useful in constructing a phylogenetic tree Biology Exam 4 Study Guide Animal Diversity 1. When did most animal phyla and major body plans appear? o At the beginning of the Paleozoic o During the Paleozoic: Fishes dominate the marine environment, insects and plants colonize land, Amphibians → reptiles appear on land 2. What were causes of the Cambrian explosion? o New predatorprey relationships, increase in atmospheric oxygen, the Hox (Homeotic) gene complex arose o Predators acquire new adaptations to catch prey/ prey evolve new defenses (shells) o More O2 led to success of organisms w/ higher metabolic rate & large body size o Hox gene complex → developmental flexibility3. What are the characteristics associated with being an animal? o Multicellularity, heterotrophic, collagen, gastrulation, tissues, differ in patterns of symmetry, diploid form dominates the life cycle o Collagen is a structural protein found in extracellular spaces and connective tissue in animals (also in fungi) 4. How does Gastrulation occur in animals? o The zygote proceeds through several stages of mitotic divisions: cleavage → blastula → gastrula o A flagellated sperm fertilizes a nonmotile egg forming a diploid zygote o Cleavage: rapid series of mitotic divisions that occurs in the absence of growth 5. What are the two forms of tissue differentiation? o Diploblastic and Triploblastic o In diploblastic organisms like cnidarians, the inner endoderm and the outer ectoderm layers give rise to the adult body. o In a Triploblastic animal, a third germ tissue, called the mesoderm, differentiates along the ectoderm and endoderm 6. What are Sponges in relation to the Cnidarians and Bilaterians? o They are classified as the Metazoa group because they lack true tissue vs. the latter which are classified as the Eumetazoa “true tissue” group o Only have a few diff. cell types that are not carrying out coordinated functions o Sponges have specialized cells but not tissues 7. Animals are made of specialized cells. What do these cells combine to make up in the body? o Tissues (connective, muscle, nervous, epithelial) o Tissues → Organs→ Organ Systems o Organ group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions o Animal Precursor (Choanoflagellates) = colonial & all cells identical 8. What did the movement to multicellularity involve? o The differentiation of cells with specialized functions. 9. How do animals differ in patterns of symmetry? o Radial (jellyfish, corals, sea anemone) vs. Bilateral (most animals) o Bilateral animals also have “Cephalization” 10. What are the components of a Bilateral animal? o Anterior End, Posterior End, Dorsal Side, Ventral Side 11. Which form dominates the animal life cycle diploid or haploid? o Diploid form dominates the life cycle 12. At what stage of development does an animal become either diploblastic or triploblastic? o Gastrula 13. What is a further classification of Triploblasts? o Presence of Coelom, Protostome or Deuterostome o Functions of a Coelom: Cushions, hydrostatic skeleton, internal organs move and grow independently of the outer body o Historically used to group organisms but no longer supported o Deuterostomes→ blastopore becomes anus o Protostomes → blastopore becomes mouth ▪ Includes Ecdysozoans and Lophotrochozoans 14. What are the differences between Acoelomates, Coelomates, and Pseudocoelomates? o Acoelomates do not have a cavity outside the digestive tract, Coelomates and Pseudocoelomates both have a body cavity but differ in the embryonic origin of the cells lining the cavity. 15. All eukaryotes have regulatory genes OR Hox genes. How do they function in animals and sponges? o Animals controls cell division and differentiation producing different morphological characters of animals o Sponges regulate the formation of water channels o Bilaterians regulate the patterning of the body axis 16. In terms of germ layers, Cnidarians are classified as ___ while Bilaterians are ___ o Diploblastic vs. Triploblastic 17. A sponges’ specialized cells consist of what? Describe their function? o Choanocytes phagocytosis o Amoebocytes spicules o Choanocytes use flagella to generate water current and use collar to trap food. phagocytosis – engulfing food o Amoebocytes take up and transport food as well as manufacture skeletal fibers (spicules) – some very hard and some soft (bath sponges) 18. What does it mean when sponges are defined as hermaphrodites? o each individual produces sperm and egg. o Eggs stay in mesophyll and sperm are planktonic (allowing for cross fertilization) o Debate about whether sponges have epithelial tissuethey do, but it is simpler. 19. Do sponges perform intracellular digestion of extracellular digestion? o Intracellular digestion (like protozoans) o Flagellated swimming larvae 20. What are examples of Cnidarians? o Jellyfish, sea anemone, corals 21. Cnidarians: What is their body plan? o Diploblastic, Radial Symmetry, Hydrostatic skeleton and musclelike cells, Predators 22. Do Cnidarians have a N.S.? o No, they have a nerve net 23. How does the gastric cavity of Cnidarians function? o Extracellular digestion (followed by endocytosis) 24. What are the benefits of digestive compartments? o Avoid selfdigestion 25. Function and components of intracellular and. extracellular digestion? o Intracellular digestion (sponges): food vacuoles/ lysosomes o Extracellular digestion (most animals): allows ingestion of larger food items ▪ Gastric cavity, alimentary canal ▪ Gastrovascular cavity fxn in digestion and absorption (hence vascular) ▪ Gastrodermis secretes enzymes and then smaller pieces are engulfed by the cells o Digestive enzymes hydrolyze the same biological materials that animals are made of 26. What is an alimentary canal and what does it do? o A canal organized into specialized regions that carry out stepwise functions o Allows animal to eat before through digesting previous meal 27. What are nematocyst organelles? o Harpoonlike nematocysts are microscopic structures found in the epidermis of cnidarians. o Contact triggers the ejection of nematocysts → nematocysts of some cnidarians thereby inject toxins into predators or prey o Stinging cells = cnidocytes 28. List common names for Medusa, polyp, colonial polyp, colonial medusa o Medusa = jellyfish o Polyp = hydra o Colonial polyp = corals o Colonial medusa = manofwar Animal Diversity Continued: Bilaterians and N.S. INVERTEBRATES 1. Bilaterians Diversity is divided into two clades. What are they/ a. Protostomes (blastopore → mouth) i. Lophotrochozoans mollusks and annelids ii. Ecdysozoans nematodes and arthropods b. Deuterostomes (blastopore → anus) i. Chordates ii. Echinoderms 2. What two distinct traits are the Lophotrochozoa known for? a. The Lophophore and Trochophore i. Lophophore: feeding structure (Ciliated tentacles around the mouth) 1. Function in suspension feeding in adults ii. Trochophore: type of larva (Larva has a ring of cilia around its middle, used for locomotion and possibly for feeding) 1. they swim and feed 3. Where does the clade Annelida fall under? What is their common name? a. Lophotrochozoa, segmented worms 4. What are the physical characteristics of Annelida? a. Segmentation b. Two types of muscles (longitudinal and circular) c. True coelom d. Hydrostatic skeleton e. Alimentary canal f. Cerebral ganglia (brain) i. Ventral nerve cord g. Hermaphrodites 5. Does the Annelida Group have an open or closed circulatory system? a. Closed circulatory system 6. How are Annelids significant to the environment? a. Important for soil (Aeration/ Production) 7. What is a hermaphrodite? a. An organism that possess both male and female genitalia 8. What does segmentation allow for? a. The series of semirepetitive segments allows for a high degree of specialization of bodily regions. i. This regional specialization is seen to some degree in annelids but is an evolutionary development of the body plan of arthropods 9. What are examples of Mollusca? a. Snails, clams, octopus, squid 10. Do Mollusks have true coelom? a. Yes b. Many also have a trochophore 11. How do they eat? a. Bivalves are suspension feedersb. Gastropod and Cephalopoda ingest plants or animals 12. What are the 3 main body parts of Mollusca? a. Muscular foot, visceral mass, mantle i. Sometimes a radula 13. What is the largest class of mollusks? a. Gastropod (snails and slugs) b. Largest most successful class of mollusks c. 2nd to insects in size and diversity 14. Cephalopoda are under what clade? a. Mollusca 15. What are the physical characteristics of Cephalopoda? a. Muscular tentacles b. Closed circulatory system 16. What gives animals in Cephalopoda success as predators? a. Large brains and eyes with sophisticated lenses i. Squids are speedy carnivores with beaklike jaws and welldeveloped eyes. 17. What are three distinct features of the group Bivalvia? a. Sedentary, two hinged shells, made of CaCO3, no head or radula 18. What are common examples of bivalves? a. scallops, clams, oysters and mussels b. Bivalves are exclusively aquatic; they include both marine and freshwater forms. c. Can be dangerous to eat during certain times of year – dinoflagellates in red tides are toxic d. Because of their feeding strategy, they have been used as indicators of ecosystem health e. Freshwater mussels are some of the most endangered taxa in rivers in the southeastern US f. An adult oyster can filter as much as 60 gallons of water a day. – Ecosystem function! g. Sediment and nutrients (chiefly nitrogen) cause problems in Bay waters. Oysters filter these pollutants by either consuming them or shape them into small packets, which are deposited on the bottom where they are not harmful. h. The oysters in the Bay could once filter a volume of water equal to that of the entire Bay (about 19 trillion gallons) in a week. Today, it would take the remaining Bay oysters more than a year. i. Anyone who fishes the Bay knows that oyster reefs are among the best places to fish because they are teeming with life that attract large predator fish, such as striped bass and sea trout. j. Hundreds of animals use oyster bars: grass shrimp, amphipods, bryozoans, anemones, barnacles, oyster drills, hooked mussels, mud crabs, and red beard sponge to name a few. Many of these serve as food for larger animals including striped bass, weakfish, black drum, croakers, and blue crabs. k. During the twentieth century, oysters were the most harvested animals in the Bay. This harvest pressure, combined with loss of reef habitat, pollution, and disease have resulted in their decline. l. Bay oysters used to grow in tall reefs that were even better for the Bay than today's flat oyster beds. The reefs were elevated that kept oysters above the silty bottom and exposed them to food rich currents above. The healthy oyster reefs of 100 years ago were so large that they were considered navigational hazards. m. Reefs provided far more nooks and crannies for creatures to hide in than flatter beds. 19. What are the three major groups of mollusks and what are the three major groups of annelids?a. Mollusks: Gastropods, cephalopods, bivalves b. Ecdysozoans: nematodes and arthropods 20. What are the two classes of deuterostomes? a. Chordates and Echinoderms 21. Where do the Ecdysozoans get their name? a. Ecdysis = molting external covering during growth 22. Ecdysozoans have a cuticle what is its purpose? a. Protects from injury and desiccation it also can be used to form appendages 23. Which is most diverse which is most numerous? a. Nematodes = most numerous b. Arthropods = most diverse 24. Do Roundworms have segmentation? a. No all muscles are longitudinal 25. What type of coelom do the Nematodes have? a. Pseudocoelom, 26. Do Nematodes have a complete or open digestive system? a. complete digestive system 27. What is the significance of Nematoda? a. Important for decomposition and nutrient cycling 28. Are some harmful to humans? a. Several are parasitic in humans? i. Hookworm 29. What clade do the Arthropoda fall under? a. Ecdysozoans 30. What are the physical characteristics of Arthropods? a. Segmentation, hard exoskeleton made of chitin, jointed appendages b. As arthropods evolved, their segments fused and appendages became more specialized 31. Do Arthropods have an open or closed circulatory system? a. Open circulatory system 32. What were the probable purposes of the exoskeleton? a. First for protection and muscle attachment, but then became more important in terrestrial life for preventing desiccation and in skeletal support 33. What variety of functions did appendages adapt for? a. Feeding, sensory reception, defense, and locomotion 34. What are compound eyes? a. Visual organ found in arthropods (such as insects and crustaceans)? 35. Where do diverse feeding structures of arthropods arise from? a. The limb buds in the first segments of the developing embryo b. Hox genes regulates this process 36. What are the four different groups of Arthropods? Which group is paraphyletic? a. Chelicerates, Myriapods, Crustaceans, and insects b. Crustaceans: by grouping organisms under this group, an error of exclusion of another group also takes place 37. What are four examples of Chelicerates?a. Spiders, ticks, scorpions, horseshoe crabs b. Chelicerae 38. Examples of Myriapod? a. Centipedes and millipedes 39. What do their chewing mouthparts feed upon? a. Centipedes: they feed on insects b. Millipedes: they feed on detritus 40. What are examples of Crustacea? a. Crabs, lobster, crayfish, shrimp, krill, barnacles 41. What are the physical features of Crustacea? a. Highly sensory antennae b. All feeding strategies 42. Why is the group Insecta also understood as hexapoda? a. They have three pairs of legs on the thorax 43. Do all species of Insects have appendages? a. No, many species have wings 44. What are the physical features of Insecta? a. cerebral ganglion, ventral nerve cord, trachea and spiracles 45. Do Insects have an open or closed circulatory system? a. Open b. They also have a heart 46. What are the two kinds of metamorphosis that insects do? a. complete or incomplete 47. What are three components of insect diversity? Desiccation resistant eggs, wings, metamorphosis 48. What are their Larvae specialized for? feeding Adult: mating/ reproduction 49. Why are insects so diverse? evolution of flight, mouthparts, and flowering plants There are many orders of insects ( example: pollinators, disease hosts, pests)Nervous Systems 50. Do unicellular organisms have nervous systems? a. No, they have cell surface receptors 51. Do all animals have a N.S.? no, all animals do except for sponges some are more complex than others 52. What is the functional unit of the N.S.? Neuron receive and transmit information 53. What are the three types of neurons and what are their functions? Sensory Neurons: animal’s environment and internal physiology Interneurons: process and transmit information to different regions Motor Neurons: end of pathway and produce suitable response (muscle contraction, constrict blood vessels, etc.) ~ Sensory → Interneurons → Motor Neurons 54. In comparing radial vs. bilateral symmetry. Explain the evolution of the N.S. In Bilaterians, the idea of cephalization appears, sense organs which are the cause of predator prey relationships In Cnidarians, Radial: nerve net In Bilaterians, Bilateral: paired ganglia brain ( learning/ complex behaviors) 55. What is cephalization and what are the benefits ? this means bilateral symmetry and sense organs in the head region Benefits: forward locomotion (you can see what is in front of you) evolved independently 56. What is homeostasis? Does it trigger from positive or negative feedback? Ability (of animal, organ, or cell) to regulate and maintain a stable internal state stimulations from negative feedback (it's cold outside, so i’m creating heat) (picture v) 57. Which of the following emerged at the same time in animals? a) Radial symmetry and triploblasty b) Multicellularity and coelom c) Segmentation and true tissues d) Triploblasty and bilateral symmetry 58. What is homeostasis?a) Maintains relatively stable conditions b) Function mainly through negative feedback c) Function through both negative and positive feedback d) A and B e) All of the Above 59. What is the command center of the N.S.? Brain 60. What are the two types of the N.S. and what are their components? Central and Peripheral ● Central Brain, nerve cord and central ganglia ● Peripheral Sensory and motor nerves 61. What is the difference between Afferent neurons and Efferent neurons Afferent neurons to CNS, Efferent neurons away from CNS 62. What portions of the N.S. deals with response and regulation? Voluntary is for response (Lifting my arm) Involuntary is for regulation (like the heart) 63. What are the two portions of the N.S. in Vertebrates in terms of voluntary vs. involuntary? Somatic (voluntary) and Autonomic (involuntary) a) Autonomic breaks into 2 → Sympathetic and Parasympathetic 64. What is the key role of the autonomic system of the N.S.? Homeostasis 65. What is the sympathetic portion of the autonomic system responsible for? What is parasympathetic sympathetic: fight or flight parasympathetic: rest and digestAnimal Diversity Vertebrates 1. A phylogeny includes Mollusks, Annelids, Arthropods, and Echinoderms. Where in the phylogeny did ecdysis appear? a. Ecdysozoans b. Ecdysis molting 2. Deuterostome phyla can be further classified under what groups? Hemichordates (acorn worms) and Echinoderms (sea stars and urchins) 3. Why are hemichordates and echinoderms sister groups? Larvae share characteristics and genetic similarities 4. Characteristics of hemichordates (acorn worms)? Pharyngeal slits (homologous with gills in fish and pharynx/jaws in vertebrates) dorsal nerve chord (before hemichordates, we only had ventral nerve chords) 5. Characteristics of Echinoderms? Sea stars, urchins, dollars, cucumbers slowmoving or sessile have a water vascular system tube feet function in breathing, locomotion, and feeding 6. what are pisasters and why are Pisasters important? a type of echinoderm (starfish) and a keystone species (keeps balance in ecosystem by feeding on the dominant mollusc) if it's present diverse intertidal community if it's absent no diversity, one mussel dominates 7. What are Chordate characteristics? notochords → vertebral column (only in vertebrates) Neural tube → dorsal nerve chord Pharyngeal slits (turns into gills only for vertebrates) Myotomes Muscular, postanal tail Cephalochordates (notochords don’t turn into vertebral column, neural tube doesn’t turn into dorsal nerve chord)They retain characteristics as adult 8. What are Tunicate characteristics? has chordate characteristics as larva sessile adult = sea squirt (very mobile why a larva) marine suspension feeders 9. Difference for Vertebrates from Chordates? Notochords turn into vertebral column Pharyngeal slits turns into gills only for vertebrates all vertebrates have a cranium (skull) and vertebrae 10. Craniate tree of life? (going down) Jawless fish are hagfish and lampreys cartilaginous (chondrichthyes) fish are sharks and rays bony fish are broken down into lobefinned and rayfinned lobe finned are coelacanth and lungfish tetrapods break down into amphibians and sauropsids and mammals amphibians are frogs salamanders, and caecilians (frogs and salamanders are sister groups to caecilians) Sauropsids(reptiles) are lizards and snakes, then turtles, then crocodiles and alligators, then birds (alligators and crocodiles are sister groups to birds) reptiles are sister group to mammals 11. Another name for Cartilaginous fish? Chondrichthyes 12. What are characteristics of Chondrichthyes? Sharks a) carnivores with sharp vision, olfaction(smell), and hearing b) can detect electric fields c) adaptation for buoyancy (staying up) Rays a) flattened bottomdwellers b) crush mollusks and crustaceans with jaws 13. Another name for Bony fish? Osteichthyes 14. Characteristics of bony fish? ossified endoskeleton kidneys allowed regulation of solute in blood swim bladder (homologous with vertebrate lung) 15. Ray finned fish characteristics? 50% of the chordate group fins are supported by long, flexible rays Originated in freshwaters and moved to seas16. When did lungs appear in vertebrates? Before the lungfish 17. After what group did Jaws appear? after jawless fish 18. When did walking legs come up? came up with the tetrapods 19. When did the amniotic egg come up? after amphibians 20. What groups have mammary glands? Mammals 21. Characteristics of Lobefinned fishes? Fins have rodshaped bones surrounded by thick muscle Coelacanths thought to be extinct Lungfishes have lungs and breathe air when environment is low in oxygen 22. what is a Tiktaalik? it's a fish, it's the origin of tetrapods has fins, scales and gills, but also lungs, a flat head and neck, shoulders not connected to head, and tetrapodlike ribs 23. What is Acanthostega? it's a fish, it's the origin of tetrapods has fully formed legs, ankles, and digits but also gills, a tail fin, a weak pelvic girdle 24. Tetrapod characteristics? Pelvic and pectoral fins → limbs and digits Pelvic girdle fused to backbone no gill slits (as adults) 25. What do amphibians do? They respire through their skin (Respiration cutaneous), via gills, or lungs Require moist conditions to avoid desiccation Metamorphosis b/w larval and adult stages 26. Who has Amniotic Eggs? (Amniotes) Sauropsids and Mammals27. What are Amniotes? Embryo surrounded by extraembryonic membranes (amniotic egg, no longer tied to water) less permeable skin 29. What are characteristics of birds? wings and feathers gonads (bird testes and ovaries) lack teeth hollow bones fast metabolism, four chambered hearts large brains, excellent eyesight, elaborate courtship, incubate eggs 28. Arrange these taxonomic terms from most inclusive (most general) to least inclusive (most specific). 1. chordates 2. amphibians 3. vertebrates 4. osteichthyans 5. tetrapods A) 3, 4, 1, 2, 5 B) 3, 4, 1, 5, 2 C) 1, 3, 5, 2, 4 D) 1, 3, 4, 5, 2 E) 4, 2, 3, 5, 1 29. Characteristics of Mammals? mammary glands hair made of keratin 4 chambered heart large brains, extended parental care differentiation of teeth 30. What are monotremes? egglaying mammals (5 species) 31. What is a cloaca (that monotremes have)? single opening 32. What is unique about marsupials and Eutherians? gives birth to live young 33. What is even more unique about Eutherians? More complex placenta, longer pregnancy limbs adapted from many types of movement: fly, glide, run, walk swim, burrow, swing34. What is convergent evolution? common not because of ancestral but because of changes in environment 35. What are examples of primates? lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, humans 36. What are characteristics of primates? most have hands and feet adapted for grasping, a large brain, and short jaws eyes close together and forward looking exhibit welldeveloped parental care and complex social behavior Apes have opposable thumb Circulatory Systems: 1. Pulmonary systems goes to the lungs a. Leaves through the pulmonary arteries